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1.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043588

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in the homologous and highly conserved genes-CREBBP and EP300-are causal for Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS). CREBBP and EP300 encode histone acetyltransferases (HAT) that act as transcriptional co-activators, and their haploinsufficiency causes the pathology characteristic of RSTS by interfering with global transcriptional regulation. Though generally a well-characterized syndrome, there is a clear phenotypic spectrum; rare associations have emerged with increasing diagnosis that is critical for comprehensive understanding of this rare syndrome. We present 12 unreported patients with RSTS found to have EP300 variants discovered through gene sequencing and chromosomal microarray. Our cohort highlights rare phenotypic features associated with EP300 variants, including imperforate anus, retained fetal finger pads, and spina bifida occulta. Our findings support the previously noted prevalence of pregnancy-related hypertension/preeclampsia seen with this disease. We additionally performed a meta-analysis on our newly reported 12 patients and 62 of the 90 previously reported patients. We demonstrated no statistically significant correlation between phenotype severity (within the domains of intellectual disability and major organ involvement, as defined in our Methods section) and variant location and type; this is in contrast to the conclusions of some smaller studies and highlights the importance of large patient cohorts in characterization of this rare disease.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(6): 830-845, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442410

RESUMO

SOX6 belongs to a family of 20 SRY-related HMG-box-containing (SOX) genes that encode transcription factors controlling cell fate and differentiation in many developmental and adult processes. For SOX6, these processes include, but are not limited to, neurogenesis and skeletogenesis. Variants in half of the SOX genes have been shown to cause severe developmental and adult syndromes, referred to as SOXopathies. We here provide evidence that SOX6 variants also cause a SOXopathy. Using clinical and genetic data, we identify 19 individuals harboring various types of SOX6 alterations and exhibiting developmental delay and/or intellectual disability; the individuals are from 17 unrelated families. Additional, inconstant features include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, mild facial dysmorphism, craniosynostosis, and multiple osteochondromas. All variants are heterozygous. Fourteen are de novo, one is inherited from a mosaic father, and four offspring from two families have a paternally inherited variant. Intragenic microdeletions, balanced structural rearrangements, frameshifts, and nonsense variants are predicted to inactivate the SOX6 variant allele. Four missense variants occur in residues and protein regions highly conserved evolutionarily. These variants are not detected in the gnomAD control cohort, and the amino acid substitutions are predicted to be damaging. Two of these variants are located in the HMG domain and abolish SOX6 transcriptional activity in vitro. No clear genotype-phenotype correlations are found. Taken together, these findings concur that SOX6 haploinsufficiency leads to a neurodevelopmental SOXopathy that often includes ADHD and abnormal skeletal and other features.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Craniossinostoses/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Osteocondroma/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOXD/genética , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Adolescente , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Encéfalo/embriologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Variação Estrutural do Genoma/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , RNA-Seq , Fatores de Transcrição SOXD/química , Fatores de Transcrição SOXD/metabolismo , Síndrome , Transcrição Genética , Transcriptoma , Translocação Genética/genética
3.
Pediatrics ; 145(3)2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102930

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing has revolutionized the diagnostic process, making broadscale testing affordable and applicable to almost all specialties; however, there remain several challenges in its widespread implementation. Barriers such as lack of infrastructure or expertise within local health systems and complex result interpretation or counseling make it harder for frontline clinicians to incorporate genomic testing in their existing workflow. The general population is more informed and interested in pursuing genetic testing, and this has been coupled with the increasing accessibility of direct-to-consumer testing. As a result of these changes, primary care physicians and nongenetics specialty providers find themselves seeing patients for whom genetic testing would be beneficial but managing genetic test results that are out of their scope of practice. In this report, we present a practical and centralized approach to providing genomic services through an independent, enterprise-wide clinical service model. We present 4 years of clinical experience, with >3400 referrals, toward designing and implementing the clinical service, maximizing resources, identifying barriers, and improving patient care. We provide a framework that can be implemented at other institutions to support and integrate genomic services across the enterprise.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Testes Genéticos , Pediatria , Criança , Genômica , Humanos
4.
Genet Med ; 22(5): 927-936, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911672

