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1.
Urology ; 136: 271, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033679
3.
J Endourol ; 34(2): 151-155, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588790

RESUMO

Introduction and Objective: Current available lithotrites have clinical stone clearance rates averaging 24 to 32 mm2/minute. The objective of this study was to critically evaluate the initial experience with the Swiss LithoClast® Trilogy lithotrite during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Methods: We prospectively enrolled patients with a minimum of 15 mm of stone in axial diameter at three locations (Indiana University, University of California Davis, and University of California San Diego) scheduled to undergo PCNL for nephrolithiasis over a 60-day trial period. We assessed objective measures of stone clearance time, stone clearance rate, device malfunction, stone-free rate, and complications. Each surgeon also evaluated subjective parameters from each case related to the use of Trilogy on a 1 to 10 scale (10 = extremely effective), and compared it with their usual lithotrite on a 1 to 5 scale (5 = much better). Results: We included 43 patients and had 7 bilateral (16.3%) cases, for a total of 50 renal units. One case was a mini-PCNL. Two cases experienced device malfunctions requiring troubleshooting but no transition to another lithotrite. The mean stone clearance rate was 68.9 mm2/minute. The stone-free rate on postoperative imaging was 67.6% (25 of 37 patients with available imaging). The lowest subjective rating was the ergonomic score of 6.7, and the highest subjective rating was the ease of managing settings score of 9.2. The surgeon impressions of ultrasound (7.3), ballistics (8.1), combination of ultrasound and ballistics (8.7), and suction (8.4) were high. One patient experienced an intraoperative renal pelvis perforation, one patient required a blood transfusion, one patient had a pneumothorax requiring chest tube placement, and one patient had a renal artery pseudoaneurysm requiring endovascular embolization. Conclusions: This multi-institutional study evaluated a new and efficient combination lithotrite that was perceived by surgeons to be highly satisfactory, with an excellent safety and durability profile.

4.
Urology ; 136: 266-271, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine feasibility of an electromagnetic (EM) guidance system (Auris Health, Redwood City, CA) in obtaining percutaneous renal access among urologists and trainees of different experience levels. EM-guidance is appealing for access as it allows real time, 3-dimensional targeting without radiation. Few studies have explored this for percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and none have assessed its potential to decrease the learning curve in obtaining access using traditional techniques. METHODS: Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee approval was obtained to compare EM-guided percutaneous access to fluoroscopic guided access in a porcine model. Voluntary participants included urology trainees and faculty. They were categorized as beginner (no prior primary percutaneous nephrolithotomyexperience), intermediate (10-100 prior) and advanced (>100). Each participant attempted an EM and fluoroscopic guided puncture. Primary outcome was successful puncture. Secondary outcomes included access time, fluoroscopy time, and number of attempts. Participants were limited to 3 attempts and 10 minutes total to obtain access using each technique. RESULTS: Fourteen participants (6 beginners, 4 intermediates, and 4 experts) attempted 28 punctures. Overall success using EM-guidance was 93% compared to 71% using fluoroscopy (P = .33). EM punctures had shorter access times (85 vs 255 seconds, P <.01) required fewer attempts (1 vs 2, P = .04) and had decreased associated fluoroscopy times (1 vs 96 seconds, P <.01) excluding the initial retrograde pyelogram and guidance of the ureteroscope to the desired calyx. Beginners showed comparable success rates and outcomes relative to experts despite higher access times. CONCLUSION: EM-guidance is a promising new technique to decrease the learning curve of percutaneous access with high success rates and minimal radiation.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Campos Eletromagnéticos , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea/métodos , Urologia , Animais , Estudos de Viabilidade , Projetos Piloto , Suínos
5.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863293

