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1.
J Appl Biomech ; 37(4): 343-350, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051696

RESUMO

The objective was to examine the interactive effects of load magnitude and locomotion pattern on lower-extremity joint angles and intralimb coordination in recruit-aged women. Twelve women walked, ran, and forced marched at body weight and with loads of +25%, and +45% of body weight on an instrumented treadmill with infrared cameras. Joint angles were assessed in the sagittal plane. Intralimb coordination of the thigh-shank and shank-foot couple was assessed with continuous relative phase. Mean absolute relative phase (entire stride) and deviation phase (stance phase) were calculated from continuous relative phase. At heel strike, forced marching exhibited greater (P < .001) hip flexion, knee extension, and ankle plantar flexion compared with running. At mid-stance, knee flexion (P = .007) and ankle dorsiflexion (P = .04) increased with increased load magnitude for all locomotion patterns. Forced marching (P = .009) demonstrated a "stiff-legged" locomotion pattern compared with running, evidenced by the more in-phase mean absolute relative phase values. Running (P = .03) and walking (P = .003) had greater deviation phase than forced marching. Deviation phase increased for running (P = .03) and walking (P < .001) with increased load magnitude but not for forced marching. With loads of >25% of body weight, forced marching may increase risk of injury due to inhibited energy attenuation up the kinetic chain and lack of variability to disperse force across different supportive structures.


Assuntos
Marcha , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Caminhada , Suporte de Carga , Idoso , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho
2.
Gait Posture ; 88: 22-27, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Military personnel in combat roles often perform gait tasks with additional load, which can affect the contributions of joint mechanical work (positive and negative). Furthermore, different locomotion patterns can also affect joint specific work contributions. While mean behavior of joint work is important to understanding gait, changes in joint kinetic modulation, or the regulation/control of stride-to-stride joint work variability is necessary to elucidate locomotor system function. Suboptimal modulation exhibited as a stochastic time-series (large fluctuation followed by an opposite smaller fluctuation) could potentially affect locomotion efficiency and portend injury risk. It remains unclear how the locomotor system responds to a combination of load perturbations and varying locomotion patterns. RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the interactive effects of load magnitude and locomotion pattern on joint positive/negative work and joint work modulation in healthy, active, recruit-aged women? METHODS: Eleven healthy, active, recruit-aged (18-33 years) women ran and forced-marched (walking at a velocity an individual would typically jog) in bodyweight (BW), an additional 25 % of BW (+25 %BW) and an additional 45 % of BW (+45 %BW) conditions at a velocity above their gait transition velocity. Joint work was calculated as the time integral of joint power. Joint work modulation was assessed with detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) on consecutive joint work time-series. RESULTS: Joint work contributions shifted proximally for forced-marching demonstrated by lesser (p < .001) positive/negative ankle work but greater (p = .001) positive hip work contributions compared to running. Running exhibited optimal positive ankle work modulation compared to forced-marching (p = .040). Knee and ankle negative joint work modulation was adversely impacted compared to the hip during forced-marching (p < .001). SIGNIFICANCE: Employing forced-marching gait while under loads of 25 and 45 % of BW reduces the ability of the plantar-flexors and knee extensors to optimally contribute to energy absorption and propulsion in recruit-aged women, potentially reducing metabolic efficiency and increasing injury risk.


Assuntos
Marcha , Caminhada , Articulação do Tornozelo , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Articulação do Quadril , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho
3.
Front Sports Act Living ; 2: 584275, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33345154