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Neurodevelopmental disorders represent a frequent indication for clinical exome sequencing. Fifty percent of cases, however, remain undiagnosed even upon exome reanalysis. Here we show RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) on human B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) is highly suitable for neurodevelopmental Mendelian gene testing and demonstrate the utility of this approach in suspected cases of Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS). METHODS: Genotype-Tissue Expression project transcriptome data for LCL, blood, and brain were assessed for neurodevelopmental Mendelian gene expression. Detection of abnormal splicing and pathogenic variants in these genes was performed with a novel RNA-seq diagnostic pipeline and using a validation CdLS-LCL cohort (n = 10) and test cohort of patients who carry a clinical diagnosis of CdLS but negative genetic testing (n = 5). RESULTS: LCLs share isoform diversity of brain tissue for a large subset of neurodevelopmental genes and express 1.8-fold more of these genes compared with blood (LCL, n = 1706; whole blood, n = 917). This enables testing of more than 1000 genetic syndromes. The RNA-seq pipeline had 90% sensitivity for detecting pathogenic events and revealed novel diagnoses such as abnormal splice products in NIPBL and pathogenic coding variants in BRD4 and ANKRD11. CONCLUSION: The LCL transcriptome enables robust frontline and/or reflexive diagnostic testing for neurodevelopmental disorders.

5.
Genet Med ; 22(2): 371-380, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481752

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Clinicians and researchers must contextualize a patient's genetic variants against population-based references with detailed phenotyping. We sought to establish globally scalable technology, policy, and procedures for sharing biosamples and associated genomic and phenotypic data on broadly consented cohorts, across sites of care. METHODS: Three of the nation's leading children's hospitals launched the Genomic Research and Innovation Network (GRIN), with federated information technology infrastructure, harmonized biobanking protocols, and material transfer agreements. Pilot studies in epilepsy and short stature were completed to design and test the collaboration model. RESULTS: Harmonized, broadly consented institutional review board (IRB) protocols were approved and used for biobank enrollment, creating ever-expanding, compatible biobanks. An open source federated query infrastructure was established over genotype-phenotype databases at the three hospitals. Investigators securely access the GRIN platform for prep to research queries, receiving aggregate counts of patients with particular phenotypes or genotypes in each biobank. With proper approvals, de-identified data is exported to a shared analytic workspace. Investigators at all sites enthusiastically collaborated on the pilot studies, resulting in multiple publications. Investigators have also begun to successfully utilize the infrastructure for grant applications. CONCLUSIONS: The GRIN collaboration establishes the technology, policy, and procedures for a scalable genomic research network.

7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 606-615, 2019 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474318

RESUMO

Cerebellar malformations are diverse congenital anomalies frequently associated with developmental disability. Although genetic and prenatal non-genetic causes have been described, no systematic analysis has been performed. Here, we present a large-exome sequencing study of Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) and cerebellar hypoplasia (CBLH). We performed exome sequencing in 282 individuals from 100 families with DWM or CBLH, and we established a molecular diagnosis in 36 of 100 families, with a significantly higher yield for CBLH (51%) than for DWM (16%). The 41 variants impact 27 neurodevelopmental-disorder-associated genes, thus demonstrating that CBLH and DWM are often features of monogenic neurodevelopmental disorders. Though only seven monogenic causes (19%) were identified in more than one individual, neuroimaging review of 131 additional individuals confirmed cerebellar abnormalities in 23 of 27 genetic disorders (85%). Prenatal risk factors were frequently found among individuals without a genetic diagnosis (30 of 64 individuals [47%]). Single-cell RNA sequencing of prenatal human cerebellar tissue revealed gene enrichment in neuronal and vascular cell types; this suggests that defective vasculogenesis may disrupt cerebellar development. Further, de novo gain-of-function variants in PDGFRB, a tyrosine kinase receptor essential for vascular progenitor signaling, were associated with CBLH, and this discovery links genetic and non-genetic etiologies. Our results suggest that genetic defects impact specific cerebellar cell types and implicate abnormal vascular development as a mechanism for cerebellar malformations. We also confirmed a major contribution for non-genetic prenatal factors in individuals with cerebellar abnormalities, substantially influencing diagnostic evaluation and counseling regarding recurrence risk and prognosis.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/anormalidades , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez
8.
Sci Adv ; 5(9): eaax2066, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517052