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare perioperative and post-operative outcomes for holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) between cases performed with a 550 µm or 1000 µm fiber. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the most recent 50 patients undergoing HoLEP with a 550 µm fiber and the most recent 50 patients with a 1000 µm fiber. The length of exposed laser fiber after stripping was measured pre- and post-enucleation, with the difference being our primary outcome of degradation length. We compared operative and clinical characteristics between patients undergoing HoLEP using 550 and 1000 µm laser fibers. RESULTS: All 100 patients met inclusion for analysis. Overall, the 550 µm fiber experienced more degradation than the 1000 µm fiber (2.9 vs 1.9 cm, respectively; p = 0.01). The 1000 µm fiber utilized significantly less energy compared to the 500 µm fiber (81 vs 109 kJ, respectively; p < 0.01). In addition, operations performed with the 1000 versus the 500 µm fiber were overall shorter (79 vs 88 min, respectively; p = 0.03), although both groups had statistically similar times for enucleation (45 vs 51 min, respectively; p = 0.42) and morcellation (10 vs 9 min, respectively; p = 0.50). These findings occurred in the context of statistically similar prostate weight enucleated and bladder stones treated between groups. Post-operatively patients experienced no difference in blood loss or dysuria. CONCLUSIONS: Use of the 1000 µm fiber resulted in significantly less fiber degradation, energy requirement, and total operative time during HoLEP, in spite of similar prostate size and time required for enucleation and morcellation. Different fiber diameters do not appear to affect post-operative blood loss or dysuria.

6.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863294

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical significance of discordant stone analyses in patients undergoing bilateral ureteroscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed for all patients undergoing stone extraction with bilateral ureteroscopy at our institution in an aim to identify patients who had bilateral stone analysis and 24-h urine chemistry data available. Stones were then classified based upon the dominant present (> 50%). Twenty-four hour urinalysis results were reviewed and statistical analysis performed comparing discordant and concordant patient populations, assessing significant differences that would potentially influence clinical management. RESULTS: We identified 79 patients (158 renal units) who had bilateral stones removed at the time of ureteroscopy. The majority of stones were classified as calcium oxalate (CaOx) (60.1%) followed by calcium phosphate (CaP) (27.8%), brushite (5.1%), uric acid (UA) (4.4%), and cystine (2.5%). Discrepancies in stone classifications were present 24% of the time. Evaluation of 24-h urinalysis results demonstrated that patients with CaOx:CaP stone discordance compared to CaOx:CaOx concordant stone formers were more likely to have an elevated pH (p = 0.02) and lower uric acid supersaturation (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Discrepancies in stone mineral content are common in patients with bilateral stone disease. A single stone analysis from one side in the setting of bilateral stone disease is insufficient for management of patients with bilateral renal stones, and may lead to mismanagement when this misrepresented information is utilized in addition to 24-h urinalysis results. At least one stone analysis should be performed from both sides during a bilateral stone extraction procedure.

7.
World J Urol ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646382

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine if treatment of non-obstructing urolithiasis is effective in management of recurrent UTI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of patients undergoing elective management of non-struvite upper tract urinary calculi with recurrent UTI from 2009 to 2016. Recurrent UTI was defined at ≥ 3 UTI in 12 months, with symptoms and documented urine culture. Preoperative CT was performed in all patients to determine stone burden. All patients had postoperative imaging and ≥ 12 months of follow-up. Pre- and postoperative variables were between patients who had recurrent UTI after treatment versus those who did not. RESULTS: 46 patients met inclusion criteria. 42 (91.3%) were female. Median age was 63.7 years (IQR 49.1, 73.4) and median total stone burden was 20 mm (IQR 14-35). Within the cohort, 20 (43.5%) underwent ureteroscopy only, 26 (56.5%) underwent PCNL ± URS, and none underwent ESWL. Median postoperative follow-up was 2.9 years (IQR 2.0, 4.3). Only five patients (10.9%) had recurrent UTI after treatment. 80% were with the preoperative pathogen. The presence of residual stone was an independent risk factor for recurrent UTI after treatment (p < 0.046). Diabetes, hypertension, immunosuppression and chronic kidney disease were not. CONCLUSIONS: Stone removal for patients with recurrent UTIs was associated with a high rate of success (89.1%) in elimination of further recurrent UTIs. Residual fragments are independently associated with persistent recurrent UTIs and thus, complete stone removal is of paramount importance in treatment of this patient population.