RESUMO

Impaired proprioceptive acuity negatively affects both joint position sense and postural control and is a risk factor for lower-extremity musculoskeletal injury in athletes and military personnel. British Army foot-drill is an occupational military activity involving cyclical high impact loading forces greater than those observed in athletes during high level plyometrics. Foot-drill may contribute to the high rates of lower-extremity overuse injuries observed in recruits during basic training. There is limited research investigating foot-drill specific injury risk factors in women, despite greater incidences of musculoskeletal injury reported in women (522 vs. 417 per 1,000 personnel, OR: 1.53) when compared to men during basic training. This study aimed to quantify changes in ankle joint proprioception and dynamic postural stability following a period of British Army foot-drill. Fourteen women of similar age to British Army female recruits underwent pre-post foot-drill measures of frontal plane ankle joint position sense (JPS) and dynamic postural stability using the dynamic postural stability index (DPSI). Passive ankle JPS was assessed from relative test angles of inversion 30% (IN30%) and eversion 30% (EV30%) and IN60% of participants range of motion using an isokinetic dynamometer. The DPSI and the individual stability indices (medio-lateral [MLSI], anterior-posterior [APSI], and vertical [VSI]) were calculated from lateral and forward jump-landing conditions using force plates. Foot-drill was conducted by a serving British Army drill instructor. Significantly greater absolute mean JPS error for IN30% and EV30% was observed post foot-drill (p ≤ 0.016, d ≥ 0.70). For both the lateral and forward jump-landing conditions, significantly greater stability index scores were observed for MLSI, APSI, and DPSI (p ≤ 0.017, d ≥ 0.52). Significantly greater JPS error and stability index scores are associated with the demands of British Army foot-drill. These results provide evidence that foot-drill negatively affects lower-extremity proprioceptive acuity in recruit age-matched women, which has implications for increased injury risk during subsequent military physical activity, occurring in a normal training cycle.

4.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 8: 582219, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042981

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: During cyclical steady state ambulation, such as walking, variability in stride intervals can indicate the state of the system. In order to define locomotor system function, observed variability in motor patterns, stride regulation and gait complexity must be assessed in the presence of a perturbation. Common perturbations, especially for military populations, are load carriage and an imposed locomotion pattern known as forced marching (FM). We examined the interactive effects of load magnitude and locomotion pattern on motor variability, stride regulation and gait complexity during bipedal ambulation in recruit-aged females. METHODS: Eleven healthy physically active females (18-30 years) completed 1-min trials of running and FM at three load conditions: no additional weight/bodyweight (BW), an additional 25% of BW (BW + 25%), and an additional 45% of BW (BW + 45%). A goal equivalent manifold (GEM) approach was used to assess motor variability yielding relative variability (RV; ratio of "good" to "bad" variability) and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to determine gait complexity on stride length (SL) and stride time (ST) parameters. DFA was also used on GEM outcomes to calculate stride regulation. RESULTS: There was a main effect of load (p = 0.01) on RV; as load increased, RV decreased. There was a main effect of locomotion (p = 0.01), with FM exhibiting greater RV than running. Strides were regulated more tightly and corrected quicker at BW + 45% compared (p < 0.05) to BW. Stride regulation was greater for FM compared to running. There was a main effect of load for gait complexity (p = 0.002); as load increased gait complexity decreased, likewise FM had less (p = 0.02) gait complexity than running. DISCUSSION: This study is the first to employ a GEM approach and a complexity analysis to gait tasks under load carriage. Reduction in "good" variability as load increases potentially exposes anatomical structures to repetitive site-specific loading. Furthermore, load carriage magnitudes of BW + 45% potentially destabilize the system making individuals less adaptable to additional perturbations. This is further evidenced by the decrease in gait complexity, which all participants demonstrated values similarly observed in neurologically impaired populations during the BW + 45% load condition.

5.
J Strength Cond Res ; 34(10): 2743-2750, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956262

RESUMO

Krajewski, KT, Bansbach, HM, McLean, L, McKenzie, C, Rawcliffe, A, Graham, SM, Flanagan, SD, Pourmoghaddam, A, Dettmer, M, and Connaboy, C. Effects of short-term unilateral strength training on measures of postural control when wearing "operationally relevant" backpack loads. J Strength Cond Res 34(10): 2743-2750, 2020-To examine the effects of "operationally relevant" loads on postural stability and to determine the effects of unilateral and bilateral strength training programs on postural stability in healthy, recruit-aged men. Fifteen subjects were randomly assigned to either a unilateral (UL; n = 7) or bilateral (BL; n = 8) strength training group, which performed strength training 3 times a week for 4 weeks. Subjects completed the following pretest and post-test assessments: 1 repetition maximum in bilateral (1RM-BL) and unilateral (1RM-UL) stance positions and bilateral and unilateral balance tasks with eyes open and eyes closed. Balance tasks were performed over 3 loading conditions: body mass (BM), 50% BM, and 70% BM. Sample entropy (SE) and root mean square (RMS) were calculated from the center of pressures collected during each balance assessment. The UL strength training group showed significant improvement after training in both 1RM-UL (p < 0.01) and 1RM-BL (p < 0.01). The BL strength training group only showed significant improvement in 1RM-BL (p = 0.01). There was a significant main effect of load on RMS (p < 0.05) across all balance tasks with RMS increasing with increasing load. Sample entropy was found to decrease with increasing load in the unilateral eyes open and bilateral stance tasks. Significant increases in strength (∼10 to -29%) were observed; however, increased strength alone is not enough to mitigate the effects of load carriage on the postural control, even when training is performed in stance positions that are posturally challenging. Therefore, "operationally relevant" loads negatively impact postural stability in novice load carriers when assessing nonlinear measures.


