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1.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453204

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate associations of omega-3 fatty acid (O3-FA) blood levels with cardiometabolic risk markers, functional capacity and cardiac function/morphology in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). BACKGROUND: O3-FA have been linked to reduced risk for HF and associated phenotypic traits in experimental/clinical studies. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Aldo-DHF-RCT. From 422 patients, the omega-3-index (O3I = EPA + DHA) was analyzed at baseline in n = 404 using the HS-Omega-3-Index® methodology. Patient characteristics were; 67 ± 8 years, 53% female, NYHA II/III (87/13%), ejection fraction ≥ 50%, E/e' 7.1 ± 1.5; median NT-proBNP 158 ng/L (IQR 82-298). Pearson's correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression analyses, using sex and age as covariates, were used to describe associations of the O3I with metabolic phenotype, functional capacity, echocardiographic markers for LVDF, and neurohumoral activation at baseline/12 months. RESULTS: The O3I was below (< 8%), within (8-11%), and higher (> 11%) than the target range in 374 (93%), 29 (7%), and 1 (0.2%) patients, respectively. Mean O3I was 5.7 ± 1.7%. The O3I was inversely associated with HbA1c (r = - 0.139, p = 0.006), triglycerides-to-HDL-C ratio (r = - 0.12, p = 0.017), triglycerides (r = - 0.117, p = 0.02), non-HDL-C (r = - 0.101, p = 0.044), body-mass-index (r = - 0.149, p = 0.003), waist circumference (r = - 0.121, p = 0.015), waist-to-height ratio (r = - 0.141, p = 0.005), and positively associated with submaximal aerobic capacity (r = 0.113, p = 0.023) and LVEF (r = 0.211, p < 0.001) at baseline. Higher O3I at baseline was predictive of submaximal aerobic capacity (ß = 15.614, p < 0,001), maximal aerobic capacity (ß = 0.399, p = 0.005) and LVEF (ß = 0.698, p = 0.007) at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Higher O3I was associated with a more favorable cardiometabolic risk profile and predictive of higher submaximal/maximal aerobic capacity and lower BMI/truncal adiposity in HFpEF patients. Omega-3 fatty acid blood levels are inversely associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in HFpEF patients. Higher O3I was associated with a more favorable cardiometabolic risk profile and aerobic capacity (left) but did not correlate with echocardiographic markers for left ventricular diastolic function or neurohumoral activation (right). An O3I-driven intervention trial might be warranted to answer the question whether O3-FA in therapeutic doses (with the target O3I 8-11%) impact on echocardiographic markers for left ventricular diastolic function and neurohumoral activation in patients with HFpEF. This figure contains modified images from Servier Medical Art ( https://smart.servier.com ) licensed by a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.

2.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932255

RESUMO

AIMS: Viral-induced cardiac inflammation can induce heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF)-like syndromes. COVID-19 can lead to myocardial damage and vascular injury. We hypothesised that COVID-19 patients frequently develop a HFpEF-like syndrome, and designed this study to explore this. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cardiac function was assessed in 64 consecutive, hospitalized, and clinically stable COVID-19 patients from April-November 2020 with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥50% (age 56 ± 19 years, females: 31%, severe COVID-19 disease: 69%). To investigate likelihood of HFpEF presence, we used the HFA-PEFF score. A low (0-1 points), intermediate (2-4 points), and high (5-6 points) HFA-PEFF score was observed in 42%, 33%, and 25% of patients, respectively. In comparison, 64 subjects of similar age, sex, and comorbidity status without COVID-19 showed these scores in 30%, 66%, and 4%, respectively (between groups: P = 0.0002). High HFA-PEFF scores were more frequent in COVID-19 patients than controls (25% vs. 4%, P = 0.001). In COVID-19 patients, the HFA-PEFF score significantly correlated with age, estimated glomerular filtration rate, high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT), haemoglobin, QTc interval, LVEF, mitral E/A ratio, and H2 FPEF score (all P < 0.05). In multivariate, ordinal regression analyses, higher age and hsTnT were significant predictors of increased HFA-PEFF scores. Patients with myocardial injury (hsTnT ≥14 ng/L: 31%) vs. patients without myocardial injury, showed higher HFA-PEFF scores [median 5 (interquartile range 3-6) vs. 1 (0-3), P < 0.001] and more often showed left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (75% vs. 27%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Hospitalized COVID-19 patients frequently show high likelihood of presence of HFpEF that is associated with cardiac structural and functional alterations, and myocardial injury. Detailed cardiac assessments including echocardiographic determination of left ventricular diastolic function and biomarkers should become routine in the care of hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800392