8.
Urology ; 134: 62-65, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536740

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate feasibility of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for complex nephrolithiasis in patients 80 years of age and older compared to younger individuals. METHODS: From an institutional IRB-approved database, 1,647 patients were identified who underwent PCNL from 1999 to 2019. Patients were stratified by age: group 1 (20-59), group 2 (60-79), and group 3 (>80). Statistics were performed using chi-square and ANOVA to compare outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 1,647 patients, median age was 46, 66, and 83, respectively (P <0.0001). Three patients within group 3 were 90 or older. Females made up 54%, 46%, 56% of patients (P = 0.02). Average stone size with SD was 2.6 ± 2.2, 2.5 ± 2.3, 2.2± 1.9 cm for each group (P = 0.06). Mean preoperative hemoglobin (Hgb) was significantly lower in the 80+ group (13.8, 13.4, 13.1 g/dL, P <.0001). Change in Hgb was not significantly different. There were more Clavien II-IV complications (10.4, 14.4, 28.8%; P = 0.02) and transfusions (2.3, 4.7, 10.2%; P <0.001) in the elderly. The most common complications in the 80+ group were bleeding related (10.1%). No difference in readmission rates or ICU admissions was noted. CONCLUSION: PCNL is feasible in the extremely elderly; however with a higher rate of complications and longer hospitalizations. No long-term sequelae or deaths in the 80 and older cohort were seen. This study allows us to appropriately counsel older patients on a realistic postoperative course and supports use of PCNL as the best means of long-term survival.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/sangue , Cálculos Renais/epidemiologia , Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea/métodos , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/sangue , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/mortalidade , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/terapia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Urol Clin North Am ; 46(2): 215-223, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30961855

RESUMO

This comprehensive review updates the advances in extracorporeal lithotripsy, including improvements in external shockwave lithotripsy and innovations in ultrasound based lithotripsy, such as burst wave lithotripsy, ultrasonic propulsion, and histotripsy. Advances in endoscopic technology and training have changed the surgical approach to nephrolithiasis; however, improvements and innovations in extracorporeal lithotripsy maintain its status as an excellent option in appropriately selected patients.


Assuntos
Litotripsia/instrumentação , Litotripsia/métodos , Cálculos Urinários/cirurgia , Ondas de Choque de Alta Energia/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Invenções , Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Microbolhas/uso terapêutico , Seleção de Pacientes
10.
Nat Rev Urol ; 16(4): 231-244, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728476

RESUMO

An estimated 4-5 million CT scans are performed in the USA every year to investigate nephrourological diseases such as urinary stones and renal masses. Despite the clinical benefits of CT imaging, concerns remain regarding the potential risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. To assess the potential risk of harmful biological effects from exposure to ionizing radiation, understanding the mechanisms by which radiation damage and repair occur is essential. Although radiation level and cancer risk follow a linear association at high doses, no strong relationship is apparent below 100 mSv, the doses used in diagnostic imaging. Furthermore, the small theoretical increase in risk of cancer incidence must be considered in the context of the clinical benefit derived from a medically indicated CT and the likelihood of cancer occurrence in the general population. Elimination of unnecessary imaging is the most important method to reduce imaging-related radiation; however, technical aspects of medically justified imaging should also be optimized, such that the required diagnostic information is retained while minimizing the dose of radiation. Despite intensive study, evidence to prove an increased cancer risk associated with radiation doses below ~100 mSv is lacking; however, concerns about ionizing radiation in medical imaging remain and can affect patient care. Overall, the principles of justification and optimization must remain the basis of clinical decision-making regarding the use of ionizing radiation in medicine.