RESUMO

Neonatal heart failure is a rare, poorly-understood presentation of familial dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Exome sequencing in a neonate with severe DCM revealed a homozygous nonsense variant in leiomodin 2 (LMOD2, p.Trp398*). Leiomodins (Lmods) are actin-binding proteins that regulate actin filament assembly. While disease-causing mutations in smooth (LMOD1) and skeletal (LMOD3) muscle isoforms have been described, the cardiac (LMOD2) isoform has not been previously associated with human disease. Like our patient, Lmod2-null mice have severe early-onset DCM and die before weaning. The infant's explanted heart showed extraordinarily short thin filaments with isolated cardiomyocytes displaying a large reduction in maximum calcium-activated force production. The lack of extracardiac symptoms in Lmod2-null mice, and remarkable morphological and functional similarities between the patient and mouse model informed the decision to pursue cardiac transplantation in the patient. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aberrant cardiac thin filament assembly associated with human cardiomyopathy.


Assuntos
Citoesqueleto de Actina , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada , Códon sem Sentido , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto , Proteínas Musculares , Miocárdio , Citoesqueleto de Actina/genética , Citoesqueleto de Actina/metabolismo , Citoesqueleto de Actina/patologia , Animais , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/genética , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/patologia , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Mutantes , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia
9.
Hum Mutat ; 40(12): 2197-2220, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343788

RESUMO

Alagille syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease with a known molecular etiology of dysfunctional Notch signaling caused primarily by pathogenic variants in JAGGED1 (JAG1), but also by variants in NOTCH2. The majority of JAG1 variants result in loss of function, however disease has also been attributed to lesser understood missense variants. Conversely, the majority of NOTCH2 variants are missense, though fewer of these variants have been described. In addition, there is a small group of patients with a clear clinical phenotype in the absence of a pathogenic variant. Here, we catalog our single-center study, which includes 401 probands and 111 affected family members amassed over a 27-year period, to provide updated mutation frequencies in JAG1 and NOTCH2 as well as functional validation of nine missense variants. Combining our cohort of 86 novel JAG1 and three novel NOTCH2 variants with previously published data (totaling 713 variants), we present the most comprehensive pathogenic variant overview for Alagille syndrome. Using this data set, we developed new guidance to help with the classification of JAG1 missense variants. Finally, we report clinically consistent cases for which a molecular etiology has not been identified and discuss the potential for next generation sequencing methodologies in novel variant discovery.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Alagille/genética , Proteína Jagged-1/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Receptor Notch2/genética , Síndrome de Alagille/metabolismo , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Proteína Jagged-1/metabolismo , Masculino , Taxa de Mutação , Linhagem , Receptor Notch2/metabolismo
10.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(7): 1126-1138, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058441

RESUMO

CHOPS syndrome is a multisystem disorder caused by missense mutations in AFF4. Previously, we reported three individuals whose primary phenotype included cognitive impairment and coarse facies, heart defects, obesity, pulmonary involvement, and short stature. This syndrome overlaps phenotypically with Cornelia de Lange syndrome, but presents distinct differences including facial features, pulmonary involvement, and obesity. Here, we provide clinical descriptions of an additional eight individuals with CHOPS syndrome, as well as neurocognitive analysis of three individuals. All 11 individuals presented with features reminiscent of Cornelia de Lange syndrome such as synophrys, upturned nasal tip, arched eyebrows, and long eyelashes. All 11 individuals had short stature and obesity. Congenital heart disease and pulmonary involvement were common, and those were seen in about 70% of individuals with CHOPS syndrome. Skeletal abnormalities are also common, and those include abnormal shape of vertebral bodies, hypoplastic long bones, and low bone mineral density. Our observation indicates that obesity, pulmonary involvement, skeletal findings are the most notable features distinguishing CHOPS syndrome from Cornelia de Lange syndrome. In fact, two out of eight of our newly identified patients were found to have AFF4 mutations by targeted AFF4 mutational analysis rather than exome sequencing. These phenotypic findings establish CHOPS syndrome as a distinct, clinically recognizable disorder. Additionally, we report three novel missense mutations causative for CHOPS syndrome that lie within the highly conserved, 14 amino acid sequence of the ALF homology domain of the AFF4 gene, emphasizing the critical functional role of this region in human development.

