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1.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(2): 446-453, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491310

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to uncover genetic contributors to adiposity in early life. METHODS: A genome-wide association study of childhood body fatness in 34,401 individuals within the Nurses' Health Studies and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study was conducted. Data were imputed to the 1000 Genomes Phase 3 version 5 reference panel. RESULTS: A total of 1,354 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (P < 10-4 ) were selected for replication in a previously published genome-wide association study of childhood BMI. Nineteen significant genome-wide (P < 5 × 10-8 ) regions were observed, fourteen of which were previously associated with childhood obesity and five were novel: BNDF (P = 7.58 × 10-13 ), PRKD1 (P = 1.43 × 10-10 ), 20p13 (P = 2.05 × 10-10 ), FHIT (P = 1.77 × 10-8 ), and LOC101927575 (P = 3.22 × 10-8 ). The BNDF, FHIT, and PRKD1 regions were previously associated with adult BMI. LOC101927575 and 20p13 regions have not previously been associated with adiposity phenotypes. In a transcriptome-wide analysis, associations for POMC at 2p23.3 (P = 3.36 × 10-6 ) and with TMEM18 at 2p25.3 (P = 3.53 × 10-7 ) were observed. Childhood body fatness was genetically correlated with hip (rg = 0.42, P = 4.44 × 10-16 ) and waist circumference (rg = 0.39, P = 5.56 × 10-16 ), as well as age at menarche (rg = -0.37, P = 7.96 × 10-19 ). CONCLUSIONS: Additional loci that contribute to childhood adiposity were identified, further explicating its genetic architecture.

2.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496311

RESUMO

AIMS: We quantified the concurring dynamics affecting total and hippocampal brain volume and cognitive function in patients with chronic heart failure (HF) over a period of three years. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 148 patients with mild stable HF entered this monocentric prospective cohort study: mean age 64.5 (10.8) years; 16.2% female; 77% in New York Heart Association functional classes I-II; 128 and 105 patients attended follow-up visits after 1 and 3 years, respectively. The assessment included cardiological, neurological, psychological work-up, and brain magnetic resonance imaging. Total and regional brain volumes were quantified using an operator-independent fully automated approach and reported normalized to the mean estimated intracranial volume. At baseline, the mean hippocampal volume was ∼13% lower than expected. However, the 3-year progressive hippocampal volume loss was small: -62 mm3 [95% confidence interval (CI) -81 to -42, P < 0.0001). This corresponded to a relative change of -1.8% (95% CI -2.3 to -1.2), which was similar in magnitude as observed with physiological aging. Moreover, the load of white matter hypointensities increased within the limits of normal aging. Cognitive function during the 3-year observation period remained stable, with 'intensity of attention' as the only domain declining (LSmean -1.82 points, 95% CI -3.05 to -0.58, P = 0.004). After 3 years, performance in all domains of cognition remained associated with hippocampal volume (r ≥ 0.29). CONCLUSION: In patients with predominantly mild HF, the markedly reduced hippocampal volume observed at baseline was associated with impaired cognitive function, but no accelerated deterioration in cognition and brain atrophy became evident over a mid-term period of three years.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 148(2): 307-319, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851660