Assuntos
Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Biomech ; 105: 109772, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279931

RESUMO

Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is prevalent among female soldiers, resulting in limited duty and long term adverse ambulatory effects. A proposed mechanism to the development of knee OA is the assiduous execution of load carriage tasks. Soldiers are often required to maintain a walking gait with load at velocities beyond their gait transition velocity (GTV) known as forced marching. The primary aim of this investigation is to determine the interactive effects of load magnitude and locomotion pattern on relative knee total joint moment (KTJM) in healthy recruit-aged women. The secondary aims are to determine knee total joint moment limb differences and to determine the interactive effect of load magnitude and locomotion pattern on the percent contributions of each plane of motion moment. Individuals were tasked with running and forced marching at 10% above their GTV at body weight (BW) and with an additional 25% and 45% of their BW. KTJM was analyzed at two specific gait events of heel-strike and mid-stance. At heel-strike, forced marching exhibited greater KTJM compared to run for all load conditions but running had greater KTJM than forced marching at mid-stance. The forced marching pattern exhibited larger KTJM for the dominant limb at both gait events compared to running. Lastly, at mid-stance the knee adduction moment percent (KAM%) contribution was greater for forced marching compared to running. The forced marching pattern demonstrates joint kinetics that may be more deleterious with prolonged exposure. Likewise, forced marching induced KAM% similar to those already suffering from knee OA.


Assuntos
Articulação do Joelho , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Idoso , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Marcha , Humanos , Caminhada , Suporte de Carga
7.
Orthop J Sports Med ; 7(3): 2325967119831272, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891463

RESUMO

Background: Musculoskeletal injuries at the shoulder are highly prevalent and place a large burden on United States Special Forces personnel. Literature is lacking regarding the risk factors for these types of injuries. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of shoulder strength and kinematic characteristics, which have shown retrospective associations with shoulder conditions/injuries, with prospectively collected shoulder injuries. We hypothesized that lower strength and abnormal kinematics would be predictive of future shoulder injury. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 140 male Special Forces operators underwent a musculoskeletal evaluation of the shoulder that included a scapular kinematic assessment during a humeral elevation task and isokinetic strength testing of the scapular protractors/retractors, external/internal rotators, and elevators of the shoulder. From strength assessments, ipsilateral strength ratios and bilateral strength asymmetries were also calculated. Musculoskeletal injuries of the shoulder were collected prospectively by use of medical chart reviews at 365 days following the evaluation. Separate generalized estimating equations (GEEs) and simple logistic regressions were used to analyze the association between baseline predictors and development of shoulder injury. Results: Results of the GEEs showed no significant prediction of shoulder injury by shoulder strength (odds ratio [OR], 1.00-1.03), ipsilateral strength ratios (OR, 0.43-2.12), or scapular kinematics (OR, 0.99-1.01). Logistic regression indicated that none of the bilateral asymmetries were significantly predictive of shoulder injury (OR, 1.00-1.04). Conclusion: The results indicate that shoulder strength and kinematic characteristics are not risk factors for shoulder injury in the Special Forces population. These findings are in opposition to the general findings of previous research using a retrospective analysis.