11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 685-700, 2019 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929737

RESUMO

Conventional genetic testing of individuals with neurodevelopmental presentations and congenital anomalies (ND/CAs), i.e., the analysis of sequence and copy number variants, leaves a substantial proportion of them unexplained. Some of these cases have been shown to result from DNA methylation defects at a single locus (epi-variants), while others can exhibit syndrome-specific DNA methylation changes across multiple loci (epi-signatures). Here, we investigate the clinical diagnostic utility of genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of peripheral blood in unresolved ND/CAs. We generate a computational model enabling concurrent detection of 14 syndromes using DNA methylation data with full accuracy. We demonstrate the ability of this model in resolving 67 individuals with uncertain clinical diagnoses, some of whom had variants of unknown clinical significance (VUS) in the related genes. We show that the provisional diagnoses can be ruled out in many of the case subjects, some of whom are shown by our model to have other diseases initially not considered. By applying this model to a cohort of 965 ND/CA-affected subjects without a previous diagnostic assumption and a separate assessment of rare epi-variants in this cohort, we identify 15 case subjects with syndromic Mendelian disorders, 12 case subjects with imprinting and trinucleotide repeat expansion disorders, as well as 106 case subjects with rare epi-variants, a portion of which involved genes clinically or functionally linked to the subjects' phenotypes. This study demonstrates that genomic DNA methylation analysis can facilitate the molecular diagnosis of unresolved clinical cases and highlights the potential value of epigenomic testing in the routine clinical assessment of ND/CAs.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Metilação de DNA , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Estudos de Coortes , Simulação por Computador , Anormalidades Congênitas/diagnóstico , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Epigenômica , Dosagem de Genes , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Variação Genética , Impressão Genômica , Humanos , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Síndrome , Expansão das Repetições de Trinucleotídeos
12.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(6): 1080-1090, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30874362

RESUMO

Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS), due to mutations in genes of the cohesin protein complex, is described as a disorder of transcriptional regulation. Phenotypes in this expanding field include short stature, microcephaly, intellectual disability, variable facial features and organ involvement, resulting in overlapping presentations, including established syndromes and newly described conditions. Individuals with all forms of CdLS have multifaceted complications, including neurodevelopmental, feeding, craniofacial, and communication. Coping mechanisms and management of challenging behaviors in CdLS, disruption of normal behaviors, and how behavior molds the life of the individual within the family is now better understood. Some psychotropic medications are known to be effective for behavior. Other medications, for example, Indomethacin, are being investigated for effects on gene expression, fetal brain tissue, brain morphology and function in Drosophila, mice, and human fibroblasts containing CdLS-related mutations. Developmental studies have clarified the origin of cardiac defects and role of placenta in CdLS. Chromosome architecture and cohesin complex structure are elucidated, leading to a better understanding of regulatory aspects and controls. As examples, when mutations are present, the formation of loop domains by cohesin, facilitating enhancer-promotor interactions, can be eliminated, and embryologically, the nuclear structure of zygotes is disrupted. Several important genes are now known to interact with cohesin, including Brca2. The following abstracts are from the 8th Cornelia de Lange Syndrome Scientific and Educational Symposium, held in June 2018, Minneapolis, MN, before the CdLS Foundation National Meeting, AMA CME credits provided by GBMC, Baltimore, MD. All studies have been approved by an ethics committee.

14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(4): 612-620, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626929

RESUMO

Clinical exome sequencing (CES) has become the preferred diagnostic platform for complex pediatric disorders with suspected monogenic etiologies. Despite rapid advancements, the major challenge still resides in identifying the casual variants among the thousands of variants detected during CES testing, and thus establishing a molecular diagnosis. To improve the clinical exome diagnostic efficiency, we developed Phenoxome, a robust phenotype-driven model that adopts a network-based approach to facilitate automated variant prioritization. Phenoxome dissects the phenotypic manifestation of a patient in concert with their genomic profile to filter and then prioritize variants that are likely to affect the function of the gene (potentially pathogenic variants). To validate our method, we have compiled a clinical cohort of 105 positive patient samples that represent a wide range of genetic heterogeneity. Phenoxome identifies the causative variants within the top 5, 10, or 25 candidates in more than 50%, 71%, or 88% of these exomes, respectively. Furthermore, we show that our method is optimized for clinical testing by outperforming the current state-of-art method. We have demonstrated the performance of Phenoxome using a clinical cohort and showed that it enables rapid and accurate interpretation of clinical exomes. Phenoxome is available at https://phenoxome.chop.edu/ .