RESUMO

Blood lipids have been associated with the development of a range of cancers, including breast, lung and colorectal cancer. For endometrial cancer, observational studies have reported inconsistent associations between blood lipids and cancer risk. To reduce biases from unmeasured confounding, we performed a bidirectional, two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate the relationship between levels of three blood lipids (low-density lipoprotein [LDL] and high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol, and triglycerides) and endometrial cancer risk. Genetic variants associated with each of these blood lipid levels (P < 5 × 10-8 ) were identified as instrumental variables, and assessed using genome-wide association study data from the Endometrial Cancer Association Consortium (12 906 cases and 108 979 controls) and the Global Lipids Genetic Consortium (n = 188 578). Mendelian randomization analyses found genetically raised LDL cholesterol levels to be associated with lower risks of endometrial cancer of all histologies combined, and of endometrioid and non-endometrioid subtypes. Conversely, higher genetically predicted HDL cholesterol levels were associated with increased risk of non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. After accounting for the potential confounding role of obesity (as measured by genetic variants associated with body mass index), the association between genetically predicted increased LDL cholesterol levels and lower endometrial cancer risk remained significant, especially for non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. There was no evidence to support a role for triglycerides in endometrial cancer development. Our study supports a role for LDL and HDL cholesterol in the development of non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. Further studies are required to understand the mechanisms underlying these findings.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical use of breast cancer risk prediction requires simplified models. We evaluate a simplified version of the validated Rosner-Colditz model and add percent mammographic density (MD) and polygenic risk score (PRS), to assess performance from ages 45-74. We validate using prospective data from the Mayo Mammography Health Study (MMHS). METHODS: We derived the model in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) based on: MD, 77SNP PRS and a questionnaire score (QS) (lifestyle and reproductive factors). 2799 invasive breast cancer cases were diagnosed from 1990-2000. MD (using Cumulus software) and PRS were assessed in a nested case-control study. We assess model performance using this case-control data set and evaluate 10-year absolute breast cancer risk. The prospective MMHS validation dataset includes 21.8% of women age <50, and 434 incident cases identified over 10 years of follow-up. RESULTS: In the NHS, MD has the highest odds ratio (OR) for 10-year risk prediction: OR per SD =1.48 (95% CI 1.31 - 1.68), followed by PRS, OR per SD = 1.37 (95% CI 1.21 - 1.55) and QS, OR per SD = 1.25 (95% CI 1.11 - 1.41). In MMHS, the AUC adjusted for age was 0.595; for age+MD 0.636; for age+MD+QS 0.650; for age+MD+QS+PRS 0.687. CONCLUSIONS: A simplified assessment of QS, MD and PRS performs consistently to discriminate those at high 10-year breast cancer risk. IMPACT: This simplified model provides accurate estimation of 10-year risk of invasive breast cancer that can be used in a clinic setting to identify women who may benefit from chemopreventive intervention.

5.
Brain Behav Immun ; 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307174

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cerebral ischemia induces a profound neuro-inflammatory response, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Inflammasomes (NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRC4, AIM2) are intracellular multi-protein complexes which can induce sets of pro-inflammatory cyto- and chemokines, and thereby guide inflammation. We, here, assessed the functional role of NLRP3 in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in a mouse model of transient cerebral ischemia. METHODS: Ischemic stroke was induced in C57Bl/6 mice by 60 minutes transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) and 3, 7 or 23 hours of reperfusion, a paradigm of I/R injury. The expression patterns of inflammasomes in the ischemic hemispheres were evaluated by semiquantitative real-time PCR and Western Blot analysis accompanied by protein localization using immunocytochemistry. Finally, animals were treated with the inflammasome inhibitors Sulforaphane, Genipin, MCC950 or vehicle, directly before or upon recanalization after tMCAO. Stroke outcome was assessed, including infarct size and functional deficits, local inflammatory response, neuronal survival as well as blood-brain barrier function on day 1 after tMCAO. RESULTS: After tMCAO the relative gene expression levels of NLRP3 increased 20-30x within 1 day in the ischemic hemisphere which translated into an increased expression of NLRP3 in neurons. Accordingly, the gene expression levels of the NLRP3-modulator, Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase (BTK), and the NLRP3-inducible cytokine, IL-1ß significantly rose. Lesser or non-significant changes were seen for the other inflammasomes. Application of inflammasome inhibitors covering all inflammasomes or specifically NLRP3 significantly reduced infarct volumes when given before or after tMCAO and was accompanied by clear evidence for reduced activation of caspase 1. This stroke attenuating effect coincided with less immune cell infiltration in the ischemic hemisphere and preservation of the blood-brain barrier integrity. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that induction of the NLRP3 inflammasome in neurons drives neuroinflammation in acute ischemic stroke. Early blockade of NLRP3 protects from I/R injury by mitigating inflammation and stabilizing the blood-brain barrier.