RESUMO

Briefly before the first peak of the COVID-19 pandemic in Berlin, Germany, schools closed in mid-March 2020. Following re-opening, schools resumed operation at a reduced level for nine weeks. During this phase, we aimed at assessing, among students and teachers, infection status, symptoms, individual behaviour, and institutional infection prevention measures. Twenty-four primary and secondary school classes, randomly selected across Berlin, were examined. Oro-nasopharyngeal swabs and capillary blood samples were collected to determine SARS-CoV-2 infection (PCR) and specific IgG (ELISA), respectively. Medical history, household characteristics, leisure activities, fear of infection, risk perception, hand hygiene, facemask wearing, and institutional preventive measures were assessed. Descriptive analysis was performed. Among 535 participants (385 students, 150 staff), one teenager was found to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 (0.2%), and seven individuals exhibited specific IgG (1.3%). Compared to pre-pandemic times, screen time (e.g., TV, gaming, social media) increased, and the majority of primary school students reported reduced physical activity (42.2%). Fear of infection and risk perception were relatively low, acceptance of adapted health behaviors was high. In this post-lockdown period of low SARS-CoV-2 incidence in Berlin, individual and school-level infection prevention measures were largely adhered to. Nevertheless, vigilance and continued preventive measures are essential to cope with future pandemic activity.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescente , Berlim , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Percepção , Instituições Acadêmicas
4.
J Hepatocell Carcinoma ; 8: 133-143, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777855

RESUMO

Purpose: The impact of acute rejection (AR) after liver transplantation (LT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on patient outcome is uncertain. This aim of this study is to investigate whether AR is associated with HCC relapse and overall survival. Patients and Methods: Patients undergoing LT for HCC between 2001 and 2015 were retrospectively analyzed with regard to histopathological proven AR within the median time until recurrence. Cox's regression analysis was conducted revealing risk factors for HCC recurrence. Results: HCC recurred in 47 of 252 analyzed patients with a median time to recurrence of 20 months. Patients with AR (28.6%) had a significantly higher frequency of recurrence compared to patients without AR (13.0%, p=0.002). Multiple Cox regression analyses identified AR within 20 months to be an independent risk factor for HCC recurrence both as dichotomized (HR=2.91, 95%CI: 1.30-6.53; p=0.009) and as a continuous variable (HR=1.81, 95%CI: 1.28-2.54; p=0.001). HCC recurrence and AR were associated with higher grades of liver fibrosis one year after LT, when compared to patients without AR (p=0.019). Conclusion: Our results demonstrate an association of AR with HCC recurrence after LT with implications for intervals of monitoring in tumor surveillance. Graft fibrosis and immune mechanisms are potentially related and causal interactions are worth further investigation.

5.
Crit Care Med ; 49(2): e120-e129, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323749

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Intracranial hemorrhage is a serious complication in patients receiving venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation during treatment of the acute respiratory distress syndrome. We analyzed timing, outcome, and risk factors of intracranial hemorrhage in patients on venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Single acute respiratory distress syndrome referral center. PATIENTS: Patients receiving venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were identified from a cohort of 1,044 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Patients developing an intracranial hemorrhage during venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy were compared with patients without evidence for intracranial hemorrhage. The primary objective was to assess the association of intracranial hemorrhage with 60-day mortality. Further objectives included the identification of risk factors for intracranial hemorrhage and the evaluation of clinical cutoff values. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Among 444 patients treated with venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, 49 patients (11.0% [95% CI, 8.3-14.4%]) developed an intracranial hemorrhage. The median time to intracranial hemorrhage occurrence was 4 days (95% CI, 2-7 d). Patients who developed an intracranial hemorrhage had a higher 60-day mortality compared with patients without intracranial hemorrhage (69.4% [54.4-81.3%] vs 44.6% [39.6-49.6%]; odds ratio 3.05 [95% CI, 1.54-6.32%]; p = 0.001). A low platelet count, a high positive end expiratory pressure, and a major initial decrease of Paco2 were identified as independent risk factors for the occurrence of intracranial hemorrhage. A platelet count greater than 100/nL and a positive end expiratory pressure less than or equal to 14 cm H2O during the first 7 days of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy as well as a decrease of Paco2 less than 24 mm Hg during venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation initiation were identified as clinical cutoff values to prevent intracranial hemorrhage (sensitivity 91% [95% CI, 82-99%], 94% [85-99%], and 67% [48-81%], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Intracranial hemorrhage occurs early during venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and is a determinant for 60-day mortality. Appropriate adjustment of identified modifiable risk factors might lower the prevalence of intracranial hemorrhage during venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/efeitos adversos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Hemorragias Intracranianas/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
6.
Infection ; 48(4): 619-626, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535877