Assuntos
Exposição à Radiação/efeitos adversos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/efeitos adversos , Doenças Urológicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Doses de Radiação , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
11.
Urology ; 124: 52-56, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30391680

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess stone-free rates following ureteroscopy (URS) for renal calculi at our institution using low-dose renal only computed tomography (CT). METHODS: A retrospective review of patients undergoing flexible URS for renal stones only with subsequent CT scan within 3 months. Meticulous basketing of all stone fragments was performed whenever possible. A "true" zero-fragment stone-free rate was determined by reviewing the CT scan and radiologist's report. Patients with nephrocalcinosis (as determined by visual inspection of papilla at the time of URS) were assigned the "stone-free" category. RESULTS: Flexible URS was performed in 288 renal units of 214 patients with renal calculi from 2013 to 2016. Median preoperative stone size was 6.2 mm with the average kidney containing 6.4 stones. An access sheath was used in 92% of cases. A total of 73% (209/288) renal units were completely stone free by CT assessment. Patients with residual fragments were as follows: 1 mm in 2% (7/288), 2-4 mm in 16% (46/288), and >4 mm in 9% of kidneys (26/288). CONCLUSION: The true stone-free rate in patients undergoing flexible URS for renal calculi utilizing active basketing of fragments as determined by strict CT assessment was 73%. In patients with residual fragments, the majority are 2-4 mm in size making URS a treatment option for renal calculi with excellent stone-free results.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Ureteroscopia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ureteroscópios , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Pediatr Urol ; 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932240

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Endourological and percutaneous approaches are the standard of care for treatment of pediatric urolithiasis. However, in certain situations, an endoscopic-assisted robotic pyelolithotomy (EARP) can be an acceptable alternative. Limited data exist on pediatric EARP; thus, the authors describe their experience. METHODS: Patient selection: The authors retrospectively analyzed the records of all robotic procedures performed at five institutions from 7/09-10/17 to identify patients who underwent EARP. The authors collected demographics data, indications, operative time, and postoperative complications. Stone composition was reported as the majority composition (≥50%), unless any uric acid or struvite was noted, and those stones were classified as such. TECHNIQUE: Through a traditional or hidden incision endoscopic surgery (HIdES) robot pyeloplasty approach, the authors are able to easily pass a flexible endoscope through a robotic trocar and into the renal collecting system to perform pyeloscopy or ureteroscopy. Stones were primarily retrieved via the pyelolotomy and, if indicated, treated with laser lithotripsy. RESULTS: The authors identified 26 patients who underwent EARP in 27 renal units. Median patient age was 12.2 years (interquartile range [IQR] 6.1-14.5 years), and body mass index was 17.5 kg/m2 (IQR 16.5-25.4 kg/m2). The median pre-operative dimension of the largest stone was 9.0 mm (IQR 5.8 mm-15.0 mm). Reasons for EARP: 21 (77.8%) concomitant pyeloplasty, four (14.8%) altered anatomy precluding other techniques, and two (7.4%) multiple large stones. Multiple stones were present in 20 renal units (74.1%). Stones were located in the renal pelvis in nine (33.3%), lower pole in 10 (37.0%), ureter in one (3.7%), and multiple locations in seven (25.9%). Hidden incision endoscopic surgery approach was used in 14 (51.9%), and the median operative time was 237.5 min (IQR 189.8-357.8 min) with a median length of stay 1.0 day (IQR 1.0-2.0 days). Stone composition included calcium oxalate in 14 (51.9%), calcium phosphate in five (18.5%), cysteine in two (7.4%), struvite in two (7.4%), and unknown in four (14.8%). Overall stone free status was 19 (70.4%); of the eight (29.6%) renal units with residual stones, four underwent ureteroscopy, two extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL), one spontaneously passed, and one underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). After secondary treatment, final stone free rate was 96.3%. Complications included stent migration and admission for urosepsis. At a median follow-up of 12 months (IQR 6.2-19.2 months), five (18.5%) had stone recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic-assisted robotic pyelolithotomy is a reasonable treatment option for select pediatric patients with concomitant ureteropelvic junction obstruction and nephrolithiasis or pediatric patients with stones inaccessible by standard methods.

13.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13731, 2018 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30213974

RESUMO

More than 10% of the global human population is now afflicted with kidney stones, which are commonly associated with other significant health problems including diabetes, hypertension and obesity. Nearly 70% of these stones are primarily composed of calcium oxalate, a mineral previously assumed to be effectively insoluble within the kidney. This has limited currently available treatment options to painful passage and/or invasive surgical procedures. We analyze kidney stone thin sections with a combination of optical techniques, which include bright field, polarization, confocal and super-resolution nanometer-scale auto-fluorescence microscopy. Here we demonstrate using interdisciplinary geology and biology (geobiology) approaches that calcium oxalate stones undergo multiple events of dissolution as they crystallize and grow within the kidney. These observations open a fundamentally new paradigm for clinical approaches that include in vivo stone dissolution and identify high-frequency layering of organic matter and minerals as a template for biomineralization in natural and engineered settings.


