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2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 873191, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35514992

RESUMO

Influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) stalk-specific antibodies have been shown to potently induce Fc-mediated effector functions which are important in protection from disease. In placebo-controlled maternal influenza (MatFlu) vaccination trials of pregnant women living with or without HIV, reduced risk of influenza illness was associated with high HA stalk antibody titers following trivalent inactivated vaccination (TIV). However, the mechanisms of immunity conferred by the HA stalk antibodies were not well understood. Here, we investigated HA stalk-specific Fc effector functions including antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody-dependent complement deposition (ADCD), and FcγRIIa and FcγRIIIa binding in response to seasonal influenza vaccination. These were measured pre- and 1-month post-vaccination in 141 HIV-uninfected women (67 TIV and 74 placebo recipients) and 119 women living with HIV (WLWH; 66 TIV and 53 placebo recipients). In contrast to HIV-uninfected women, where HA stalk-specific ADCP and FcγRIIa binding were significantly boosted, WLWH showed no increase in response to vaccination. HA stalk-specific ADCC potential and FcγRIIIa binding were not boosted regardless of HIV status but were higher in WLWH compared with HIV-uninfected women prior to vaccination. HA stalk-specific ADCD was significantly increased by vaccination in all women, but was significantly lower in the WLWH both pre- and post- vaccination. Co-ordination between HA stalk-specific ADCP and ADCD in WLWH was improved by vaccination. Fc polyfunctionality was enhanced by vaccination in HIV-uninfected women and driven by the HA stalk antibody titers. However, in the WLWH, higher pre-vaccination Fc polyfunctionality was maintained post-vaccination but was decoupled from titer. Overall, we showed differential regulation of Fc effector HA stalk responses, suggesting that HIV infection results in unique humoral immunity in response to influenza vaccination, with relevance for future strategies that aim to target the HA stalk in this population.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Influenza Humana , Anticorpos Antivirais , Feminino , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza , Hemaglutininas , Humanos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Gravidez , Vacinação
3.
Vaccine ; 2022 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35577631

RESUMO

Production of affordable coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines in low- and middle-income countries is needed. NDV-HXP-S is an inactivated egg-based Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine expressing the spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Wuhan-Hu-1. The spike protein was stabilized and incorporated into NDV virions by removing the polybasic furin cleavage site, introducing the transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail of the fusion protein of NDV, and introducing six prolines for stabilization in the prefusion state. Vaccine production and clinical development was initiated in Vietnam, Thailand, and Brazil. Here the interim results from the first stage of the randomized, dose-escalation, observer-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1/2 trial conducted at the Hanoi Medical University (Vietnam) are presented. Healthy adults aged 18-59 years, non-pregnant, and with self-reported negative history for SARS-CoV-2 infection were eligible. Participants were randomized to receive one of five treatments by intramuscular injection twice, 28 days apart: 1 µg +/- CpG1018 (a toll-like receptor 9 agonist), 3 µg alone, 10 µg alone, or placebo. Participants and personnel assessing outcomes were masked to treatment. The primary outcomes were solicited adverse events (AEs) during 7 days and subject-reported AEs during 28 days after each vaccination. Investigators further reviewed subject-reported AEs. Secondary outcomes were immunogenicity measures (anti-spike immunoglobulin G [IgG] and pseudotyped virus neutralization). This interim analysis assessed safety 56 days after first vaccination (day 57) in treatment-exposed individuals and immunogenicity through 14 days after second vaccination (day 43) per protocol. Between March 15 and April 23, 2021, 224 individuals were screened and 120 were enrolled (25 per group for active vaccination and 20 for placebo). All subjects received two doses. The most common solicited AEs among those receiving active vaccine or placebo were all predominantly mild and included injection site pain or tenderness (<58%), fatigue or malaise (<22%), headache (<21%), and myalgia (<14%). No higher proportion of the solicited AEs were observed for any group of active vaccine. The proportion reporting vaccine-related AEs during the 28 days after either vaccination ranged from 4% to 8% among vaccine groups and was 5% in controls. No vaccine-related serious adverse event occurred. The immune response in the 10 µg formulation group was highest, followed by 1 µg + CpG1018, 3 µg, and 1 µg formulations. Fourteen days after the second vaccination, the geometric mean concentrations (GMC) of 50% neutralizing antibody against the homologous Wuhan-Hu-1 pseudovirus ranged from 56.07 IU/mL (1 µg, 95% CI 37.01, 84.94) to 246.19 IU/mL (10 µg, 95% CI 151.97, 398.82), with 84% to 96% of vaccine groups attaining a ≥ 4-fold increase over baseline. This was compared to a panel of human convalescent sera (N = 29, 72.93 95% CI 33.00-161.14). Live virus neutralization to the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of concern was reduced but in line with observations for vaccines currently in use. Since the adjuvant has shown modest benefit, GMC ratio of 2.56 (95% CI, 1.4-4.6) for 1 µg +/- CpG1018, a decision was made not to continue studying it with this vaccine. NDV-HXP-S had an acceptable safety profile and potent immunogenicity. The 3 µg dose was advanced to phase 2 along with a 6 µg dose. The 10 µg dose was not selected for evaluation in phase 2 due to potential impact on manufacturing capacity. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04830800.