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide causing a global health emergency. Pa-COVID-19 aims to provide comprehensive data on clinical course, pathophysiology, immunology and outcome of COVID-19, to identify prognostic biomarkers, clinical scores, and therapeutic targets for improved clinical management and preventive interventions. METHODS: Pa-COVID-19 is a prospective observational cohort study of patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection treated at Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin. We collect data on epidemiology, demography, medical history, symptoms, clinical course, and pathogen testing and treatment. Systematic, serial blood sampling will allow deep molecular and immunological phenotyping, transcriptomic profiling, and comprehensive biobanking. Longitudinal data and sample collection during hospitalization will be supplemented by long-term follow-up. RESULTS: Outcome measures include the WHO clinical ordinal scale on day 15 and clinical, functional, and health-related quality-of-life assessments at discharge and during follow-up. We developed a scalable dataset to (i) suit national standards of care, (ii) facilitate comprehensive data collection in medical care facilities with varying resources, and (iii) allow for rapid implementation of interventional trials based on the standardized study design and data collection. We propose this scalable protocol as blueprint for harmonized data collection and deep phenotyping in COVID-19 in Germany. CONCLUSION: We established a basic platform for harmonized, scalable data collection, pathophysiological analysis, and deep phenotyping of COVID-19, which enables rapid generation of evidence for improved medical care and identification of candidate therapeutic and preventive strategies. The electronic database accredited for interventional trials allows fast trial implementation for candidate therapeutic agents. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered at the German registry for clinical studies (DRKS00021688).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Sistema de Registros , Berlim/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Pandemias , Fenótipo , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Organização Mundial da Saúde
7.
Nat Biotechnol ; 38(8): 970-979, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591762

RESUMO

To investigate the immune response and mechanisms associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we performed single-cell RNA sequencing on nasopharyngeal and bronchial samples from 19 clinically well-characterized patients with moderate or critical disease and from five healthy controls. We identified airway epithelial cell types and states vulnerable to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In patients with COVID-19, epithelial cells showed an average three-fold increase in expression of the SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2, which correlated with interferon signals by immune cells. Compared to moderate cases, critical cases exhibited stronger interactions between epithelial and immune cells, as indicated by ligand-receptor expression profiles, and activated immune cells, including inflammatory macrophages expressing CCL2, CCL3, CCL20, CXCL1, CXCL3, CXCL10, IL8, IL1B and TNF. The transcriptional differences in critical cases compared to moderate cases likely contribute to clinical observations of heightened inflammatory tissue damage, lung injury and respiratory failure. Our data suggest that pharmacologic inhibition of the CCR1 and/or CCR5 pathways might suppress immune hyperactivation in critical COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Sistema Respiratório/patologia , Análise de Célula Única , Transcriptoma , Adulto , Idoso , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/virologia , COVID-19 , Comunicação Celular , Diferenciação Celular , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/patologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sistema Respiratório/imunologia , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
8.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(4): 1442-1451, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462801

RESUMO

AIMS: The alarmin S100A8/S100A9 (S100A8/A9) is released by activated monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils in the setting lymphocytic myocarditis (MC). We recently demonstrated its therapeutic potential in experimental acute MC. Now, we investigated the diagnostic relevance of S100A8/A9 serum levels in patients with suspected acute and chronic MC and in patients with heart failure without cardiac inflammation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Serum S100A8/A9 levels were analysed in patients with a recent onset of MC [≤ 30 days, n = 32; ejection fraction (EF): 45.4 ± 12.9%], dilated cardiomyopathy patients with inflammation (n = 112; EF: 29.0 ± 11.4%), or without inflammation (n = 58; EF: 26.6 ± 9.3%), and controls (n = 25; EF: 68.5 ± 4.6%), by using specific ELISAs. Blood samples were collected at Time Point 1 (T1), where also endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs) were withdrawn. Patients with a recent onset of MC showed a 4.6-fold increase in serum S100A8/A9 levels vs. controls (MC: 1948 ± 1670 ng/mL vs. controls: 426 ± 307 ng/mL; P < 0.0001). Serum S100A8/A9 correlated with the disease activity, represented by EMB-derived counts of inflammatory cells (CD3: r = 0.486, P = 0.0047, lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1: r = 0.558, P = 0.0009, macrophage-1 antigen: r = 0.434, P = 0.013), the EMB mRNA levels of S100A8, S100A9 (r = 0.541, P = 0.002), and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF: r = 0.498, P = 0.0043). EMB immunofluorescence co-stainings display macrophages/monocytes and neutrophils as the main source of S100A8 and S100A9 in recent onset MC. The diagnostic value of serum alarmin levels (cut-off 583 ng/mL) was characterized by a specificity of 92%, a sensitivity of 90.6%, positive predictive value of 93.5%, negative predictive value of 88.5%, and an accuracy of 0.949 (95% confidence interval [0.89-1]). In a subgroup of MC patients, S100A8/A9 serum levels and EMBs at T1 (n = 12) and a follow-up visit (T2, n = 12, mean follow-up 8.5 months) were available. A fall of serum S100A8/A9 (T1: 2208 ± 1843 ng/mL vs. T2: 888.8 ± 513.7 ng/mL; P = 0.00052) was associated with a reduced cardiac inflammation (CD3 T1: 70.02 ± 107.4 cells per square millimetre vs. T2: 59.18 ± 182.5 cells per square millimetre; P = 0.0342, lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 T1: 133.5 ± 187.1 cells per square millimetre vs. T2: 74.12 ± 190.5 cells per square millimetre; P = 0.0186, and macrophage-1 antigen T1: 132.6 ± 129.5 cells per square millimetre vs. T2: 54.41 ± 65.16 cells per square millimetre; P = 0.0015). Serum S100A8/A9 levels were only slightly increased in patients within the chronic phase of MC and in heart failure patients without inflammation vs. controls. CONCLUSIONS: Serum S100A8/A9 might serve as an additional tool in the diagnostic workup of suspected acute MC patients.