6.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(2): 105498, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307293

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Since the implementation of mechanical thrombectomy (MT) in 2015 for patients with ischemic stroke and large-vessel occlusion, the question arose as to whether patients should be primarily admitted to the nearest regional stroke unit (SU) for prompt intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) or to a more distant supraregional SU performing MT, to avoid secondary-transfer delays in MT. Although an evidence-based answer is still lacking, a discrepant discussion with potential consequences for the regional flow of stroke patients arose. We aimed to assess if MT implementation was associated with the number and characteristics of patients with stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) admitted to a regional SU not offering endovascular treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with acute stroke/TIA treated at the Klinikum Main-Spessart Lohr, Germany, in 2013/2014 or 2017/2018 were included in this retrospective study. Data were derived from the clinical information system and mandatory stroke quality assessment. We assessed the catchment area using a region-based approach. For each region, the number of patients treated in our hospital, including data regarding clinical severity, demographic characteristics, and changes over time, were analyzed. RESULTS: The number of patients with acute stroke/TIA increased from 890 (2013/2014) to 1016 (2017/2018). Aggregated demographic and clinical data of the whole catchment area showed no differences between 2013/2014 and 2017/2018 (P > 0.05) besides duration of hospitalization (P < 0.01), IVT rate (P < 0.01), and secondary transfer for MT. A region-based analysis revealed an increase in younger and more severely affected patients admitted from the periphery of the catchment area between 2013/2014 and 2017/2018. CONCLUSION: Despite the implementation of MT in the supraregional SUs around our regional SU (not offering MT), more patients with stroke/TIA were admitted to our hospital, especially younger and more severely affected patients, from the border regions of the catchment area.

7.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350167

RESUMO

AIMS: Ischaemic stroke (IS) might induce alterations of cardiac function. Prospective data on frequency of cardiac dysfunction and heart failure (HF) after IS are lacking. We assessed prevalence and determinants of diastolic dysfunction (DD), systolic dysfunction (SD), and HF in patients with acute IS. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Stroke-Induced Cardiac FAILure in mice and men (SICFAIL) study is a prospective, hospital-based cohort study. Patients with IS underwent a comprehensive assessment of cardiac function in the acute phase (median 4 days after IS) including clinical examination, standardized transthoracic echocardiography by expert sonographers, and determination of blood-based biomarkers. Information on demographics, lifestyle, risk factors, symptoms suggestive of HF, and medical history was collected by a standardized personal interview. Applying current guidelines, cardiac dysfunction was classified based on echocardiographic criteria into SD (left ventricular ejection fraction < 52% in men or <54% in women) and DD (≥3 signs of DD in patients without SD). Clinically overt HF was classified into HF with reduced, mid-range, or preserved ejection fraction. Between January 2014 and February 2017, 696 IS patients were enrolled. Of them, patients with sufficient echocardiographic data on SD were included in the analyses {n = 644 patients [median age 71 years (interquartile range 60-78), 61.5% male]}. In these patients, full assessment of DD was feasible in 549 patients without SD (94%). Prevalence of cardiac dysfunction and HF was as follows: SD 9.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7.6-12.2%]; DD in patients without SD 23.3% (95% CI 20.0-27.0%); and clinically overt HF 5.4% (95% CI 3.9-7.5%) with subcategories of HF with preserved ejection fraction 4.35%, HF with mid-range ejection fraction 0.31%, and HF with reduced ejection fraction 0.78%. In multivariable analysis, SD and fulfilment of HF criteria were associated with history of coronary heart disease [SD: odds ratio (OR) 3.87, 95% CI 1.93-7.75, P = 0.0001; HF: OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.04-5.05, P = 0.0406] and high-sensitive troponin T at baseline (SD: OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.31-2.42, P = 0.0003; HF: OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.17-2.33, P = 0.004); DD was associated with older age (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.05-1.11, P < 0.0001) and treated hypertension vs. no hypertension (OR 2.84, 95% CI 1.23-6.54, P = 0.0405). CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of the study population exhibited subclinical and clinical cardiac dysfunction. SICFAIL provides reliable data on prevalence and determinants of SD, DD, and clinically overt HF in patients with acute IS according to current guidelines, enabling further clarification of its aetiological and prognostic role.