4.
Nature ; 2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361968

RESUMO

The global emergence of many severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants jeopardizes the protective antiviral immunity induced following infection or vaccination. To address the public health threat caused by the increasing SARS-CoV-2 genomic diversity, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) within the National Institutes of Health (NIH) established the SARS-CoV-2 Assessment of Viral Evolution (SAVE) program. This effort was designed to provide a real-time risk assessment of SARS-CoV-2 variants potentially impacting transmission, virulence, and resistance to convalescent and vaccine-induced immunity. The SAVE program serves as a critical data-generating component of the United States Government SARS-CoV-2 Interagency Group to assess implications of SARS-CoV-2 variants on diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics and for communicating public health risk. Here we describe the coordinated approach used to identify and curate data about emerging variants, their impact on immunity, and effects on vaccine protection using animal models. We report the development of reagents, methodologies, models, and pivotal findings facilitated by this collaborative approach and identify future challenges. This program serves as a template for the response against rapidly evolving pandemic pathogens by monitoring viral evolution in the human population to identify variants that could erode the effectiveness of countermeasures.

5.
mBio ; : e0358021, 2022 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35467422

RESUMO

Structural characterization of infection- and vaccination-elicited antibodies in complex with antigen provides insight into the evolutionary arms race between the host and the pathogen and informs rational vaccine immunogen design. We isolated a germ line-encoded monoclonal antibody (mAb) from plasmablasts activated upon mRNA vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and determined its structure in complex with the spike glycoprotein by electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM). We show that the mAb engages a previously uncharacterized neutralizing epitope on the spike N-terminal domain (NTD). The high-resolution structure reveals details of the intermolecular interactions and shows that the mAb inserts its heavy complementarity-determining region 3 (HCDR3) loop into a hydrophobic NTD cavity previously shown to bind a heme metabolite, biliverdin. We demonstrate direct competition with biliverdin and that, because of the conserved nature of the epitope, the mAb maintains binding to viral variants B.1.1.7 (alpha), B.1.351 (beta), B.1.617.2 (delta), and B.1.1.529 (omicron). Our study describes a novel conserved epitope on the NTD that is readily targeted by vaccine-induced antibody responses. IMPORTANCE We report the first structure of a vaccine-induced antibody to SARS-CoV-2 spike isolated from plasmablasts 7 days after vaccination. The genetic sequence of the antibody PVI.V6-14 suggests that it is completely unmutated, meaning that this type of B cell did not undergo somatic hypermutation or affinity maturation; this cell was likely already present in the donor and was activated by the vaccine. This is, to our knowledge, also the first structure of an unmutated antibody in complex with its cognate antigen. PVI.V6-14 binds a novel, conserved epitope on the N-terminal domain (NTD) and neutralizes the original viral strain. PVI.V6-14 also binds the newly emerged variants B.1.1.7 (alpha), B.1.351 (beta), B.1.617.2 (delta), and B.1.1.529 (omicron). Given that this antibody was likely already present in the donor prior to vaccination, we believe that this antibody class could potentially "keep up" with the new variants, should they continue to emerge, by undergoing somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation.