Assuntos
Alarminas , Miocardite , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Miocardite/diagnóstico , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
9.
Transfusion ; 59(12): 3589-3600, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allogeneic red blood cells (RBCs) have the potential to impact the immunosurveillance of the recipient and may therefore increase the risk of recurrence after cancer surgery. In this article the relationship between perioperative RBC transfusion and the risk of recurrence after ovarian cancer surgery is examined. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort analysis of a prospective database of patients who underwent surgery due to primary ovarian cancer between 2006 and 2014 and who had no residual disease after surgery. Patients who did and did not receive perioperative RBC transfusion were compared. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Propensity score matching (PSM) and Cox proportional hazards regression (CPH) was used to control for between-group differences of prognostic determinants. RESULTS: A total of 529 patients with a median follow-up of 51.4 months (95% CI, 46.1-56.5) were eligible for analysis. Of those, 408 patients (77.1%) received allogeneic, leukoreduced RBCs with a median of 4 units (IQR, 2-6) per patient. There was a strong selection bias of prognostic determinants between patients with and without transfusion. In unadjusted analysis, transfusion of RBCs was associated with an increased risk of cancer recurrence (hazard ratio [HR] of PFS 2.71 [95% CI, 1.94-3.77], p < 0.001). After bias reduction, transfusion of RBCs was no longer associated with an increased risk of cancer recurrence, neither in PSM-adjusted (HR 1.03 [95% CI, 0.59-1.80], p = 0.91), nor in multivariable CPH-adjusted analysis (HR 1.26 [95% CI, 0.85-1.86], p = 0.23). CONCLUSION: Perioperative transfusion of RBCs did not increase the risk of recurrence after ovarian cancer surgery.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/microbiologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia , Adulto , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Transfusão de Eritrócitos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Resuscitation ; 144: 54-59, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557520

RESUMO

AIM: Glutamine and glutamate are major mediators of secondary brain cell death during post-cardiac arrest syndrome. As there is an equilibrium between brain tissue and plasma concentrations of glutamine and glutamate, their elimination from systemic circulation by extracorporeal blood purification may ultimately lead to reduced secondary cell death in the brain. We hypothesized that systemic glutamine and glutamate can be significantly reduced by continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF). METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized clinical trial in post cardiac-arrest survivors evaluating standard of care or additional CVVHDF over 72 h immediately after admission. Glutamine and glutamate plasma concentrations were analyzed at eight time points in both groups. Primary endpoint was reduction of glutamine and glutamate plasma concentrations. The trial has been registered at clinical trial.gov (NCT02963298). RESULTS: In total, 41 patients were randomized over a period of 12 months (control n = 21, CVVHDF n = 20). The primary aim reduction of glutamine and glutamate plasma concentrations by CVVHDF, was not achieved; both groups-maintained concentrations within a normal range over the study period (glutamate: 4.7-11.1 mg/dL; glutamine: 0.2-3.7 mg/dL). However, post-filter concentrations of glutamine and glutamate in CRRT patients were significantly decreased as compared to pre-filter concentrations (glutamate: pre-filter median 8.85 mg/dL IQR 7.1-9.6; post-filter 0.95 mg/dL IQR 0.5-2; p < 0.001; glutamine: pre-filter 0.7 mg/dL IQR 0.6-1; post-filter 0.2 mg/dL IQR 0-0.2; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In this trial, CVVHDF was not able to statistically significantly lower systemic plasma glutamine and glutamate levels. Post-cardiac arrest patients had plasma glutamine and glutamate levels within the normal range.


