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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029895

RESUMO

Twin studies indicate that there is a significant genetic contribution to the risk of developing alcohol use disorder (AUD). With the exception of coding variants in ADH1B and ALDH2, little is known about the molecular effects of AUD-associated loci. We previously reported that the AUD-associated synonymous polymorphism rs279858 within the GABAA α2 receptor subunit gene, GABRA2, was associated with gene expression of the chr4p12 GABAA subunit gene cluster in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neural cultures. Based on this and other studies that showed changes in GABRA2 DNA methylation associated with schizophrenia and aging, we examined methylation in GABRA2. Specifically, using 69 iPSC lines and neural cultures derived from 47 of them, we examined whether GABRA2 rs279858 genotype predicted methylation levels and whether methylation was related to GABAA receptor subunit gene expression. We found that the GABRA2 CpG island undergoes random stochastic methylation during reprogramming and that methylation is associated with decreased GABRA2 gene expression, an effect that extends to the GABRB1 gene over 600 kb distal to GABRA2. Further, we identified additive effects of GABRA2 CpG methylation and GABRA2 rs279858 genotype on expression of the GABRB1 subunit gene in iPSC-derived neural cultures.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Buprenorphine treatment is not equally effective in all patients with opioid use disorder (OUD). Two retrospective studies showed that, among African Americans (AAs), rs678849, a polymorphism in the delta-opioid receptor gene, moderated the therapeutic effect of sublingual buprenorphine. METHODS: We examined the rs678849 as a moderator of the response to an extended-release subcutaneous buprenorphine formulation (BUP-XR) in a 24-week OUD treatment study of 127 AAs and 327 European Americans (EAs). Participants were randomly assigned to receive: 1) BUP-XR as 2 monthly injections of 300 mg followed by either 300 mg monthly or 100 mg monthly for four months or 2) monthly volume-matched placebo injections. GEE logistic regression analyses tested, per population group, the main and interaction effects of treatment (BUP-XR vs. placebo) and genotype group (rs678849*CC vs. CT/TT) on weekly urine drug screens (UDS). RESULTS: Among AAs, the placebo group had higher rates of opioid-positive UDS than the BUP-XR group [log odds ratio (LOR)=1.67, 95% CI = 0.36, 2.98], but no genotype by treatment effect (p=0.80). Among EAs, the placebo group also showed higher rates of opioid-positive UDS than the BUP-XR group (LOR=1.97, 95% CI = 1.14, 2.79), but a significant genotype by treatment interaction [X2(1)=4.33, p=0.04]. CONCLUSION: We found a moderating effect of rs678849 on the response to buprenorphine treatment of OUD in EAs, but not AAs. These findings require replication in well powered, prospective studies of both AA and EA OUD patients treated with BUP-XR and stratified on rs678849 genotype.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237430, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Given ongoing challenges in non-invasive non-alcoholic liver disease (NAFLD) diagnosis, we sought to validate an ALT-based NAFLD phenotype using measures readily available in electronic health records (EHRs) and population-based studies by leveraging the clinical and genetic data in the Million Veteran Program (MVP), a multi-ethnic mega-biobank of US Veterans. METHODS: MVP participants with alanine aminotransferases (ALT) >40 units/L for men and >30 units/L for women without other causes of liver disease were compared to controls with normal ALT. Genetic variants spanning eight NAFLD risk or ALT-associated loci (LYPLAL1, GCKR, HSD17B13, TRIB1, PPP1R3B, ERLIN1, TM6SF2, PNPLA3) were tested for NAFLD associations with sensitivity analyses adjusting for metabolic risk factors and alcohol consumption. A manual EHR review assessed performance characteristics of the NAFLD phenotype with imaging and biopsy data as gold standards. Genetic associations with advanced fibrosis were explored using FIB4, NAFLD Fibrosis Score and platelet counts. RESULTS: Among 322,259 MVP participants, 19% met non-invasive criteria for NAFLD. Trans-ethnic meta-analysis replicated associations with previously reported genetic variants in all but LYPLAL1 and GCKR loci (P<6x10-3), without attenuation when adjusted for metabolic risk factors and alcohol consumption. At the previously reported LYPLAL1 locus, the established genetic variant did not appear to be associated with NAFLD, however the regional association plot showed a significant association with NAFLD 279kb downstream. In the EHR validation, the ALT-based NAFLD phenotype yielded a positive predictive value 0.89 and 0.84 for liver biopsy and abdominal imaging, respectively (inter-rater reliability (Cohen's kappa = 0.98)). HSD17B13 and PNPLA3 loci were associated with advanced fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: We validate a simple, non-invasive ALT-based NAFLD phenotype using EHR data by leveraging previously established NAFLD risk-associated genetic polymorphisms.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , 17-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/genética , Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Idoso , Alanina Transaminase/genética , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Humanos , Lipase/genética , Fígado/patologia , Lisofosfolipase/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etnologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco , Veteranos
4.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 44(8): 1625-1635, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reductions in World Health Organization (WHO) risk drinking levels have recently been shown to lower the risk of multiple adverse health outcomes, but prior work has not examined reductions in WHO risk drinking levels in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of death for men and women in the United States and of global mortality. This study examined associations between reductions in WHO risk drinking levels and subsequent risk for CVD. METHODS: In a US national survey, 1,058 very-high-risk and high-risk drinkers participated in Wave 1 interviews (2001 to 2002) and Wave 2 follow-ups (2004 to 2005). Self-reported CVD history that was communicated to the participant by a doctor or other healthcare professionals included arteriosclerosis, hypertension, angina, tachycardia, or myocardial infarction. We used logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) evaluating relationships between ≥2-level reductions in WHO risk drinking levels from Wave 1 to Wave 2 and the risk of Wave 2 CVD, controlling for baseline characteristics. RESULTS: Reductions of ≥2 WHO risk drinking levels were associated with significantly lower odds of CVD in individuals who at Wave 1 were very-high-risk (aOR = 0.58 [0.41 to 0.80]) or high-risk drinkers (aOR = 0.81 [0.70 to 0.94]). Interaction terms showed that this relationship varied by age. Among individuals >40 years old at Wave 1, reductions of ≥2 WHO risk drinking levels were associated with significantly lower odds of CVD among very-high-risk drinkers (aOR = 0.42 [0.28 to 0.63]) but not high-risk drinkers (p = 0.50). Among individuals ≤40 years old at Wave 1, reductions of ≥2 WHO risk drinking levels were associated with significantly lower odds of CVD among high-risk drinkers (aOR = 0.50 [0.37 to 0.69]) but not very-high-risk drinkers (p = 0.27). CONCLUSIONS: These results show that reductions in WHO risk drinking levels are associated with reduced CVD risk among very-high-risk and high-risk drinkers in the US general population, and provide further evidence that reducing high levels of drinking provides important benefit across multiple clinical domains.

