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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(6): 064101, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420320

RESUMO

We solve the large deviations of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation in one dimension at short time by introducing an approach which combines field theoretical, probabilistic, and integrable techniques. We expand the program of the weak noise theory, which maps the large deviations onto a nonlinear hydrodynamic problem, and unveil its complete solvability through a connection to the integrability of the Zakharov-Shabat system. Exact solutions, depending on the initial condition of the KPZ equation, are obtained using the inverse scattering method and a Fredholm determinant framework recently developed. These results, explicit in the case of the droplet geometry, open the path to obtain the complete large deviations for general initial conditions.

2.
Phys Rev E ; 103(4-1): 042120, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34005946

RESUMO

We revisit the problem of an elastic line (such as a vortex line in a superconductor) subject to both columnar disorder and point disorder in dimension d=1+1. Upon applying a transverse field, a delocalization transition is expected, beyond which the line is tilted macroscopically. We investigate this transition in the fixed tilt angle ensemble and within a "one-way" model where backward jumps are neglected. From recent results about directed polymers in the mathematics literature, and their connections to random matrix theory, we find that for a single line and a single strong defect this transition in the presence of point disorder coincides with the Baik-Ben Arous-Péché (BBP) transition for the appearance of outliers in the spectrum of a perturbed random matrix in the Gaussian unitary ensemble. This transition is conveniently described in the polymer picture by a variational calculation. In the delocalized phase, the ground state energy exhibits Tracy-Widom fluctuations. In the localized phase we show, using the variational calculation, that the fluctuations of the occupation length along the columnar defect are described by f_{KPZ}, a distribution which appears ubiquitously in the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class. We then consider a smooth density of columnar defect energies. Depending on how this density vanishes at its lower edge we find either (i) a delocalized phase only or (ii) a localized phase with a delocalization transition. We analyze this transition which is an infinite-rank extension of the BBP transition. The fluctuations of the ground state energy of a single elastic line in the localized phase (for fixed columnar defect energies) are described by a Fredholm determinant based on a new kernel, closely related to the kernel describing the largest real eigenvalues of the real Ginibre ensemble. The case of many columns and many nonintersecting lines, relevant for the study of the Bose glass phase, is also analyzed. The ground state energy is obtained using free probability and the Burgers equation. Connections with recent results on the generalized Rosenzweig-Porter model suggest that the localization of many polymers occurs gradually upon increasing their lengths.

3.
J Stat Phys ; 181(4): 1149-1203, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087988

RESUMO

We study the solution of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation for the stochastic growth of an interface of height h(x, t) on the positive half line, equivalently the free energy of the continuum directed polymer in a half space with a wall at x = 0 . The boundary condition ∂ x h ( x , t ) | x = 0 = A corresponds to an attractive wall for A < 0 , and leads to the binding of the polymer to the wall below the critical value A = - 1 / 2 . Here we choose the initial condition h(x, 0) to be a Brownian motion in x > 0 with drift - ( B + 1 / 2 ) . When A + B → - 1 , the solution is stationary, i.e. h ( · , t ) remains at all times a Brownian motion with the same drift, up to a global height shift h(0, t). We show that the distribution of this height shift is invariant under the exchange of parameters A and B. For any A , B > - 1 / 2 , we provide an exact formula characterizing the distribution of h(0, t) at any time t, using two methods: the replica Bethe ansatz and a discretization called the log-gamma polymer, for which moment formulae were obtained. We analyze its large time asymptotics for various ranges of parameters A, B. In particular, when ( A , B ) → ( - 1 / 2 , - 1 / 2 ) , the critical stationary case, the fluctuations of the interface are governed by a universal distribution akin to the Baik-Rains distribution arising in stationary growth on the full-line. It can be expressed in terms of a simple Fredholm determinant, or equivalently in terms of the Painlevé II transcendent. This provides an analog for the KPZ equation, of some of the results recently obtained by Betea-Ferrari-Occelli in the context of stationary half-space last-passage-percolation. From universality, we expect that limiting distributions found in both models can be shown to coincide.