Assuntos
Terapia de Substituição Renal Contínua , Ácido Glutâmico/sangue , Glutamina/sangue , Síndrome Pós-Parada Cardíaca/sangue , Síndrome Pós-Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Síndrome Pós-Parada Cardíaca/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Crit Care Med ; 47(8): e710-e716, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306259

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Recent research has demonstrated value in selected therapeutic and prognostic interventions delivered to patients following cardiac arrest. The aim of this work was to determine if the implementation of a structured care pathway, which combines different interventions, could improve outcomes in survivors of cardiac arrest. DATA SOURCES: PubMed and review of citations in retrieved articles. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized trials and prospective observational studies conducted in adult cardiac arrest patients, which evaluated the impact on outcome of a structured care pathway, defined as an organized set of interventions designed specifically for postcardiac arrest patients. DATA EXTRACTION: Data collected included study characteristics and methodologic quality, populations enrolled, interventions that were part of the cardiac arrest structured care pathway, and outcomes. The principal outcome was favorable functional status defined as a Cerebral Performance Category score of 1-2 at or after hospital discharge. DATA SYNTHESIS: The systematic search retrieved 481 articles of which nine (total, 1,994 patients) were selected for systematic review, and six (1,422 patients) met criteria for meta-analysis. Interventions in the care pathways included early coronary angiography with or without percutaneous coronary intervention (eight studies), targeted temperature management (nine studies), and protocolized management in the ICU (seven studies). Neurologic prognostication was not a part of any of the structured pathways. Meta-analysis found significantly higher odds of achieving a favorable functional outcome in patients who were treated in a structured care pathway, when compared with standard care (odds ratio, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.46-3.81). CONCLUSIONS: Following cardiac arrest, patients treated in a structured care pathway may have a substantially higher likelihood of favorable functional outcome than those who receive standard care. These findings suggest benefit of a highly organized approach to postcardiac arrest care, in which a cluster of evidence-based interventions are delivered by a specialized interdisciplinary team. Given the overall low certainty of evidence, definitive recommendations will need confirmation in additional high-quality studies.


Assuntos
Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Terminal/reabilitação , Procedimentos Clínicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Gerenciamento Clínico , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Prognóstico , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
12.
Circulation ; 139(11): 1407-1421, 2019 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arterial hypertension and its organ sequelae show characteristics of T cell-mediated inflammatory diseases. Experimental anti-inflammatory therapies have been shown to ameliorate hypertensive end-organ damage. Recently, the CANTOS study (Canakinumab Antiinflammatory Thrombosis Outcome Study) targeting interleukin-1ß demonstrated that anti-inflammatory therapy reduces cardiovascular risk. The gut microbiome plays a pivotal role in immune homeostasis and cardiovascular health. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are produced from dietary fiber by gut bacteria and affect host immune homeostasis. Here, we investigated effects of the SCFA propionate in 2 different mouse models of hypertensive cardiovascular damage. METHODS: To investigate the effect of SCFAs on hypertensive cardiac damage and atherosclerosis, wild-type NMRI or apolipoprotein E knockout-deficient mice received propionate (200 mmol/L) or control in the drinking water. To induce hypertension, wild-type NMRI mice were infused with angiotensin II (1.44 mg·kg-1·d-1 subcutaneous) for 14 days. To accelerate the development of atherosclerosis, apolipoprotein E knockout mice were infused with angiotensin II (0.72 mg·kg-1·d-1 subcutaneous) for 28 days. Cardiac damage and atherosclerosis were assessed using histology, echocardiography, in vivo electrophysiology, immunofluorescence, and flow cytometry. Blood pressure was measured by radiotelemetry. Regulatory T cell depletion using PC61 antibody was used to examine the mode of action of propionate. RESULTS: Propionate significantly attenuated cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, vascular dysfunction, and hypertension in both models. Susceptibility to cardiac ventricular arrhythmias was significantly reduced in propionate-treated angiotensin II-infused wild-type NMRI mice. Aortic atherosclerotic lesion area was significantly decreased in propionate-treated apolipoprotein E knockout-deficient mice. Systemic inflammation was mitigated by propionate treatment, quantified as a reduction in splenic effector memory T cell frequencies and splenic T helper 17 cells in both models, and a decrease in local cardiac immune cell infiltration in wild-type NMRI mice. Cardioprotective effects of propionate were abrogated in regulatory T cell-depleted angiotensin II-infused mice, suggesting the effect is regulatory T cell-dependent. CONCLUSIONS: Our data emphasize an immune-modulatory role of SCFAs and their importance for cardiovascular health. The data suggest that lifestyle modifications leading to augmented SCFA production could be a beneficial nonpharmacological preventive strategy for patients with hypertensive cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Doenças da Aorta/tratamento farmacológico , Arritmias Cardíacas/prevenção & controle , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiomegalia/prevenção & controle , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Propionatos/farmacologia , Angiotensina II , Animais , Doenças da Aorta/genética , Doenças da Aorta/imunologia , Doenças da Aorta/patologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/imunologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Pressão Arterial/efeitos dos fármacos , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/imunologia , Aterosclerose/patologia , Cardiomegalia/imunologia , Cardiomegalia/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/imunologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE , Placa Aterosclerótica , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th17/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th17/imunologia
13.
Transfusion ; 58(8): 1870-1880, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29665067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After transfusion of senescent red blood cells (RBCs) a considerable fraction is rapidly cleared from the recipients' circulation. Thus, transfusion of senescent RBCs may be less effective in terms of increasing hemoglobin concentration (cHb) after transfusion. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were retrospectively obtained in patients who underwent major abdominal surgery between 2006 and 2012. Patients were eligible if they received RBCs during surgery and had at least two arterial blood gas analyses performed. The primary endpoint was the increase of recipients' cHb related to the transfusion of 1 unit of RBCs with respect to different storage periods. Four storage periods were defined according to the distribution of RBC storage of the study population. General estimating equation was used for calculation of the primary endpoint and to adjust for confounding variables. RESULTS: A total of 598 arterial blood gas samples from 120 patients, receiving 429 RBC units, were analyzed. Mean (±SD) RBC storage was 21 (±9) days. RBC storage duration and the increase in recipients' cHb were inversely and gradually related; that is, the older the RBCs, the lower the increase in the recipients' cHb after transfusion (storage < 12 days, ΔcHb per unit RBCs +0.82 [95% confidence interval, 0.42-1.21] g/dL, p < 0.01; storage 12-20 days, +0.66 [0.46-0.86] g/dL, p < 0.01; storage 21-29 days, +0.56 [0.33-0.79] g/dL, p < 0.01; storage ≥30 days, +0.39 [0.07 to 0.71] g/dL, p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Transfusion of senescent RBCs increased cHb less effectively than transfusion of fresher RBCs.