5.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492095

RESUMO

Importance: With the current opioid crisis, it is important to improve understanding of the biological mechanisms of opioid use disorder (OUD). Objectives: To detect genetic risk variants for OUD and determine genetic correlations and causal association with OUD and other traits. Design, Setting, and Participants: A genome-wide association study of electronic health record-defined OUD in the Million Veteran Program sample was conducted, comprising 8529 affected European American individuals and 71 200 opioid-exposed European American controls (defined by electronic health record trajectory analysis) and 4032 affected African American individuals and 26 029 opioid-exposed African American controls. Participants were enrolled from January 10, 2011, to May 21, 2018, with electronic health record data for OUD diagnosis from October 1, 1999, to February 7, 2018. Million Veteran Program results and additional OUD case-control genome-wide association study results from the Yale-Penn and Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment samples were meta-analyzed (total numbers: European American individuals, 10 544 OUD cases and 72 163 opioid-exposed controls; African American individuals, 5212 cases and 26 876 controls). Data on Yale-Penn participants were collected from February 14, 1999, to April 1, 2017, and data on Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment participants were collected from 1990 to 2007. The key result was replicated in 2 independent cohorts: proxy-phenotype buprenorphine treatment in the UK Biobank and newly genotyped Yale-Penn participants. Genetic correlations between OUD and other traits were tested, and mendelian randomization analysis was conducted to identify potential causal associations. Main Outcomes and Measures: Main outcomes were International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision-diagnosed OUD or International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision-diagnosed OUD (Million Veteran Program), and DSM-IV-defined opioid dependence (Yale-Penn and Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment). Results: A total of 114 759 individuals (101 016 men [88%]; mean [SD] age, 60.1 [12.8] years) were included. In 82 707 European American individuals, a functional coding variant (rs1799971, encoding Asn40Asp) in OPRM1 (µ-opioid receptor gene, the main biological target for opioid drugs; OMIM 600018) reached genome-wide significance (G allele: mean [SE], ß = -0.066 [0.012]; P = 1.51 × 10-8). The finding was replicated in 2 independent samples. Mean (SE) single-nucleotide polymorphism-based heritability of OUD was 11.3% (1.8%). Opioid use disorder was genetically correlated with 83 traits, including multiple substance use traits, psychiatric illnesses, cognitive performance, and others. Mendelian randomization analysis revealed the following associations with OUD: risk of tobacco smoking, depression, neuroticism, worry neuroticism subcluster, and cognitive performance. No genome-wide significant association was detected for African American individuals or in transpopulation meta-analysis. Conclusions and Relevance: This genome-wide meta-analysis identified a significant association of OUD with an OPRM1 variant, which was replicated in 2 independent samples. Post-genome-wide association study analysis revealed associated pleiotropic characteristics. Recruitment of additional individuals with OUD for future studies-especially those of non-European ancestry-is a crucial next step in identifying additional significant risk loci.