6.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2022 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35461522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One strategy to develop a universal influenza virus vaccine is to redirect the immune system to the highly conserved haemagglutinin stalk domain by sequentially administering vaccines expressing chimeric (c) haemagglutinins with a conserved stalk domain and divergent head domain, to which humans are naive. We aimed to assess the reactogenicity, safety, and immunogenicity of adjuvanted and unadjuvanted investigational supra-seasonal universal influenza virus vaccines (SUIVs) in healthy young adults. METHODS: In this observer-masked, randomised, controlled, phase 1-2 trial, we recruited adults aged 18-39 years with no clinically significant conditions from six centres in Belgium and the USA. Participants were randomly assigned to ten equally sized groups via an online system with the MATerial Excellence programme. Vaccines contained heterosubtypic group 1 H8, H5, or H11 haemagglutinin heads, an H1 haemagglutinin stalk, and an N1 neuraminidase (cH8/1N1, cH5/1N1, and cH11/1N1; haemagglutinin dose 15 µg/0·5 mL), administered on days 1 and 57, with a month 14 booster. SUIVs were evaluated in the sequences: cH8/1N1-placebo-cH5/1N1, cH5/1N1-placebo-cH8/1N1, or cH8/1N1-cH5/1N1-cH11/1N1, adjuvanted with either AS03 or AS01, or not adjuvanted. The last group received inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (IIV4)-placebo-IIV4. Primary outcomes were safety (analysed in the exposed population) and immunogenicity in terms of the anti-H1 stalk humoral response at 28 days after vaccination (analysed in the per-protocol population, defined as participants who received the study vaccines according to the protocol). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03275389. FINDINGS: Between Sept 25, 2017, and March 26, 2020, 507 eligible participants were enrolled. 468 (92%) participants received at least one dose of study vaccine (exposed population), of whom 244 (52%) were included in the per-protocol population at final analysis at month 26. The safety profiles of all chimeric vaccines were clinically acceptable, with no safety concerns identified. Injection-site pain was the most common adverse event, occurring in 84-96% of participants receiving an adjuvanted SUIV or non-adjuvanted IIV4 and in 40-50% of participants receiving a non-adjuvanted SUIV. Spontaneously reported adverse events up to 28 days after vaccination occurred in 36-60% of participants, with no trends observed for any group. 17 participants had a serious adverse event, none of which were considered to be causally related to the vaccine. Anti-H1 stalk antibody titres were highest in AS03-adjuvanted groups, followed by AS01-adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted groups, and were higher after cH8/1N1 than after cH5/1N1 and after a two-dose primary schedule than after a one-dose schedule. Geometric mean concentrations by ELISA ranged from 21 938·1 ELISA units/mL (95% CI 18 037·8-26 681·8) in the IIV4-placebo-IIV4 group to 116 596·8 ELISA units/mL (93 869·6-144 826·6) in the AS03-adjuvanted cH8/1N1-cH5/1N1-cH11/1N1 group 28 days after the first dose and from 15 105·9 ELISA units/mL (12 007·7-19 003·6) in the non-adjuvanted cH5/1N1-placebo-cH8/1N1 group to 74 639·7 ELISA units/mL (59 986·3-92 872·6) in the AS03-adjuvanted cH8/1N1-cH5/1N1-cH11/1N1 group 28 days after the second dose. INTERPRETATION: The stalk domain seems to be a rational target for development of a universal influenza virus vaccine via administration of chimeric haemagglutinins with head domains to which humans are naive. FUNDING: GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals.