Assuntos
Preservação de Sangue , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/métodos , Envelhecimento Eritrocítico , Eritrócitos/química , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Abdome/cirurgia , Gasometria , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
14.
PLoS Genet ; 14(1): e1007171, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29320510

RESUMO

Adipose tissue lipolysis occurs during the development of heart failure as a consequence of chronic adrenergic stimulation. However, the impact of enhanced adipose triacylglycerol hydrolysis mediated by adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) on cardiac function is unclear. To investigate the role of adipose tissue lipolysis during heart failure, we generated mice with tissue-specific deletion of ATGL (atATGL-KO). atATGL-KO mice were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) to induce pressure-mediated cardiac failure. The cardiac mouse lipidome and the human plasma lipidome from healthy controls (n = 10) and patients with systolic heart failure (HFrEF, n = 13) were analyzed by MS-based shotgun lipidomics. TAC-induced increases in left ventricular mass (LVM) and diastolic LV inner diameter were significantly attenuated in atATGL-KO mice compared to wild type (wt) -mice. More importantly, atATGL-KO mice were protected against TAC-induced systolic LV failure. Perturbation of lipolysis in the adipose tissue of atATGL-KO mice resulted in the prevention of the major cardiac lipidome changes observed after TAC in wt-mice. Profound changes occurred in the lipid class of phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) in which multiple PE-species were markedly induced in failing wt-hearts, which was attenuated in atATGL-KO hearts. Moreover, selected heart failure-induced PE species in mouse hearts were also induced in plasma samples from patients with chronic heart failure. TAC-induced cardiac PE induction resulted in decreased PC/ PE-species ratios associated with increased apoptotic marker expression in failing wt-hearts, a process absent in atATGL-KO hearts. Perturbation of adipose tissue lipolysis by ATGL-deficiency ameliorated pressure-induced heart failure and the potentially deleterious cardiac lipidome changes that accompany this pathological process, namely the induction of specific PE species. Non-cardiac ATGL-mediated modulation of the cardiac lipidome may play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Lipase/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/genética , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Lipase/genética , Lipase/metabolismo , Masculino , Metaboloma/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/genética , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/metabolismo , Remodelação Ventricular
15.
Int J Hyperthermia ; 34(5): 512-517, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28679331