6.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 44(8): 1561-1570, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that the anticonvulsant topiramate is efficacious in reducing alcohol consumption. Further, an intronic single nucleotide polymorphism (rs2832407, C A) in the GRIK1 gene, which encodes the GluK1 subunit of the excitatory kainate receptor, predicted topiramate's effectiveness in reducing heavy drinking in a clinical trial. The molecular correlates of GRIK1 genotype that may relate to topiramate's ability to reduce drinking remain unknown. METHODS: We differentiated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) characterized by GRIK1 rs2832407 genotype from 8 A/A and 8 C/C donors into forebrain-lineage neural cultures. Our differentiation protocol yielded mixed neural cultures enriched for glutamatergic neurons. Basal mRNA expression of the GRIK1 locus was examined via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The effects of acute topiramate exposure on excitatory spontaneous synaptic activity were examined via whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology. Results were compared and contrasted between iPSC donor genotypes. RESULTS: Although characterization of the GRIK1 locus revealed no effect of rs2832407 genotype on GRIK1 isoform mRNA expression, a significant difference was observed on GRIK1 antisense-2 expression, which was greater in C/C neural cultures. Differential effects of acute exposure to 5 µM topiramate were observed on spontaneous synaptic activity in A/A versus C/C neurons, with a smaller reduction in excitatory event frequency observed in C/C donor neurons. CONCLUSIONS: This work highlights the use of iPSC technologies to study pharmacogenetic treatment effects in psychiatric disorders and furthers our understanding of the molecular effects of topiramate exposure in human neural cells.

7.
Nat Neurosci ; 23(7): 809-818, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451486

RESUMO

Problematic alcohol use (PAU) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Although genome-wide association studies have identified PAU risk genes, the genetic architecture of this trait is not fully understood. We conducted a proxy-phenotype meta-analysis of PAU, combining alcohol use disorder and problematic drinking, in 435,563 European-ancestry individuals. We identified 29 independent risk variants, 19 of them novel. PAU was genetically correlated with 138 phenotypes, including substance use and psychiatric traits. Phenome-wide polygenic risk score analysis in an independent biobank sample (BioVU, n = 67,589) confirmed the genetic correlations between PAU and substance use and psychiatric disorders. Genetic heritability of PAU was enriched in brain and in conserved and regulatory genomic regions. Mendelian randomization suggested causal effects on liability to PAU of substance use, psychiatric status, risk-taking behavior and cognitive performance. In summary, this large PAU meta-analysis identified novel risk loci and revealed genetic relationships with numerous other traits.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial
8.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 22(10): 1923-1927, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303761