7.
EBioMedicine ; 78: 103972, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A major challenge of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is to better define "protective thresholds" to guide the global response. We aimed to characterize the longitudinal dynamics of the antibody responses in naturally infected individuals in Chile and compared them to humoral responses induced after immunization with CoronaVac-based on an inactivated whole virus -or the BNT162b2- based on mRNA-vaccines. We also contrasted them with the respective effectiveness and efficacy data available for both vaccines. METHODS: We determined and compared the longitudinal neutralizing (nAb) and anti-nucleocapsid (anti-N) antibody responses of 74 COVID-19 individuals (37 outpatient and 37 hospitalized) during the acute disease and convalescence. We also assessed the antibody boosting of 36 of these individuals who were immunized after convalescence with either the CoronaVac (n = 30) or the BNT162b2 (n = 6) vaccines. Antibody titres were also measured for 50 naïve individuals immunized with two doses of CoronaVac (n = 35) or BNT162b2 (n = 15) vaccines. The neutralizing level after vaccination was compared to those of convalescent individuals and the predicted efficacy was estimated. FINDINGS: SARS-CoV-2 infection induced robust nAb and anti-N antibody responses lasting >9 months, but showing a rapid nAb decay. After convalescence, nAb titres were significantly boosted by vaccination with CoronaVac or BNT162b2. In naïve individuals, the calculated mean titre induced by two doses of CoronaVac or BNT162b2 was 0·2 times and 5.2 times, respectively, that of convalescent individuals, which has been proposed as threshold of protection. CoronaVac induced no or only modest anti-N antibody responses. Using two proposed logistic models, the predicted efficacy of BNT162b2 was estimated at 97%, in close agreement with phase 3 efficacy studies, while for CoronaVac it was ∼50% corresponding to the lowest range of clinical trials and below the real-life data from Chile (from February 2 through May 1, 2021 during the predominant circulation of the Gamma variant), where the estimated vaccine effectiveness to prevent COVID-19 was 62·8-64·6%. INTERPRETATION: The decay of nAbs titres in previously infected individuals over time indicates that vaccination is needed to boost humoral memory responses. Immunization of naïve individuals with two doses of CoronaVac induced nAbs titres that were significantly lower to that of convalescent patients, and similar to vaccination with one dose of BTN162b2. The real life effectiveness for CoronaVac in Chile was higher than estimated; indicating that lower titres and additional cellular immune responses induced by CoronaVac might afford protection in a highly immunized population. Nevertheless, the lower nAb titre induced by two doses of CoronaVac as compared to the BTN162b2 vaccine in naïve individuals, highlights the need of booster immunizations over time to maintain protective levels of antibody, particularly with the emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants. FUNDING: FONDECYT 1161971, 1212023, 1181799, FONDECYT Postdoctorado 3190706 and 3190648, ANID Becas/Doctorado Nacional 21212258, PIA ACT 1408, CONICYT REDES180170, Centro Ciencia & Vida, FB210008, Financiamiento Basal para Centros Científicos y Tecnológicos de Excelencia grants from the Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (ANID) of Chile; NIH-NIAD grants U19AI135972, R01AI132633 and contracts HHSN272201400008C and 75N93019C00051; the JPB Foundation, the Open Philanthropy Project grant 2020-215611 (5384); and by anonymous donors. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Convalescença , Humanos
8.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; : 100649, 2022 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35462058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Structural racism and pandemic-related stress from the COVID-19 pandemic may increase risk of adverse birth outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine associations between neighborhood measures of structural racism and pandemic stress with three outcomes: SARS-CoV-2 infection, preterm birth (PTB) and delivering a newborn small-for-gestational-age (SGA). Our secondary objective was to investigate the joint associations of SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy and neighborhood measures on PTB and SGA. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed data for 967 patients from a prospective cohort of pregnant persons in New York City, comprised of 367 White persons (38%), 169 Black persons (17%), 293 Latina persons (30%), 87 Asian persons (9%), 41 persons of unknown race-ethnicity (4%), and 10 of unknown race-ethnicity (1%). We evaluated structural racism (social/built structural disadvantage, racial-economic segregation) and pandemic-related stress (community COVID-19 mortality, community unemployment rate increase) in quartiles by zip code. SARS-CoV-2 serologic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed on blood samples from pregnant persons. We ascertained preterm birth (PTB) and small-for-gestational age (SGA) from an electronic medical record database. We used log-binomial regression with robust standard error for clustering by zip code to estimate associations of each neighborhood measure separately with three outcomes: SARS-CoV-2 infection, PTB, and SGA. Covariates included maternal age, parity, insurance status, and BMI. Models with PTB and SGA as the dependent variables additionally adjusted for SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: 193 (20%) persons were SARS-CoV-2 seropositive, and the overall risk of PTB and SGA were 8.4% and 9.8%, respectively. Among birthing persons in neighborhoods in the highest quartile of structural disadvantage (n=190), 94% were non-White, 50% had public insurance, 41% were obese, 32% were seropositive, 11% delivered preterm, and 12% delivered an infant SGA. Among birthing persons in neighborhoods in the lowest quartile of structural disadvantage (n=360), 39% were non-White, 17% had public insurance, 15% were obese, 9% were seropositive, 6% delivered preterm, and 10% delivered an infant SGA. In adjusted analyses structural racism measures and community unemployment were associated with both SARS-CoV-2 infection and PTB, but not SGA. High vs. low structural disadvantage was associated with an adjusted relative risk (aRR) of 2.6 for infection (95% Confidence Interval (CI)=1.7, 3.9) and 1.7 for PTB (95%CI=1.0, 2.9); high vs. low racial-economic segregation was associated with aRR of 1.9 (95% CI=1.3, 2.8) for infection and 2.0 (95%CI=1.3, 3.2) for PTB; high vs. low community unemployment increase was associated with aRR of 1.7 (95% CI=1.2, 1.5) for infection and 1.6 (95%CI=1.0, 2.8) for PTB. COVID-19 mortality rate was associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, but not PTB or SGA. SARS-CoV-2 infection was not independently associated with birth outcomes. We found no interaction between SARS-CoV-2 infection and neighborhood measures on PTB or SGA. CONCLUSIONS: Neighborhood measures of structural racism were associated with both SARS-CoV-2 infection and PTB, but these associations were independent and did not have a synergistic effect. Community unemployment rate increases were also associated with an increased risk of PTB independently of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Mitigating these factors might reduce the impact of the pandemic on pregnant people.