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the correlation between the peritoneal carcinomatosis index (PCI) and patient outcome depending on the tumour type. BACKGROUND: Peritoneal surface malignancy (PSM) treatment depends on tumour type. Mucinous PSM (m-PSM) is associated with a better prognosis than non-mucinous PSM (nm-PSM). The PCI's predictive ability has not yet been evaluated. METHODS: We analysed 123 patients with PSM treated with cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) between 2008 and 2015. The m-PSM group (n = 75) included patients with appendiceal cancer (n = 15), colorectal cancer (n = 21), or low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm (n = 39); the nm-PSM group (n = 48) included patients with gastric (n = 18) or colorectal (n = 30) cancer. The PCI's predictive ability was evaluated by multiple Cox-proportional hazard regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier curves. RESULTS: The 5-year survival and PCI were higher in m-PSM patients (67.0%; 20.5 ± 12.1) than in nm-PSM patients (32.6%; p = 0.013; 8.9 ± 6.0; p < 0.001). Colorectal nm-PSM patients with PCI ≥16 had a worse 2-year survival (25.0%) vs. patients with PCI <16 (79.1%; log rank = 0.009), but no significant effect was observed in patients with m-PSM (66.7% vs. 68.1%; p = 0.935). Underlying disease (HR 5.666-16.240), BMI (HR 1.109), and PCI (HR 1.068) significantly influenced overall survival in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: PCI is prognostic in nm-PSM, but not in m-PSM. CRS and HIPEC may benefit not only patients with low PCI, but also those with high PCI and m-PSM.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução/métodos , Hipertermia Induzida/métodos , Neoplasias Peritoneais/cirurgia , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Peritoneais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Peritoneais/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
16.
Cell Prolif ; 51(1)2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29110360

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Creation of functional, durable vasculature remains an important goal within the field of regenerative medicine. Engineered biological vasculature has the potential to restore or improve human tissue function. We hypothesized that the pleotropic effects of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) would enhance the engineering of capillary-like vasculature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The impact of IGF1 upon vasculogenesis was examined in in vitro cultures for a period of up to 40 days and as subcutaneous implants within immunodeficient mice. Co-cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in collagen-fibronectin hydrogels were supplemented with either recombinant IGF1 protein or genetically engineered cells to provide sustained IGF1. Morphometric analysis was performed on the vascular networks that formed in four concentrations of IGF1. RESULTS: IGF1 supplementation significantly enhanced de novo vasculogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. Effects were long-term as they lasted the duration of the study period, and included network density, vessel length, and diameter. Bifurcation density was not affected. However, the highest concentrations of IGF1 tested were either ineffective or even deleterious. Sustained IGF1 delivery was required in vivo as the inclusion of recombinant IGF1 protein had minimal impact. CONCLUSION: IGF1 supplementation can be used to produce neovasculature with significantly enhanced network density and durability. Its use is a promising methodology for engineering de novo vasculature to support regeneration of functional tissue.


Assuntos
Colágeno/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/farmacologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura/métodos , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Neovascularização Fisiológica/fisiologia , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos
17.
BMC Psychiatry ; 17(1): 417, 2017 12 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29284443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Readiness to change is a pivotal construct for psychotherapy research and a major target of motivational interventions. Our primary objective was to examine whether pre-treatment readiness to change moderated therapy effects of Bridging Intervention in Anesthesiology (BRIA), an innovative psychotherapy approach for surgical patients. This stepped care program aims at motivating and supporting surgical patients with mental disorders to engage in psychosocial mental health care. METHODS: The major steps of BRIA are two motivational interventions with different intensity. The first step of the program consists of preoperative computer-assisted psychosocial self-assessment including screening for psychological distress and automatically composed computerized brief written advice (BWA). In the second step, patients participate in postoperative psychotherapy sessions combining motivational interviewing with cognitive behavioural therapy (BRIA psychotherapy sessions). We performed regression-based moderator analyses on data from a recent randomized controlled trial published by our research group. The sample comprised 220 surgical patients with diverse comorbid mental disorders according to ICD-10. The most frequent disorders were mood, anxiety, substance use and adjustment disorders. The patients had a mean age of 43.31 years, and 60.90% were women. In a regression model adjusted for pre-treatment psychological distress, we investigated whether readiness to change moderated outcome differences between (1) the BRIA psychotherapy sessions and (2) no psychotherapy / BWA only. RESULTS: Multiple regression analyses showed that readiness to change moderated treatment effects regarding the primary outcomes "Participation in psychosocial mental health care options at month 6" (p = 0.03) and "Having approached psychosocial mental health care options at month 6" (p = 0.048) but not regarding the secondary outcome "Change of general psychological distress between baseline assessment and month 6" (p = 0.329). Probing the moderation effect with the Johnson-Neyman technique revealed that BRIA psychotherapy sessions were superior to BWA in patients with low to moderate readiness, but not in those with high readiness. CONCLUSIONS: Readiness to change may act as moderator of the efficacy of psychosocial therapy. Combinations of motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioural therapy may be effective particularly in patients with a variety of mental disorders and low readiness to change. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01357694.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Entrevista Motivacional/métodos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Psicoterapia Breve/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Análise de Regressão , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Nature ; 551(7682): 585-589, 2017 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29143823