Assuntos
Oxalato de Cálcio/química , Cálculos Renais/química , Cálculos Renais/terapia , Rim/química , Oxalato de Cálcio/efeitos adversos , Cristalização , Humanos , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Rim/patologia , Rim/ultraestrutura , Cálculos Renais/patologia , Cálculos Renais/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Confocal , Minerais/química
14.
J Urol ; 200(6): 1285-1289, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30059686

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with cystinuria are often treated with medical alkalization and shock wave lithotripsy, although each treatment is hypothesized to increase the risk of calcium phosphate stones. We performed a multicenter retrospective review to evaluate whether stones of another composition develop in patients with cystinuria and with what frequency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of a multi-institutional cohort of patients with cystinuria. We assessed medications, stone analyses, 24-hour urinalyses and types of procedures. We compared patients who formed only cystine stones vs those with noncystine stones. RESULTS: We identified 125 patients from a total of 5 institutions who were followed a mean of 5.2 years (range 0 to 26). Stones with noncystine components were submitted by 37 patients (29.6%). Potassium citrate medication was not associated with a noncystine composition (p = 0.1877). Regarding surgical management 18 patients (13%) underwent at least 1 shock wave lithotripsy session (range 0 to 9) and 79 (63%) underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy at least once (range 0 to 10). When stratified based on pure cystine vs converted stones, the average total number of shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy procedures was higher in the group with cystine and subsequent noncystine stone compositions (0.94 vs 0.10, p <0.0001, and 1.7 vs 1.5, p = 0.0053, respectively). On logistic regression male gender (OR 3.1, p = 0.0280) and the number of shock wave lithotripsy sessions (OR 3.0, p = 0.0170) were associated with an increased likelihood of the development of stones with a noncystine composition. CONCLUSIONS: Stones with noncystine components develop in more than 25% of patients with cystinuria, underscoring the importance of continued stone analysis. In this study prior shock wave lithotripsy was associated with conversion to a noncystine stone composition while urinary alkalization therapy was not associated.


Assuntos
Fosfatos de Cálcio/urina , Cistinúria/terapia , Cálculos Renais/epidemiologia , Litotripsia/efeitos adversos , Citrato de Potássio/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Cistinúria/complicações , Cistinúria/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Cálculos Renais/etiologia , Cálculos Renais/terapia , Cálculos Renais/urina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Citrato de Potássio/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Endourol ; 32(S1): S7-S9, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29774816

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) offers superior voiding outcomes to traditional transurethral resection and less morbidity than open simple prostatectomy. Likewise, HoLEP has been determined to result in excellent outcomes regardless of gland size. We present a step-by-step surgical approach to HoLEP describing both the traditional enucleation technique and a modified "top-down" surgical technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this video, two techniques are presented that were performed by two (A.E.K., J.E.L.) surgeons at our institution. RESULTS: In the examples of the two enucleation techniques mentioned, outcomes are similar with regard to surgical and functional outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: HoLEP as a treatment for BPH with associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) results in excellent patient outcomes and can be offered to patients regardless of prostate volume.