9.
J Virol ; 96(9): e0033222, 2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35446141

RESUMO

Influenza virus neuraminidase (NA)-targeting antibodies are an independent correlate of protection against influenza. Antibodies against the NA act by blocking enzymatic activity, preventing virus release and transmission. As we advance the development of improved influenza virus vaccines that incorporate standard amounts of NA antigen, it is important to identify the antigenic targets of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Here, we describe escape mutants generated by serial passage of A/Netherlands/602/2009 (H1N1)pdm09 in the presence of human anti-N1 mAbs. We observed escape mutations on the head domain of the N1 protein around the enzymatic site (S364N, N369T, and R430Q) and also detected escape mutations located on the sides and bottom of the NA (N88D, N270D, and Q313K/R). This work increases our understanding of how human antibody responses target the N1 protein. IMPORTANCE As improved influenza virus vaccines are being developed, the influenza virus neuraminidase (NA) is becoming an important new target for immune responses. By identifying novel epitopes of anti-NA antibodies, we can improve vaccine design. Additionally, characterizing escape mutations in these epitopes aids in identifying NA antigenic drift in circulating viruses.

11.
Sci Transl Med ; : eabm2311, 2022 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35348368

RESUMO

The successful development of several coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines has substantially reduced morbidity and mortality in regions of the world where the vaccines have been deployed. However, in the wake of the emergence of viral variants that are able to evade vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies, real-world vaccine efficacy has begun to show differences across the two approved mRNA platforms, BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273; these findings suggest that subtle variation in immune responses induced by the BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 vaccines may confer differential protection. Given our emerging appreciation for the importance of additional antibody functions beyond neutralization, we profiled the post-boost binding and functional capacity of humoral immune responses induced by the BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 vaccines in a cohort of hospital staff. Both vaccines induced robust humoral immune responses to wild-type severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and to variants of concern. However, differences emerged across epitope-specific responses, with higher concentrations of receptor binding domain (RBD)- and N-terminal domain-specific IgA observed in recipients of mRNA-1273. Antibodies eliciting neutrophil phagocytosis and natural killer cell activation were also increased in mRNA-1273 vaccine recipients as compared to BNT162b2 recipients. RBD-specific antibody depletion highlighted the different roles of non-RBD-specific antibody effector functions induced across the mRNA vaccines. These data provide insights into potential differences in protective immunity conferred by these vaccines.