8.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173903

RESUMO

Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is expressed by antral stage ovarian follicles in women. Consequently, circulating AMH levels are detectable until menopause. Variation in age-specific AMH levels has been associated with breast cancer and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), amongst other diseases. Identification of genetic variants underlying variation in AMH levels could provide clues about the physiological mechanisms that explain these AMH-disease associations. To date, only one variant in MCM8 has been identified to be associated with circulating AMH levels in women. We aimed to identify additional variants for AMH through a GWAS meta-analysis including data from 7049 premenopausal women of European ancestry, which more than doubles the sample size of the largest previous GWAS. We identified four loci associated with AMH levels at p < 5×10 -8 : the previously reported MCM8 locus and three novel signals in or near AMH, TEX41 , and CDCA7 . The strongest signal was a missense variant in the AMH gene (rs10417628). Most prioritized genes at the other three identified loci were involved in cell cycle regulation. Genetic correlation analyses indicated a strong positive correlation among SNPs for AMH levels and for age at menopause (r g = 0.82, FDR=0.003). Exploratory Mendelian randomization analyses did not support a causal effect of AMH on breast cancer or PCOS risk, but should be interpreted with caution as they may be underpowered and the validity of genetic instruments could not be extensively explored. In conclusion, we identified a variant in the AMH gene and three other loci that may affect circulating AMH levels in women.

9.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carotenoids represent 1 of few modifiable factors to reduce breast cancer risk. Elucidation of interactions between circulating carotenoids and genetic predispositions or mammographic density (MD) may help inform more effective primary preventive strategies in high-risk populations. OBJECTIVES: We tested whether women at high risk for breast cancer due to genetic predispositions or high MD would experience meaningful and greater risk reduction from higher circulating levels of carotenoids in a nested case-control study in the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS and NHSII). METHODS: This study included 1919 cases and 1695 controls in a nested case-control study in the NHS and NHSII. We assessed both multiplicative and additive interactions. RR reductions and 95% CIs were calculated using unconditional logistic regressions, adjusting for matching factors and breast cancer risk factors. Absolute risk reductions (ARR) were calculated based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results incidence rates. RESULTS: We showed that compared with women at low genetic risk or low MD, those with higher genetic risk scores or high MD had greater ARRs for breast cancer as circulating carotenoid levels increase (additive P-interaction = 0.05). Among women with a high polygenic risk score, those in the highest quartile of circulating carotenoids had a significant ARR (28.6%; 95% CI, 14.8-42.1%) compared to those in the lowest quartile of carotenoids. For women with a high percentage MD (≥50%), circulating carotenoids were associated with a 37.1% ARR (95% CI, 21.7-52.1%) when comparing the highest to the lowest quartiles of circulating carotenoids. CONCLUSIONS: The inverse associations between circulating carotenoids and breast cancer risk appeared to be more pronounced in high-risk women, as defined by germline genetic makeup or MD.

10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(19)2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036337

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke caused by thromboembolic occlusion of large cerebral arteries, such as the internal carotid (ICA) and/or the middle cerebral artery (MCA), is treated by mechanical thrombectomy (MT). MT allows salvage of the vessel-occluding thrombemboli, which most frequently originate from the left atrium or the left ventricle of the heart or from sites of plaque rupture within large arteries above the heart. Clot composition may influence the efficacy of (intravenous) thrombolysis and MT, respectively. We analyzed 37 human thrombemboli obtained from acute ischemic stroke patients during MT with special emphasis on histological staining of neutrophils and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). We found neutrophils as the main cellular component of cerebral thrombemboli but encountered considerable morphological heterogeneity. Neutrophils accumulated in the border region of fibrin-rich structures indicating possible interaction of neutrophils with distinct structural thrombembolus components. Web-like NETs were found in 35 of 37 thrombemboli in varying amounts. NETs were almost exclusively found within fibrin-rich areas. Importantly, stroke etiology, age and present oral anticoagulation was associated with morphological patterns and the amount of neutrophils. Correlation of histological data and imaging data revealed that relative Hounsfield units of cerebral thrombemboli positively correlated with the amount of red blood cells. In summary, our results demonstrate that neutrophils and NETs are substantial constituents of cerebral thrombemboli and contribute to their structural complexity.