RESUMO

A Western lifestyle with high salt consumption can lead to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. High salt may additionally drive autoimmunity by inducing T helper 17 (TH17) cells, which can also contribute to hypertension. Induction of TH17 cells depends on gut microbiota; however, the effect of salt on the gut microbiome is unknown. Here we show that high salt intake affects the gut microbiome in mice, particularly by depleting Lactobacillus murinus. Consequently, treatment of mice with L. murinus prevented salt-induced aggravation of actively induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and salt-sensitive hypertension by modulating TH17 cells. In line with these findings, a moderate high-salt challenge in a pilot study in humans reduced intestinal survival of Lactobacillus spp., increased TH17 cells and increased blood pressure. Our results connect high salt intake to the gut-immune axis and highlight the gut microbiome as a potential therapeutic target to counteract salt-sensitive conditions.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Células Th17/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th17/imunologia , Animais , Autoimunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/microbiologia , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/patologia , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/terapia , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Indóis/metabolismo , Intestinos/citologia , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/imunologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Lactobacillus/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Camundongos , Projetos Piloto , Cloreto de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Simbiose , Células Th17/citologia , Triptofano/metabolismo
19.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 30(12): 1239-1250.e2, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29066223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The subendocardium is highly vulnerable to damage and is thus affected even in subclinical disease stages. Therefore, methods reflecting subendocardial status are of great clinical relevance for the early detection of cardiac damage and the prevention of functional impairment. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential ability of myocardial strain parameters to evaluate changes within the subendocardium. METHODS: Male 129/Sv mice were injected with isoproterenol (ISO; n = 32) to induce isolated subendocardial fibrotic lesions or saline as appropriate control (n = 15). Transthoracic echocardiography was performed using a 30-MHz linear-frequency transducer coupled to a high-resolution imaging system, and acquired images were analyzed for conventional and strain parameters. The degree of collagen content within the different cardiac layers was quantified by histologic analysis and serum levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, a biomarker for fibrosis, were assessed. RESULTS: ISO treatment induced a marked increase in subendocardial collagen content in response to cell loss (control vs ISO, 0.6 ± 0.3% vs 5.8 ± 0.9%; P < .001) and resulted in a moderate increase in left ventricular wall thickness with preserved systolic function. Global longitudinal peak strain (LS) and longitudinal strain rate were significantly decreased in ISO-treated animals (LS, -15.49% vs -11.49% [P = .001]; longitudinal strain rate, -4.81 vs -3.88 sec-1 [P < .05]), whereas radial and circumferential strain values remained unchanged. Global LS was associated with subendocardial collagen content (r = 0.46, P = .01) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 serum level (r = 0.52, P < .05). Further statistical analyses identified global LS as a superior predictor for the presence of subendocardial fibrosis (sensitivity, 84%; specificity, 80%; cutoff value, -14.4%). CONCLUSION: Assessment of LS may provide a noninvasive method for the detection of subendocardial damage and may consequently improve early diagnosis of cardiac diseases.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia/métodos , Endocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
Mol Clin Oncol ; 7(1): 151-157, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28685095

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and toxicity of docetaxel with 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin as combination treatment in patients with curable or metastatic/recurrent head and neck cancer by a retrospective cohort study of patients treated at a single institution between 2007 and 2012. Patients with locally advanced, metastatic and/or recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN), who were treated with a combination therapy including docetaxel, were considered as eligible. Survival data, clinical side effects, quality of life (QoL) and toxicity profile were retrieved from patient charts, analyzed and scored according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria, version 4, and the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors, version 1.1. An overall response rate of 86% and a 3-year survival of 65.1% were observed. The median progression-free survival was 32 months. The cumulative incidence after 3 years was 16.9% for local recurrence and 10.4% for distant metastasis. Leukopenia (58%) and anemia (51%) were the most common hematological toxicities, followed by hepatotoxicity (53%) and nausea (27%). A total of 31% of the patients experienced a compromise in their QoL following therapy completion. In conclusion, docetaxel in combination with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil was found to effectively prolong survival in patients with locally advanced and/or recurrent metastatic SCCHN. The overall survival, progression-free survival and response rates were in accordance with those reported by previous clinical trials. Therefore, this therapy protocol is recommended for patients with SCCHN in the curative as well as the palliative settings.

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