12.
bioRxiv ; 2022 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35350201

RESUMO

Equitable access to vaccines is necessary to limit the global impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the emergence of new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants. In previous studies, we described the development of a low-cost vaccine based on a Newcastle Disease virus (NDV) expressing the prefusion stabilized spike protein from SARS-CoV-2, named NDV-HXP-S. Here, we present the development of next-generation NDV-HXP-S variant vaccines, which express the stabilized spike protein of the Beta, Gamma and Delta variants of concerns (VOC). Combinations of variant vaccines in bivalent, trivalent and tetravalent formulations were tested for immunogenicity and protection in mice. We show that the trivalent preparation, composed of the ancestral Wuhan, Beta and Delta vaccines, substantially increases the levels of protection and of cross-neutralizing antibodies against mismatched, phylogenetically distant variants, including the currently circulating Omicron variant.

13.
medRxiv ; 2022 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35262095

RESUMO

Background: In October 2020, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Serological Sciences Network (SeroNet) was established to study the immune response to COVID-19, and "to develop, validate, improve, and implement serological testing and associated technologies." SeroNet is comprised of 25 participating research institutions partnering with the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) and the SeroNet Coordinating Center. Since its inception, SeroNet has supported collaborative development and sharing of COVID-19 serological assay procedures and has set forth plans for assay harmonization. Methods: To facilitate collaboration and procedure sharing, a detailed survey was sent to collate comprehensive assay details and performance metrics on COVID-19 serological assays within SeroNet. In addition, FNLCR established a protocol to calibrate SeroNet serological assays to reference standards, such as the U.S. SARS-CoV-2 serology standard reference material and First WHO International Standard (IS) for anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin (20/136), to facilitate harmonization of assay reporting units and cross-comparison of study data. Results: SeroNet institutions reported development of a total of 27 ELISA methods, 13 multiplex assays, 9 neutralization assays, and use of 12 different commercial serological methods. FNLCR developed a standardized protocol for SeroNet institutions to calibrate these diverse serological assays to reference standards. Conclusions: SeroNet institutions have established a diverse array of COVID-19 serological assays to study the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 virus and vaccines. Calibration of SeroNet serological assays to harmonize results reporting will facilitate future pooled data analyses and study cross-comparisons.

14.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(2): e0206121, 2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35357204

RESUMO

Avian paramyxovirus 1 (APMV-1), also known as Newcastle disease virus (NDV), causes severe and economically important disease in poultry around the globe. Although a limited amount of APMV-1 strains in urban areas have been characterized, the role of the urban wild bird population as an APMV-1 reservoir is unclear. Because urban birds may have an important role for long-term circulation of the virus, fecal and swab samples were collected by community scientists from wild birds in New York City (NYC), New York, United States. These samples were screened for APMV-1 and genotypically characterized by sequencing of the complete genome. A total of 885 samples were collected from NYC parks and from a local wildlife rehabilitation clinic from October 2020 through June 2021, and 255 samples obtained from 197 birds have been processed to date. Eight birds (4.1%) screened positive for the APMV-1 nucleoprotein gene by conventional reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and two live viruses were isolated via egg culture. A multibasic F protein cleavage sequence, 112R R K K R F117, an indicator of highly pathogenic velogenic APMV-1 strains, was present in the two samples fully sequenced by next generation sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the F gene coding sequence classified both isolates into genotype VI, a diverse and predominant genotype responsible for APMV-1 outbreaks in pigeon and dove species worldwide. IMPORTANCE Here we describe the first large-scale effort to screen for APMV-1 in New York City's wild bird population as part of the New York City Virus Hunters program, a community science initiative. We characterized two isolates of APMV-1, with phylogenetic analyses suggesting diversity in established and circulating strains of pigeon paramyxoviruses. Our isolates are also domestic reference strains for future APMV-1 vaccine developments. Future surveillance in this region may contribute to our understanding of APMV-1's evolution and genetic diversity, as well as inform poultry husbandry and vaccination practices in New York State.