11.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(6): 1613-1630, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adherence to a healthy diet has been associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. Identifying nutritional biomarkers of diet quality may be complementary to traditional questionnaire-based methods and may provide insights concerning disease mechanisms and prevention. OBJECTIVE: To identify metabolites associated with diet quality assessed via the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) and its components. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used FFQ data and plasma metabolomic profiles, mostly lipid related, from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, n = 1460) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS, n = 1051). Linear regression models assessed associations of the AHEI and its components with individual metabolites. Canonical correspondence analyses (CCAs) investigated overlapping patterns between AHEI components and metabolites. Principal component analysis (PCA) and explanatory factor analysis were used to consolidate correlated metabolites into uncorrelated factors. We used stepwise multivariable regression to create a metabolomic score that is an indicator of diet quality. RESULTS: The AHEI was associated with 83 metabolites in the NHS and 96 metabolites in the HPFS after false discovery rate adjustment. Sixty-three of these significant metabolites overlapped between the 2 cohorts. CCA identified "healthy" AHEI components (e.g., nuts, whole grains) and metabolites (n = 27 in the NHS and 33 in the HPFS) and "unhealthy" AHEI components (e.g., red meat, trans fat) and metabolites (n = 56 in the NHS and 63 in the HPFS). PCA-derived factors composed of highly saturated triglycerides, plasmalogens, and acylcarnitines were associated with unhealthy AHEI components while factors composed of highly unsaturated triglycerides were linked to healthy AHEI components. The stepwise regression analysis contributed to a metabolomics score as a predictor of diet quality. CONCLUSION: We identified metabolites associated with healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors. The observed associations were largely similar between men and women, suggesting that metabolomics can be a complementary approach to self-reported diet in studies of diet and chronic disease.

12.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We assessed the clinical utility of a first-degree breast cancer family history (FH) and polygenic risk score (PRS) to inform screening decisions among women aged 30-50 years. METHOD: Two established breast cancer models evaluated digital mammography screening strategies in the 1985 US birth cohort by risk groups defined by family history and polygenic risk score (PRS) based on 313-single nucleotide polymorphism. Strategies varied in initiation age (30, 35, 40, 45, 50) and interval (annual, hybrid, biennial [B], triennial). The benefits, breast cancer deaths averted, life years gained (LYG) and harms, false-positive (FP) mammograms, overdiagnoses, were compared those seen with three established screening guidelines. RESULTS: Women with a breast cancer FH who initiate biennial screening at age 40 years (vs. 50) had a 36% (model range: 29%-40%) increase in LYG and 20% (model range: 16%-24%) more breast cancer deaths averted, but 21% (model range: 17%-23%) more overdiagnoses and 63% (model range: 62%-64%) more false positives. Screening tailored to PRS vs. biennial 50-74 screening had smaller positive effects on LYG (20%) and breast cancer deaths averted (11%) but also smaller increases in overdiagnoses (10%) and false positives (26%). Combined use of FH and PRS vs. B50-74 had the greatest increase in LYG (29%) and breast cancer deaths averted (18%). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that breast cancer family history and polygenic risk could guide screening decisions before age 50 years among women at increased risk for breast cancer, but should consider expected increases in overdiagnoses and false positives.