Assuntos
Terapia a Laser/métodos , Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Hiperplasia Prostática/cirurgia , Ressecção Transuretral da Próstata/métodos , Idoso , Hólmio , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micção
16.
J Urol ; 200(4): 801-808, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29684391

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Single institution studies suggest a benefit of a week of preoperative antibiotics prior to percutaneous nephrolithotomy. These studies are limited by lower quality methodology, such as the inclusion of heterogeneous populations or nonstandard definitions of sepsis. The AUA (American Urological Association) Best Practice Statement recommends less than 24 hours of intravenous antibiotics but to our knowledge no other data exist on the duration or benefit of preoperative antibiotics. Using CONSORT (Consolidated Reporting of Trials) guidelines we sought to perform a rigorous multi-institutional trial to assess preoperative antibiotics in patients in whom percutaneous nephrolithotomy was planned and who were at low risk for infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This randomized controlled trial enrolled patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy who were at low risk, defined as negative preoperative urine cultures and no urinary drain. Of the subjects 43 were randomized to nitrofurantoin 100 mg twice daily for 7 days preoperatively while a control arm of 43 received no oral antibiotics. All subjects received perioperative doses of ampicillin and gentamicin. Prone percutaneous nephrolithotomy was performed by urologists blinded to randomization. The primary outcome was the development of sepsis. RESULTS: A total of 86 subjects were enrolled. Preoperative patient characteristics were similar in the treatment and control cohorts with a stone size of 19 and 17 mm, respectively (p = 0.47). Intraoperative characteristics also did not differ. The sepsis rate was not statistically different between the treatment and control groups (12% and 14%, respectively, 95% CI -0.163-0.122, p = 1.0). Other infectious parameters and complications were similar, including intensive care admission, fever, hypotension and leukocytosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated no advantage to providing 1 week of preoperative oral antibiotics in patients at low risk for infectious complications who undergo percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Perioperative antibiotics according to the AUA Best Practice Statement appear sufficient.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Bacteriemia/prevenção & controle , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea/métodos , Nitrofurantoína/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Intervalos de Confiança , Consenso , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Valores de Referência , Medição de Risco , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento , Urinálise/métodos
17.
Curr Opin Urol ; 28(3): 301-308, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29538164

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) has been a mainstay therapy for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) for nearly 20 years. We briefly review current and sentinel publications that provide outcomes data after HoLEP. RECENT FINDINGS: Current literature continues to support HoLEP as a versatile and durable surgical option for men with LUTS secondary to BPH. Despite evidence supporting durable symptom relief beyond 10 years even in large prostate glands, HoLEP is still not widely available to all patients. Concerns surrounding the learning curve of the procedure, high rates of retrograde ejaculation, and transient urinary incontinence seem to persist and limit the adoption of HoLEP by established urologists and residency training programs. SUMMARY: Recent publications continue to show excellent short-term and long-term outcomes after HoLEP, in the categories of voiding function and patient satisfaction. Continued attempts to demonstrate equivalent outcomes of alternate-BPH surgical techniques are being met with renewed efforts by those performing HoLEP to demonstrate equivalent outcomes and patient safety during the learning phase of HoLEP for both mentored and self-directed surgical training.


Assuntos
Terapia a Laser/métodos , Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/cirurgia , Prostatectomia/métodos , Hiperplasia Prostática/cirurgia , Ejaculação , Humanos , Terapia a Laser/efeitos adversos , Terapia a Laser/instrumentação , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/etiologia , Masculino , Segurança do Paciente , Satisfação do Paciente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Prostatectomia/instrumentação , Hiperplasia Prostática/complicações , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/epidemiologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 93(3): 291-299, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29452705

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate trends in the incidence of kidney stones and characteristics associated with changes in the incidence rate over 3 decades. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Adult stone formers in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from January 1, 1984, to December 31, 2012, were validated and characterized by age, sex, stone composition, and imaging modality. The incidence of kidney stones per 100,000 person-years was estimated. Characteristics associated with changes in the incidence rate over time were assessed using Poisson regression models. RESULTS: There were 3224 confirmed symptomatic (stone seen), 606 suspected symptomatic (no stone seen), and 617 incidental asymptomatic kidney stone formers. The incidence of confirmed symptomatic kidney stones increased from the year 1984 to 2012 in both men (145 to 299/100,000 person-years; incidence rate ratio per 5 years, 1.14, P<.001) and women (51 to 217/100,000 person-years; incidence rate ratio per 5 years, 1.29, P<.001). Overall, the incidence of suspected symptomatic kidney stones did not change, but that of asymptomatic kidney stones increased. Utilization of computed tomography for confirmed symptomatic stones increased from 1.8% in 1984 to 77% in 2012; there was a corresponding higher increased incidence of symptomatic small stones (≤3 mm) than of larger stones (>3 mm). Confirmed symptomatic kidney stones with documented spontaneous passage also increased. The incidence of kidney stones with unknown composition increased more than that of stones with known composition. CONCLUSION: The incidence of both symptomatic and asymptomatic kidney stones has increased dramatically. The increased utilization of computed tomography during this period may have improved stone detection and contributed to the increased kidney stone incidence.