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pregnant women exposed chronically to opioids smoked more cigarettes per day (CPD) and had a higher nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), 3-hydroxycotinine/cotinine, a biomarker of nicotine metabolism and clearance, than those not receiving opioids. We examined CPD and NMR in a group of pregnant smokers, a quarter of whom were receiving opioid agonist therapy (OAT). AIMS AND METHODS: Pregnant smokers recruited to participate in a placebo-controlled trial of bupropion for smoking cessation provided a blood sample for measurement of NMR. RESULTS: Half (52.4%) of the 124 women with NMR data were African American. OAT-treated women (n = 34, 27.4%; 27 receiving methadone and 7 buprenorphine) were more likely to be white (79% vs. 30%, p < .001) and to have a lower mean PHQ-9 total score (2.91 [SD = 2.83] vs. 4.83 [SD = 3.82], p = .007). OAT-treated women reported smoking more CPD (9.50 [SD = 5.26] vs. 7.20 [SD = 3.65], p = .005) and had higher NMR (0.78 [SD = 0.36] vs. 0.56 [SD = 0.25], p = .001) than the non-OAT-treated group. In a linear regression analysis adjusting for race, depression severity, and CPD, NMR was greater in the OAT group (p = .025), among whom the daily methadone-equivalent dosage correlated with NMR (Spearman's ρ = 0.49, p = .003). CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with the findings of Oncken et al. (2019), we found that OAT smokers smoked more and had higher NMR than non-OAT smokers. As higher NMR is associated with a reduced likelihood of smoking cessation, the effects on NMR of both pregnancy and OAT could contribute to a lower smoking cessation rate in pregnant smokers receiving chronic opioid therapy. IMPLICATIONS: We replicated the finding that the NMR is significantly greater among pregnant smokers receiving OAT than those not receiving this treatment for opioid use disorder. Furthermore, we found that the dosage of the OAT was significantly associated with the NMR level. These findings may contribute to a poorer response to smoking cessation treatment in pregnant women treated with OAT, particularly those receiving high-dose therapy, and raise the question of whether novel approaches are needed to treat smoking in this subgroup of pregnant smokers.

9.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 38, 2020 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066696

RESUMO

Childhood maltreatment is highly prevalent and serves as a risk factor for mental and physical disorders. Self-reported childhood maltreatment appears heritable, but the specific genetic influences on this phenotype are largely unknown. The aims of this study were to (1) identify genetic variation associated with self-reported childhood maltreatment, (2) estimate SNP-based heritability (h2snp), (3) assess predictive value of polygenic risk scores (PRS) for childhood maltreatment, and (4) quantify genetic overlap of childhood maltreatment with mental and physical health-related phenotypes, and condition the top hits from our analyses when such overlap is present. Genome-wide association analysis for childhood maltreatment was undertaken, using a discovery sample from the UK Biobank (UKBB) (n = 124,000) and a replication sample from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium-posttraumatic stress disorder group (PGC-PTSD) (n = 26,290). h2snp for childhood maltreatment and genetic correlations with mental/physical health traits were calculated using linkage disequilibrium score regression. PRS was calculated using PRSice and mtCOJO was used to perform conditional analysis. Two genome-wide significant loci associated with childhood maltreatment (rs142346759, p = 4.35 × 10-8, FOXP1; rs10262462, p = 3.24 × 10-8, FOXP2) were identified in the discovery dataset but were not replicated in PGC-PTSD. h2snp for childhood maltreatment was ~6% and the PRS derived from the UKBB was significantly predictive of childhood maltreatment in PGC-PTSD (r2 = 0.0025; p = 1.8 × 10-15). The most significant genetic correlation of childhood maltreatment was with depressive symptoms (rg = 0.70, p = 4.65 × 10-40), although we show evidence that our top hits may be specific to childhood maltreatment. This is the first large-scale genetic study to identify specific variants associated with self-reported childhood maltreatment. Speculatively, FOXP genes might influence externalizing traits and so be relevant to childhood maltreatment. Alternatively, these variants may be associated with a greater likelihood of reporting maltreatment. A clearer understanding of the genetic relationships of childhood maltreatment, including particular abuse subtypes, with a range of phenotypes, may ultimately be useful in in developing targeted treatment and prevention strategies.