13.
Circ Res ; 127(8): 1023-1035, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762491

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recanalization of the occluded vessel is essential but not sufficient to guarantee brain salvage. Experimental and clinical data suggest that infarcts often develop further due to a thromboinflammatory process critically involving platelets and T cells, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the role of CD (cluster of differentiation)-84 in acute ischemic stroke after recanalization and to dissect the underlying molecular thromboinflammatory mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, we show that mice lacking CD84-a homophilic immunoreceptor of the SLAM (signaling lymphocyte activation molecule) family-on either platelets or T cells displayed reduced cerebral CD4+ T-cell infiltration and thrombotic activity following experimental stroke resulting in reduced neurological damage. In vitro, platelet-derived soluble CD84 enhanced motility of wild-type but not of Cd84-/- CD4+ T cells suggesting homophilic CD84 interactions to drive this process. Clinically, human arterial blood directly sampled from the ischemic cerebral circulation indicated local shedding of platelet CD84. Moreover, high platelet CD84 expression levels were associated with poor outcome in patients with stroke. CONCLUSIONS: These results establish CD84 as a critical pathogenic effector and thus a potential pharmacological target in ischemic stroke.

14.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(10): e202948, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789511

RESUMO

Importance: Pancreatic cancer is the third-leading cause of cancer death in the United States; however, few high-risk groups have been identified to facilitate early diagnosis strategies. Objective: To evaluate the association of diabetes duration and recent weight change with subsequent risk of pancreatic cancer in the general population. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study obtained data from female participants in the Nurses' Health Study and male participants in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, with repeated exposure assessments over 30 years. Incident cases of pancreatic cancer were identified from self-report or during follow-up of participant deaths. Deaths were ascertained through reports from the next of kin, the US Postal Service, or the National Death Index. Data collection was conducted from October 1, 2018, to December 31, 2018. Data analysis was performed from January 1, 2019, to June 30, 2019. Exposures: Duration of physician-diagnosed diabetes and recent weight change. Main Outcome and Measures: Hazard ratios (HRs) for subsequent development of pancreatic cancer. Results: Of the 112 818 women (with a mean [SD] age of 59.4 [11.7] years) and 46 207 men (with a mean [SD] age of 64.7 [10.8] years) included in the analysis, 1116 incident cases of pancreatic cancers were identified. Compared with participants with no diabetes, those with recent-onset diabetes had an age-adjusted HR for pancreatic cancer of 2.97 (95% CI, 2.31-3.82) and those with long-standing diabetes had an age-adjusted HR of 2.16 (95% CI, 1.78-2.60). Compared with those with no weight loss, participants who reported a 1- to 4-lb weight loss had an age-adjusted HR for pancreatic cancer of 1.25 (95% CI, 1.03-1.52), those with a 5- to 8-lb weight loss had an age-adjusted HR of 1.33 (95% CI, 1.06-1.66), and those with more than an 8-lb weight loss had an age-adjusted HR of 1.92 (95% CI, 1.58-2.32). Participants with recent-onset diabetes accompanied by weight loss of 1 to 8 lb (91 incident cases per 100 000 person-years [95% CI, 55-151]; HR, 3.61 [95% CI, 2.14-6.10]) or more than 8 lb (164 incident cases per 100 000 person-years [95% CI, 114-238]; HR, 6.75 [95% CI, 4.55-10.00]) had a substantially increased risk for pancreatic cancer compared with those with neither exposure (16 incident cases per 100 000 person-years; 95% CI, 14-17). Incidence rates were even higher among participants with recent-onset diabetes and weight loss with a body mass index of less than 25 before weight loss (400 incident cases per 100 000 person-years) or whose weight loss was not intentional judging from increased physical activity or healthier dietary choices (334 incident cases per 100 000 person-years). Conclusions and Relevance: This study demonstrates that recent-onset diabetes accompanied by weight loss is associated with a substantially increased risk for developing pancreatic cancer. Older age, previous healthy weight, and no intentional weight loss further elevate this risk.