4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(4): 040603, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794778

RESUMO

We introduce the asymmetric extension of the quantum symmetric simple exclusion process which is a stochastic model of fermions on a lattice hopping with random amplitudes. In this setting, we analytically show that the time-integrated current of fermions defines a height field that exhibits quantum nonlinear stochastic Kardar-Parisi-Zhang dynamics. Similarly to classical simple exclusion processes, we further introduce the discrete Cole-Hopf (or Gärtner) transform of the height field that satisfies a quantum version of the stochastic heat equation. Finally, we investigate the limit of the height field theory in the continuum under the celebrated Kardar-Parisi-Zhang scaling and the regime of almost-commuting quantum noise.

5.
Phys Rev E ; 101(1-1): 012134, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069556

RESUMO

The one-point distribution of the height for the continuum Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation is determined numerically using the mapping to the directed polymer in a random potential at high temperature. Using an importance sampling approach, the distribution is obtained over a large range of values, down to a probability density as small as 10^{-1000} in the tails. The short-time behavior is investigated and compared with recent analytical predictions for the large-deviation forms of the probability of rare fluctuations, showing a spectacular agreement with the analytical expressions. The flat and stationary initial conditions are studied in the full space, together with the droplet initial condition in the half-space.

6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(6): 060201, 2018 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30141677

RESUMO

We establish a large deviation principle for the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation, providing precise control over the left tail of the height distribution for narrow wedge initial condition. Our analysis exploits an exact connection between the KPZ one-point distribution and the Airy point process-an infinite particle Coulomb gas that arises at the spectral edge in random matrix theory. We develop the large deviation principle for the Airy point process and use it to compute, in a straightforward and assumption-free manner, the KPZ large deviation rate function in terms of an electrostatic problem (whose solution we evaluate). This method also applies to the half-space KPZ equation, showing that its rate function is half of the full-space rate function. In addition to these long-time estimates, we provide rigorous proof of finite-time tail bounds on the KPZ distribution, which demonstrate a crossover between exponential decay with exponent 3 (in the shallow left tail) to exponent 5/2 (in the deep left tail). The full-space KPZ rate function agrees with the one computed in Sasorov et al. [J. Stat. Mech. (2017) 063203JSMTC61742-546810.1088/1742-5468/aa73f8] via a WKB approximation analysis of a nonlocal, nonlinear integrodifferential equation generalizing Painlevé II which Amir et al. [Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 64, 466 (2011)CPMAMV0010-364010.1002/cpa.20347] related to the KPZ one-point distribution.

7.
Phys Rev E ; 96(2-1): 020102, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28950487

RESUMO

The early-time regime of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation in 1+1 dimension, starting from a Brownian initial condition with a drift w, is studied using the exact Fredholm determinant representation. For large drift we recover the exact results for the droplet initial condition, whereas a vanishingly small drift describes the stationary KPZ case, recently studied by weak noise theory (WNT). We show that for short time t, the probability distribution P(H,t) of the height H at a given point takes the large deviation form P(H,t)∼exp[-Φ(H)/sqrt[t]]. We obtain the exact expressions for the rate function Φ(H) for HH_{c2}, which apparently correspond to the symmetric and asymmetric WNT solutions. The rate function Φ(H) is Gaussian in the center, while it has asymmetric tails, |H|^{5/2} on the negative H side and H^{3/2} on the positive H side.

8.
Science ; 354(6315): 1024-1027, 2016 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27811284

RESUMO

The realization of large-scale fully controllable quantum systems is an exciting frontier in modern physical science. We use atom-by-atom assembly to implement a platform for the deterministic preparation of regular one-dimensional arrays of individually controlled cold atoms. In our approach, a measurement and feedback procedure eliminates the entropy associated with probabilistic trap occupation and results in defect-free arrays of more than 50 atoms in less than 400 milliseconds. The technique is based on fast, real-time control of 100 optical tweezers, which we use to arrange atoms in desired geometric patterns and to maintain these configurations by replacing lost atoms with surplus atoms from a reservoir. This bottom-up approach may enable controlled engineering of scalable many-body systems for quantum information processing, quantum simulations, and precision measurements.

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