8.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33 Suppl 1: S70-S77, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29489730

RESUMO

Krajewski, K, LeFavi, R, and Riemann, B. A biomechanical analysis of the effects of bouncing the barbell in the conventional deadlift. J Strength Cond Res 33(7S): S70-S77, 2019-The purpose of this study is to analyze biomechanical differences between the bounce and pause styles of deadlifting. Twenty physically active males performed deadlifts at their 75% one-repetition maximum testing using both pause and bounce techniques in a within-subjects randomized study design. The average peak height the barbell attained from the 3 bounce style repetitions was used to compute a compatible phase for analysis of the pause style repetitions. Net joint moment impulse (NJMI), work, average vertical ground reaction force (vGRF), vGRF impulse, and phase time were computed for 2 phases, liftoff to peak barbell height and the entire ascent. Additionally, the ankle, knee, hip, and trunk angles at the location of peak barbell bounce height were computed. During the liftoff to peak barbell height phase, although each of the joints demonstrated significantly less NJMI and work during the bounce style, the hip joint was impacted the most. The average vGRF was greater for the bounce; however, the vGRF impulse was greater for the pause. The NJMI results for the ascent phase were similar to the liftoff to peak barbell height phase, whereas work was significantly less for the bounce condition compared with the pause condition across all 3 joints. Strength and conditioning specialists using the deadlift should be aware that the bounce technique does not allow the athlete to develop maximal force production in the early portion of the lift. Further analyses should focus on joint angles and potential vulnerability to injury when the barbell momentum generated from the bounce is lost.


Assuntos
Articulações/fisiologia , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Articulação do Tornozelo/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Articulação do Quadril/fisiologia , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Masculino , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Adulto Jovem
9.
Syst Rev ; 7(1): 244, 2018 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30580762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal injuries (MSI) represent more than half of all injuries in tactical populations (i.e., military service and public safety workers including police, firefighters, emergency medical services (EMS)). Most lower extremity MSIs result from physical exertion during training, occupational tasks, and recreation. Such exertional lower extremity injuries (ELEI) produce a significant human and financial cost. Accordingly, significant efforts have been made to identify sensitive, specific, and reliable predictors of ELEI. There is a need to synthesize and evaluate the predictive value of risk factors for ELEI while addressing the influence of occupation, sex, exposure, injury characteristics, and study quality. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review and planned meta-analysis is to evaluate risk factors for ELEI in tactical populations. METHODS: After the development of a search strategy, comprehensive searches will be conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, and CINAHL databases. Articles will be screened with a multi-user process and delimited to prospective comparative cohort studies that directly measure injury occurrence in the target population(s). Extracted data will be synthesized and assessed for reporting bias, meta-bias, and overall quality, with subgroup analyses to determine the influence of participant, injury, and exposure characteristics in addition to study quality. DISCUSSION: This systematic review and planned meta-analysis will comprehensively evaluate ELEI risk factors. Information gained will inform injury prevention protocols, facilitate the use of improved measurements, and identify requirements for future research. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The systematic review protocol was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) on 3 Jan 2018 (registration number CRD42018056977 ).


Assuntos
Socorristas , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Militares , Sistema Musculoesquelético/lesões , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
10.
Syst Rev ; 7(1): 73, 2018 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29729666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exertional lower body musculoskeletal injuries (ELBI) cost billions of dollars and compromise the readiness and job performance of military service and public safety workers (i.e., tactical populations). The prevalence and burden of such injuries underscores the importance of prevention efforts during activities necessary to sustain core occupational competencies. Attempts to synthesize prevention techniques specific to tactical populations have provided limited insight on the comparative efficacy of interventions that do not modify physical training practices. There is also a need to assess the influence of sex, exposure, injury classification scheme, and study design. Thus, the primary purpose of the systematic review and planned meta-analysis detailed in this protocol is to evaluate the comparative efficacy of ELBI prevention strategies in tactical populations. METHODS: A systematic search strategy will be implemented in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, and CINAHL. A multi-tiered process will be used to capture randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies that directly assess the prevention of ELBI in tactical population(s). Extracted data will be used to compare prevention strategies and assess the influence of heterogeneity related to occupation, sex, exposure, injury characteristics, and study quality. In addition, individual risk of bias, meta-bias, and the quality of the body of evidence will be rigorously tested. DISCUSSION: This systematic review and planned meta-analysis will comprehensively evaluate ELBI mitigation strategies in tactical populations, elucidate factors that influence responses to treatment, and assess the overall quality of the body of research. Results of this work will guide the prioritization of ELBI prevention strategies and direct future research efforts, with direct relevance to tactical, health and rehabilitation science, and human performance optimization stakeholders. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: The systematic review protocol was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) on 3 Jan 2018 (registration number CRD42018081799 ).


Assuntos
Socorristas , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Militares , Sistema Musculoesquelético/lesões , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle
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