15.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 695, 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified radon and its decay-products as Group-1-human-carcinogens, and with the current knowledge they are linked specifically to lung cancer. Biokinetic models predict that radon could deliver a carcinogenic dose to breast tissue. Our previous work suggested that low-dose radon was associated with estrogen-receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer risk. However, there is limited research to examine the role of radon in breast cancer biology at the tissue level. We aim to understand molecular pathways linking radon exposure with breast cancer biology using transcriptome-wide-gene-expression from breast tumor and normal-adjacent tissues. METHODS: Our study included 943 women diagnosed with breast cancer from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII. We estimated cumulative radon concentration for each participant up-to the year of breast cancer diagnosis by linking residential addresses with a radon exposure model. Transcriptome-wide-gene-expression was measured with the Affymetrix-Glue-Human-Transcriptome-Array-3.0 and Human-Transcriptome-Array-2.0. We performed covariate-adjusted linear-regression for individual genes and further employed pathway-analysis. All analyses were conducted separately for tumor and normal-adjacent samples and by ER-status. RESULTS: No individual gene was associated with cumulative radon exposure in ER-positive tumor, ER-negative tumor, or ER-negative normal-adjacent tissues at FDR < 5%. In ER-positive normal-adjacent samples, PLCH2-reached transcriptome-wide-significance (FDR < 5%). Gene-set-enrichment-analyses identified 2-upregulated pathways (MAPK signaling and phosphocholine biosynthesis) enriched at FDR < 25% in ER-negative tumors and normal-adjacent tissues, and both pathways have been previously reported to play key roles in ionizing radiation induced tumorigenesis in experimental settings. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide insights into the molecular pathways of radon exposure that may influence breast cancer etiology.

16.
Environ Res ; 186: 109535, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been associated with breast cancer specific mortality, particularly for women with Stage I cancer. We examined the biological pathways that are perturbed by PM2.5 exposures by analyzing gene expression measurements from breast tissue specimens. METHODS: The Nurses' Health Studies (NHS and NHSII) are prospective cohorts with archival breast tissue specimens from breast cancer cases. Global gene expression data were ascertained with the Affymetrix Glue Human Transcriptome Array 3.0. PM2.5 was estimated using spatio-temporal models linked to participants' home addresses. All analyses were performed separately in tumor (n = 591) and adjacent-normal (n = 497) samples, and stratified by estrogen receptor (ER) status and stage. We used multivariable linear regression, gene-set enrichment analyses (GSEA), and the least squares kernel machine (LSKM) to assess whether 3-year cumulative average pre-diagnosis PM2.5 exposure was associated with breast-tissue gene expression pathways among predominately Stage I and II women (90.7%) and postmenopausal (81.2%) women. Replication samples (tumor, n = 245; adjacent-normal, n = 165) were measured on Affymetrix Human Transcriptome Array (HTA 2.0). RESULTS: Overall, no pathways in the tumor area were significantly associated with PM2.5 exposure. Among 272 adjacent-normal samples from Stage I ER-positive women, PM2.5 was associated with perturbations in the oxidative phosphorylation, protein secretion, and mTORC1 signaling pathways (GSEA and LSKM p-values <0.05); however, results were not replicated in a small set of replication samples (n = 80). CONCLUSIONS: PM2.5 was generally not associated with breast tissue gene expression though was suggested to perturb oxidative phosphorylation and regulation of proteins and cellular signaling in adjacent-normal breast tissue. More research is needed on the biological role of PM2.5 that influences breast tumor progression.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Transcriptoma
17.
Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr ; 88(11): 698-703, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521553