10.
Addiction ; 115(9): 1668-1680, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056311

RESUMO

AIMS: To examine whether World Health Organization (WHO) risk-level reductions in drinking were achievable, associated with improved functioning and maintained over time among patients at varying initial alcohol dependence severity levels. Design and setting Secondary data analysis of multi-site randomized clinical trials: the US Combined Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Interventions for Alcohol Dependence (COMBINE) study and the UK Alcohol Treatment Trial (UKATT). PARTICIPANTS: Individuals with alcohol dependence enrolled in COMBINE (n = 1383; 68.8% male) and seeking treatment for alcohol problems in UKATT (n = 742; 74.1% male). Interventions Naltrexone, acamprosate or placebo, and combined behavioral intervention or medication management in COMBINE. Social behavior network therapy or motivational enhancement therapy in UKATT. MEASUREMENTS: WHO risk-level reductions were assessed via the calendar method. Alcohol dependence was measured by the Alcohol Dependence Scale, the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Measures of functioning included alcohol-related consequences (Drinker Inventory of Consequences and Alcohol Problems Questionnaire), mental health (Short Form Health Survey) and liver enzyme tests. FINDINGS: One- and two-level reductions in WHO risk levels in the last month of treatment were maintained at the 1-year follow-up [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI) = one-level reduction in COMBINE: 3.51 (2.73, 4.29) and UKATT: 2.65 (2.32, 2.98)] and associated with fewer alcohol-related consequences [e.g. B, 95% CI = one-level reduction COMBINE: -26.22 (-30.62, -21.82)], better mental health [e.g. B, 95% CI = one-level reduction UKATT: 9.53 (7.36, 11.73)] and improvements in γ-glutamyltransferase [e.g. B, 95% CI = one-level reduction UKATT: -89.77 (-122.50, -57.04)] at the end of treatment, even among patients with severe alcohol dependence. Results were similar when abstainers were excluded. Conclusions Reductions in World Health Organization risk levels for alcohol consumption appear to be achievable, associated with better functioning and maintained over time in both the United States and the United Kingdom.

11.
Mol Psychiatry ; 25(8): 1673-1687, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32099098

RESUMO

To provide insights into the biology of opioid dependence (OD) and opioid use (i.e., exposure, OE), we completed a genome-wide analysis comparing 4503 OD cases, 4173 opioid-exposed controls, and 32,500 opioid-unexposed controls, including participants of European and African descent (EUR and AFR, respectively). Among the variants identified, rs9291211 was associated with OE (exposed vs. unexposed controls; EUR z = -5.39, p = 7.2 × 10-8). This variant regulates the transcriptomic profiles of SLC30A9 and BEND4 in multiple brain tissues and was previously associated with depression, alcohol consumption, and neuroticism. A phenome-wide scan of rs9291211 in the UK Biobank (N > 360,000) found association of this variant with propensity to use dietary supplements (p = 1.68 × 10-8). With respect to the same OE phenotype in the gene-based analysis, we identified SDCCAG8 (EUR + AFR z = 4.69, p = 10-6), which was previously associated with educational attainment, risk-taking behaviors, and schizophrenia. In addition, rs201123820 showed a genome-wide significant difference between OD cases and unexposed controls (AFR z = 5.55, p = 2.9 × 10-8) and a significant association with musculoskeletal disorders in the UK Biobank (p = 4.88 × 10-7). A polygenic risk score (PRS) based on a GWAS of risk-tolerance (n = 466,571) was positively associated with OD (OD vs. unexposed controls, p = 8.1 × 10-5; OD cases vs. exposed controls, p = 0.054) and OE (exposed vs. unexposed controls, p = 3.6 × 10-5). A PRS based on a GWAS of neuroticism (n = 390,278) was positively associated with OD (OD vs. unexposed controls, p = 3.2 × 10-5; OD vs. exposed controls, p = 0.002) but not with OE (p = 0.67). Our analyses highlight the difference between dependence and exposure and the importance of considering the definition of controls in studies of addiction.

12.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 20(5): 672-680, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029903

RESUMO

This study explored the effect of OPRM1 promoter region DNA methylation on the outcome of treatment with the opioid antagonist naltrexone (NTX) for alcohol dependence (AD). Ninety-three patients with DSM-IV AD [41 African Americans (AAs) and 52 European Americans (EAs)] received double-blind treatment with NTX or placebo for at least three months. Relapse to heavy drinking was assessed during the first 13 weeks of the trial. Peripheral blood methylation levels of 33 CpG units in the OPRM1 promoter region were quantified using Sequenom EpiTYPER technology. Bayesian logistic regression was used to analyze the effects of NTX treatment, CpG methylation, CpG methylation × NTX treatment, and age on AD relapse. The Random Forest machine learning algorithm was applied to select AD relapse predictors. No significant effect of individual OPRM1 promoter CpG units on AD relapse was observed in either AAs or EAs. Age was significantly associated with AD relapse in EAs, among whom older subjects had a lower relapse rate. Random forest analyses revealed that the prediction rate for AD relapse reached 66.0% with five top variables (age and four CpG units; ranked by their importance to AD relapse) in the prediction model. These findings suggest that methylation levels of individual OPRM1 promoter CpG units do not contribute significantly to inter-individual variation in NTX response. However, the age of subjects in combination with a cluster of specific OPRM1 promoter CpG units may affect NTX treatment outcome. Additional studies of OPRM1 DNA methylation changes during and after NTX treatment of AD are needed.