Assuntos
Cálculos Urinários/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Cálculos Urinários/diagnóstico
19.
Urology ; 111: 54-58, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29030074

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate operating room (OR) costs associated with the 2 available morcellators in the United States in a matched cohort and to determine benign prostatic hyperplasia surgeon's morcellator preference. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients from 2013, the last year our institution exclusively used the VersaCut device, were matched 1:1 with the most recent patient cohort, utilizing the Wolf Piranha morcellator. Cost of morcellation including the expense of OR time and disposable instrument costs were calculated. A survey to the Endourological Society e-mail listserv was sent to determine morcellator preference. RESULTS: We identified 142 patients who underwent holmium laser enucleation of the prostate in 2013. When compared with the VersaCut group, morcellation efficiency (4.4 vs 7.0 g/min, P <.01) and expense of OR time ($1420.80 vs $992.21, P <.005) both favored the Piranha morcellator system even when the costs of disposable instruments were factored into the analysis ($1338.81 vs $1637.50, P <.05). A total of 126 urologists responded to the survey. Of these, 56 (44.5%) perform transurethral prostate enucleations, which included 48 (86%) holmium. More endourologists use the VersaCut (n = 33, 59%) than the Piranha (n = 24, 43%) morcellator. Qualities that impacted the preference of morcellator included the preferred device is safer, faster, easier to use, reusable, and less expensive. CONCLUSION: We identified a significant improved efficiency and improved cost savings utilizing the Piranha morcellator even when controlling for disposable costs. Of the endourologists who responded to the survey, less than half perform transurethral enucleation. Morcellator preference is largely based on safety, efficiency, and ease of use, whereas cost and reusablility were of lesser importance.


Assuntos
Custos e Análise de Custo , Morcelação/economia , Morcelação/instrumentação , Padrões de Prática Médica , Hiperplasia Prostática/cirurgia , Urologia , Estudos de Coortes , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos Masculinos/economia
20.
Urology ; 111: 48-53, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29024736

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To discuss complications of simultaneous bilateral percutaneous nephrolithotomy (SB-PCNL) when compared with unilateral percutaneous nephrolithotomy and survey surgeon preference in bilateral stone disease management. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A database of all participating percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) patients who underwent treatment at Indiana University Health Methodist Hospital within a 10-year period from 2006 to 2015 by a single surgeon (JL) was utilized. Perioperative data, as well as complications, defined according to the Clavien grading system, were recorded. A survey of members of the Endourological Society was performed regarding surgical management in the setting of bilateral stone disease. RESULTS: A total of 563 patients were identified over the study period with 129 undergoing SB-PCNL. Overall, SB-PCNL patients had a longer procedure (176.9 vs 115.6 minutes, P <.0001), were more likely to undergo a secondary procedure (73% vs 44, P <.001), and had a longer hospital stay (3.2 vs 2.3 days, P <.001). Notably, there were no differences in the number or the severity of complications between the 2 groups. A total of 153 endourologists completed the survey. Of these endourologists, 58 (38%) performed bilateral PCNL under anesthesia. The top reasons for electing not to perform bilateral PCNLs included the duration of bilateral procedures (53%), bilateral renal injury (48%), and rare performance of bilateral surgery (35%). CONCLUSION: Although the procedure length was longer in the SB-PCNL group, there were similar rates of complications and severity between unilateral PCNL and SB-PCNL. A majority of endourologists surveyed do not perform bilateral PCNL but would perform bilateral ureteroscopy with the duration of the procedure and concern for bilateral renal injury representing the most common reasons.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica , Urologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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