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To date, no validated long or short telephone version of the German "Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly" (IQCODE) exists for determining cognitive changes over a period of 10 years by interviewing relatives. METHOD: Sixty relatives of 60 ischemic stroke patients were interviewed both face-to-face and by phone with the 26-item German IQCODE version in randomized order. Inter-method reliability was calculated as between-method agreement and quantified by a weighted kappa with Fleiss-Cohen weights. A short telephone version of the IQCODE was developed with the Variance Inflation Factor (VIF). Its reliability in regard to the 26-item telephone ICQODE version was calculated by Spearman's correlation coefficient. RESULTS: The weighted kappa between the telephone and face-to-face interview was 0.84 (95 % confidence interval: 0.72-0.97). The short version of the IQCODE consists of 10 items. Spearman's Correlation Coefficient in regard to the long and short telephone version of the IQCODE was 0.97 (95 % confidence interval 0.96-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: A long and short telephone version of the IQ-CODE for detecting cognitive changes in the elderly within a period of 10 years was developed by interviewing relatives.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Disfunção Cognitiva , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Telefone
18.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 83(4): 1049-1056, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Taller individuals are at higher risk of melanoma. OBJECTIVE: To prospectively investigate the association of height with nevus count and melanoma and estimate the proportion of height-melanoma association explained by nevus count among white participants from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and Nurses' Health Study 2 (NHS2). METHODS: We used Cox proportional hazards regression and multinomial logistic regression for data analyses, with adjustment of potential confounders in the multivariate model. RESULTS: We included 82,468 and 106,069 women from NHS and NHS2, respectively. The hazard ratio was 1.21 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-1.31) for the association between every 10-cm increase in height and melanoma. Compared with women with no nevi, the odds ratios (95% CIs) associated with a 10-cm increase in height were 1.35 (95% CI 1.23-1.48) in the NHS and 1.12 (95% CI 1.09-1.15) in the NHS2 for women with greater than or equal to 10 moles. The proportion of excess melanoma risk associated with each 10-cm increase in height explained by nevus count was 8.03% in the NHS and 10.22% in the NHS2. LIMITATION: Self-reported height and nevus count. Mole counts were limited to 1 arm or both legs. CONCLUSION: Nevus count is an important explanatory factor for the excess risk of melanoma among taller white women.

19.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risks of breast cancer in African American (AA) women associated with inherited mutations in breast cancer predisposition genes are not well defined. Thus, whether multigene germline hereditary cancer testing panels are applicable to this population is unknown. We assessed associations between mutations in panel-based genes and breast cancer risk in 5054 AA women with breast cancer and 4993 unaffected AA women drawn from 10 epidemiologic studies. METHODS: Germline DNA samples were sequenced for mutations in 23 cancer predisposition genes using a QIAseq multiplex amplicon panel. Prevalence of mutations and odds ratios (ORs) for associations with breast cancer risk were estimated with adjustment for study design, age, and family history of breast cancer. RESULTS: Pathogenic mutations were identified in 10.3% of women with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, 5.2% of women with ER-positive breast cancer, and 2.3% of unaffected women. Mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2 were associated with high risks of breast cancer (OR = 47.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 10.43 to >100; OR = 7.25, 95% CI = 4.07 to 14.12; OR = 8.54, 95% CI = 3.67 to 24.95, respectively). RAD51D mutations were associated with high risk of ER-negative disease (OR = 7.82, 95% CI = 1.61 to 57.42). Moderate risks were observed for CHEK2, ATM, ERCC3, and FANCC mutations with ER-positive cancer, and RECQL mutations with all breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The study identifies genes that predispose to breast cancer in the AA population, demonstrates the validity of current breast cancer testing panels for use in AA women, and provides a basis for increased referral of AA patients for cancer genetic testing.

20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(5): 999-1008, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death in the United States, and 80% of patients present with advanced, incurable disease. Risk markers for pancreatic cancer have been characterized, but combined models are not used clinically to identify individuals at high risk for the disease. METHODS: Within a nested case-control study of 500 pancreatic cancer cases diagnosed after blood collection and 1,091 matched controls enrolled in four U.S. prospective cohorts, we characterized absolute risk models that included clinical factors (e.g., body mass index, history of diabetes), germline genetic polymorphisms, and circulating biomarkers. RESULTS: Model discrimination showed an area under ROC curve of 0.62 via cross-validation. Our final integrated model identified 3.7% of men and 2.6% of women who had at least 3 times greater than average risk in the ensuing 10 years. Individuals within the top risk percentile had a 4% risk of developing pancreatic cancer by age 80 years and 2% 10-year risk at age 70 years. CONCLUSIONS: Risk models that include established clinical, genetic, and circulating factors improved disease discrimination over models using clinical factors alone. IMPACT: Absolute risk models for pancreatic cancer may help identify individuals in the general population appropriate for disease interception.

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