Assuntos
Avulavirus , Doença de Newcastle , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Avulavirus/genética , Columbidae , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Doença de Newcastle/epidemiologia , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/genética , Filogenia , Aves Domésticas , Estados Unidos
15.
EClinicalMedicine ; 45: 101323, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35284808

RESUMO

Background: Production of affordable coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines in low- and middle-income countries is needed. NDV-HXP-S is an inactivated egg-based recombinant Newcastle disease virus vaccine expressing the spike (S) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It's being developed by public sector manufacturers in Thailand, Vietnam, and Brazil; herein are initial results from Thailand. Methods: This phase 1 stage of a randomised, dose-escalation, observer-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1/2 trial was conducted at the Vaccine Trial Centre, Mahidol University (Bangkok). Healthy males and non-pregnant females, aged 18-59 years and negative for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, were eligible. Participants were randomised to receive one of six treatments by intramuscular injection twice, 28 days apart: 1 µg, 1 µg+CpG1018 (a toll-like receptor 9 agonist), 3 µg, 3 µg+CpG1018, 10 µg, or placebo. Participants and personnel assessing outcomes were masked to treatment. The primary outcomes were solicited and spontaneously reported adverse events (AEs) during 7 and 28 days after each vaccination, respectively. Secondary outcomes were immunogenicity measures (anti-S IgG and pseudotyped virus neutralisation). An interim analysis assessed safety at day 57 in treatment-exposed individuals and immunogenicity through day 43 per protocol. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04764422). Findings: Between March 20 and April 23, 2021, 377 individuals were screened and 210 were enroled (35 per group); all received dose one; five missed dose two. The most common solicited AEs among vaccinees, all predominantly mild, were injection site pain (<63%), fatigue (<35%), headache (<32%), and myalgia (<32%). The proportion reporting a vaccine-related AE ranged from 5·7% to 17·1% among vaccine groups and was 2·9% in controls; there was no vaccine-related serious adverse event. The 10 µg formulation's immunogenicity ranked best, followed by 3 µg+CpG1018, 3 µg, 1 µg+CpG1018, and 1 µg formulations. On day 43, the geometric mean concentrations of 50% neutralising antibody ranged from 122·23 international units per mL (IU/mL; 1 µg, 95% confidence interval (CI) 86·40-172·91) to 474·35 IU/mL (10 µg, 95% CI 320·90-701·19), with 93·9% to 100% of vaccine groups attaining a ≥ 4-fold increase over baseline. Interpretation: NDV-HXP-S had an acceptable safety profile and potent immunogenicity. The 3 µg and 3 µg+CpG1018 formulations advanced to phase 2. Funding: National Vaccine Institute (Thailand), National Research Council (Thailand), Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, National Institutes of Health (USA).

16.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 612, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35105889

RESUMO

We study the real-life effect of an unprecedented rapid mass vaccination campaign. Following a large outbreak of the Beta variant in the district of Schwaz/Austria, 100,000 doses of BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech) were procured to mass vaccinate the entire adult population of the district between the 11th and 16th of March 2021. This made the district the first widely inoculated region in Europe. We examine the effect of this campaign on the number of infections, cases of variants of concern, hospital and ICU admissions. We compare Schwaz with (i) a control group of highly similar districts, and (ii) with populations residing in municipalities along the border of Schwaz which were just excluded from the campaign. We find large and significant decreases for all outcomes after the campaign. Our results suggest that rapid mass vaccination is an effective tool to curb the spread of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Áustria/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , COVID-19/virologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação em Massa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/genética
17.
Toxicol Pathol ; : 1926233211072767, 2022 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35128980