15.
Genet Med ; 21(8): 1797-1807, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679821

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Haploinsufficiency of USP7, located at chromosome 16p13.2, has recently been reported in seven individuals with neurodevelopmental phenotypes, including developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), seizures, and hypogonadism. Further, USP7 was identified to critically incorporate into the MAGEL2-USP7-TRIM27 (MUST), such that pathogenic variants in USP7 lead to altered endosomal F-actin polymerization and dysregulated protein recycling. METHODS: We report 16 newly identified individuals with heterozygous USP7 variants, identified by genome or exome sequencing or by chromosome microarray analysis. Clinical features were evaluated by review of medical records. Additional clinical information was obtained on the seven previously reported individuals to fully elucidate the phenotypic expression associated with USP7 haploinsufficiency. RESULTS: The clinical manifestations of these 23 individuals suggest a syndrome characterized by DD/ID, hypotonia, eye anomalies,feeding difficulties, GERD, behavioral anomalies, and ASD, and more specific phenotypes of speech delays including a nonverbal phenotype and abnormal brain magnetic resonance image findings including white matter changes based on neuroradiologic examination. CONCLUSION: The consistency of clinical features among all individuals presented regardless of de novo USP7 variant type supports haploinsufficiency as a mechanism for pathogenesis and refines the clinical impact faced by affected individuals and caregivers.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Comportamento Problema , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fenótipo , Proteínas/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 164-178, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30580808

RESUMO

SMARCC2 (BAF170) is one of the invariable core subunits of the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling BAF (BRG1-associated factor) complex and plays a crucial role in embryogenesis and corticogenesis. Pathogenic variants in genes encoding other components of the BAF complex have been associated with intellectual disability syndromes. Despite its significant biological role, variants in SMARCC2 have not been directly associated with human disease previously. Using whole-exome sequencing and a web-based gene-matching program, we identified 15 individuals with variable degrees of neurodevelopmental delay and growth retardation harboring one of 13 heterozygous variants in SMARCC2, most of them novel and proven de novo. The clinical presentation overlaps with intellectual disability syndromes associated with other BAF subunits, such as Coffin-Siris and Nicolaides-Baraitser syndromes and includes prominent speech impairment, hypotonia, feeding difficulties, behavioral abnormalities, and dysmorphic features such as hypertrichosis, thick eyebrows, thin upper lip vermilion, and upturned nose. Nine out of the fifteen individuals harbor variants in the highly conserved SMARCC2 DNA-interacting domains (SANT and SWIRM) and present with a more severe phenotype. Two of these individuals present cardiac abnormalities. Transcriptomic analysis of fibroblasts from affected individuals highlights a group of differentially expressed genes with possible roles in regulation of neuronal development and function, namely H19, SCRG1, RELN, and CACNB4. Our findings suggest a novel SMARCC2-related syndrome that overlaps with neurodevelopmental disorders associated with variants in BAF-complex subunits.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/complicações , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Face/anormalidades , Feminino , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Micrognatismo/genética , Pescoço/anormalidades , Síndrome
17.
J Mol Diagn ; 21(1): 38-48, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30577886

RESUMO

Clinical exome sequencing (CES) has a reported diagnostic yield of 20% to 30% for most clinical indications. The ongoing discovery of novel gene-disease and variant-disease associations are expected to increase the diagnostic yield of CES. Performing systematic reanalysis of previously nondiagnostic CES samples represents a significant challenge for clinical laboratories. Here, we present the results of a novel automated reanalysis methodology applied to 300 CES samples initially analyzed between June 2014 and September 2016. Application of our reanalysis methodology reduced reanalysis variant analysis burden by >93% and correctly captured 70 of 70 previously identified diagnostic variants among 60 samples with previously identified diagnoses. Notably, reanalysis of 240 initially nondiagnostic samples using information available on July 1, 2017, revealed 38 novel diagnoses, representing a 15.8% increase in diagnostic yield. Modeling monthly iterative reanalysis of 240 nondiagnostic samples revealed a diagnostic rate of 0.57% of samples per month. Modeling the workload required for monthly iterative reanalysis of nondiagnostic samples revealed a variant analysis burden of approximately 5 variants/month for proband-only and approximately 0.5 variants/month for trio samples. Approximately 45% of samples required evaluation during each monthly interval, and 61.3% of samples were reevaluated across three consecutive reanalyses. In sum, automated reanalysis methods can facilitate efficient reevaluation of nondiagnostic samples using up-to-date literature and can provide significant value to clinical laboratories.