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in humans has a wide range of presentations, ranging from asymptomatic or mild symptoms to severe illness. Suitable animal models mimicking varying degrees of clinical disease manifestations could expedite development of therapeutics and vaccines for COVID-19. Here we demonstrate that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection resulted in subclinical disease in rhesus macaques with mild pneumonia and clinical disease in Syrian hamsters with severe pneumonia. SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed by formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistochemistry, or in situ hybridization. Replicating virus in the lungs was identified using in situ hybridization or virus plaque forming assays. Viral encephalitis, reported in some COVID-19 patients, was identified in one macaque and was confirmed with immunohistochemistry. There was no evidence of encephalitis in hamsters. Severity and distribution of lung inflammation were substantially more in hamsters compared with macaques and exhibited vascular changes and virus-induced cytopathic changes as seen in COVID-19 patients. Neither the hamster nor macaque models demonstrated evidence for multisystemic inflammatory syndrome (MIS). Data presented here demonstrate that macaques may be appropriate for mechanistic studies of mild asymptomatic COVID-19 pneumonia and COVID-19-associated encephalitis, whereas Syrian hamsters may be more suited to study severe COVID-19 pneumonia.

18.
medRxiv ; 2022 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35169806

RESUMO

There is still a need for safe, efficient and low-cost coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines that can stop transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Here we evaluated a vaccine candidate based on a live recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) that expresses a stable version of the spike protein in infected cells as well as on the surface of the viral particle (AVX/COVID-12-HEXAPRO, also known as NDV-HXP-S). This vaccine candidate can be grown in embryonated eggs at low cost similar to influenza virus vaccines and it can also be administered intranasally, potentially to induce mucosal immunity. We evaluated this vaccine candidate in prime-boost regimens via intramuscular, intranasal, or intranasal followed by intramuscular routes in an open label non-randomized non-placebo-controlled phase I clinical trial in Mexico in 91 volunteers. The primary objective of the trial was to assess vaccine safety and the secondary objective was to determine the immunogenicity of the different vaccine regimens. In the interim analysis reported here, the vaccine was found to be safe and the higher doses tested were found to be immunogenic when given intramuscularly or intranasally followed by intramuscular administration, providing the basis for further clinical development of the vaccine candidate. The study is registered under ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT04871737 . Funding was provided by Avimex and CONACYT.

19.
Front Immunol ; 13: 796481, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35197972

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19) pandemic has left researchers scrambling to identify the humoral immune correlates of protection from COVID-19. To date, the antibody mediated correlates of virus neutralization have been extensively studied. However, the extent that non-neutralizing functions contribute to anti-viral responses are ill defined. In this study, we profiled the anti-spike antibody subtype/subclass responses, along with neutralization and antibody-dependent natural killer cell functions in 83 blood samples collected between 4 and 201 days post-symptoms onset from a cohort of COVID-19 outpatients. We observed heterogeneous humoral responses against the acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein. Overall, anti-spike profiles were characterized by a rapid rise of IgA and sustained IgG titers. In addition, strong antibody-mediated natural killer effector responses correlated with milder disease and being female. While higher neutralization profiles were observed in males along with increased severity. These results give an insight into the underlying function of antibodies beyond neutralization and suggest that antibody-mediated natural killer cell activity is a key function of the humoral response against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Convalescença , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/sangue , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo
20.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35199825

RESUMO

The most effective measure to induce protection from influenza is vaccination. Thus, yearly vaccination is recommended, which, together with infections, establishes diverse repertoires of B cells, antibodies and T cells. Here, we examined the impact of this accumulated immunity on human responses of adults to split, subunit and recombinant protein-based influenza vaccines. ELISA assays, used to quantify serum antibodies and peptide-stimulated CD4 T cell cytokine ELISpots, revealed that pre-existing levels of HA-specific antibodies were negatively associated with gains in antibody post-vaccination, while pre-existing levels of CD4 T cells were negatively correlated with vaccine-induced expansion of CD4 T cells. These patterns were seen independently of the vaccine formulation administered and the subjects' influenza vaccine history. Thus, although memory CD4 T cells and serum antibodies consist of components that can enhance vaccine responses, on balance, the accumulated immunity specific for influenza A H1 and H3 proteins is associated with diminished future responses.

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