18.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(9): 1890-1896, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30152016

RESUMO

Xia-Gibbs syndrome (XGS) is a recently described neurodevelopmental disorder due to heterozygous loss-of-function AHDC1 mutations. XGS is characterized by global developmental delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, and sleep abnormalities. Here we report the clinical phenotype of five of six individuals with XGS identified prospectively at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, a tertiary children's hospital in the USA. Although all five patients demonstrated common clinical features characterized by developmental delay and characteristic facial features, each of our patients showed unique clinical manifestations. Patient one had craniosynostosis; patient two had sensorineural hearing loss and bicuspid aortic valve; patient three had cutis aplasia; patient four had soft, loose skin; and patient five had a lipoma. Differential diagnoses considered for each patient were quite broad, and included craniosynostosis syndromes, connective tissue disorders, and mitochondrial disorders. Exome sequencing identified a heterozygous, de novo AHDC1 loss-of-function mutation in four of five patients; the remaining patient has a 357kb interstitial deletion of 1p36.11p35.3 including AHDC1. Although it remains unknown whether these unique clinical manifestations are rare symptoms of XGS, our findings indicate that the diagnosis of XGS should be considered even in individuals with additional non-neurological symptoms, as the clinical spectrum of XGS may involve such non-neurological manifestations. Adding to the growing literature on XGS, continued cohort studies are warranted in order to both characterize the clinical spectrum of XGS as well as determine standard of care for patients with this diagnosis.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Fenótipo , Adulto , Alelos , Variação Biológica da População , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Facies , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Hospitais Pediátricos , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Avaliação de Sintomas , Síndrome , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
19.
Genet Med ; 20(12): 1663-1676, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29907799

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Hearing loss (HL) is the most common sensory disorder in children. Prompt molecular diagnosis may guide screening and management, especially in syndromic cases when HL is the single presenting feature. Exome sequencing (ES) is an appealing diagnostic tool for HL as the genetic causes are highly heterogeneous. METHODS: ES was performed on a prospective cohort of 43 probands with HL. Sequence data were analyzed for primary and secondary findings. Capture and coverage analysis was performed for genes and variants associated with HL. RESULTS: The diagnostic rate using ES was 37.2%, compared with 15.8% for the clinical HL panel. Secondary findings were discovered in three patients. For 247 genes associated with HL, 94.7% of the exons were targeted for capture and 81.7% of these exons were covered at 20× or greater. Further analysis of 454 randomly selected HL-associated variants showed that 89% were targeted for capture and 75% were covered at a read depth of at least 20×. CONCLUSION: ES has an improved yield compared with clinical testing and may capture diagnoses not initially considered due to subtle clinical phenotypes. Technical challenges were identified, including inadequate capture and coverage of HL genes. Additional considerations of ES include secondary findings, cost, and turnaround time.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Patologia Molecular , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Pré-Escolar , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo
20.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(17): 3002-3011, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29860495

RESUMO

Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a rare disease characterized by cognitive impairment, multisystemic alterations and premature aging. Furthermore, CdLS cells display gene expression dysregulation and genomic instability. Here, we demonstrated that treatment with antioxidant drugs, such as ascorbic acid and riboceine, reduced the level of genomic instability and extended the in vitro lifespan of CdLS cell lines. We also found that antioxidant treatment partially rescued the phenotype of a zebrafish model of CdLS. Gene expression profiling showed that antioxidant drugs caused dysregulation of gene transcription; notably, a number of genes coding for the zinc finger (ZNF)-containing Krueppel-associated box (KRAB) protein domain (KRAB-ZNF) were found to be downregulated. Taken together, these data suggest that antioxidant drugs have the potential to ameliorate the developmental phenotype of CdLS.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Síndrome de Cornélia de Lange/tratamento farmacológico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutação , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Síndrome de Cornélia de Lange/genética , Síndrome de Cornélia de Lange/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Instabilidade Genômica , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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