13.
Addiction ; 115(8): 1426-1437, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is wide inter-individual variability in response to the treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD) with the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone. To identify patients who may be most responsive to naltrexone treatment, studies have examined the moderating effect of rs1799971, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that encodes a non-synonymous substitution (Asn40Asp) in the mu-opioid receptor gene, OPRM1. The aims of this study were to: (1) conduct a systematic review of randomized clinical trials (RCTs); (2) assess the bias of the available studies and gauge publication bias; and (3) meta-analyze the interaction effect of the Asn40Asp SNP on the response to naltrexone treatment. METHODS: We searched for placebo-controlled RCTs that examined the effect of Asn40Asp on the response to naltrexone treatment of heavy drinking or AUD. We tested the hypothesis that the minor (Asp40) allele was associated with a greater reduction in five alcohol consumption measures (relapse to heavy drinking, abstinence, percentage of heavy drinking days, percentage of days abstinent and drinks per day) in naltrexone-treated participants by meta-analyzing the interaction effects using a random effects model. RESULTS: Seven RCTs met the study criteria. Overall, risk of bias was low and we observed no evidence of publication bias. Of the five alcohol consumption outcomes considered, there was a nominally significant moderating effect of the Asn40Asp SNP only on drinks per day (d = -0.18, P = 0.02). However, the effect was not significant when multiple comparisons were taken into account. CONCLUSIONS: From the evidence to date, it remains unclear whether rs1799971, the OPRM1 Asn40Asp single nucleotide polymorphism, predicts naltrexone treatment response in individuals with alcohol use disorder or heavy drinking.

14.
AIDS Behav ; 24(2): 655-665, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435887

RESUMO

We contrast three types of abstinence: quit after alcohol associated problems (Q-AP), quit for other reasons (Q-OR), and lifetime abstainer (LTA). We summarized the characteristics of people living with HIV (PLWH), and matched uninfected individuals, by levels of alcohol use and types of abstinence. We then identified factors that differentiate abstinence and determined whether the association with an alcohol biomarker or a genetic polymorphism is improved by differentiating abstinence. Among abstainers, 34% of PLWH and 38% of uninfected were Q-AP; 53% and 53% were Q-OR; and 12% and 10% were LTA. Logistic regression models found smoking, alcohol, cocaine, and hepatitis C increased odds of Q-AP, whereas smoking and marijuana decreased odds of LTA. Differentiating types of abstinence improved association. Q-APs and LTAs can be readily differentiated by an alcohol biomarker and genetic polymorphism. Differentiating type of abstinence may enhance understanding of alcohol health effects.


Assuntos
Abstinência de Álcool/classificação , Álcool Desidrogenase/genética , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicerofosfolipídeos/sangue , Autorrelato , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo Genético , Fumar
15.
Addict Biol ; 25(2): e12811, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362332

RESUMO

The United States is experiencing the worst opioid overdose (OpOD) crisis in its history. We carried out a genome-wide association study on OpOD severity among 3 477 opioid-exposed individuals, 1 019 of whom experienced OpODs, including 2 032 European Americans (EAs) (653 overdose cases), and 1 445 African Americans (AAs) (366 overdose cases). Participants were scored 1 to 4 based on their reported overdose status and the number of times that medical treatment was required. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) of EAs and AAs separately resulted in two genome-wide significant (GWS) signals in AAs but none in EAs. The first signal was represented by three closely mapped variants (rs115208233, rs116181528, and rs114077267) located near mucolipin 1 (MCOLN1) and patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 6 (PNPLA6), and the other signal was represented by rs369098800 near dead-box helicase 18 (DDX18). There were no additional GWS signals in the trans-population meta-analysis, so that post-GWAS analysis focused on these loci. In network analysis, MCOLN1 was coexpressed with PNPLA6, but only MCOLN1-associated genes were enriched in functional categories relevant to OpOD, including calcium and cation channel activities; no enrichment was observed for PNPLA6-associated genes. Drug repositioning analysis was carried out in the connectivity map (CMap) database for MCOLN1 (PNPLA6 was not available in CMap) and showed that the opioid agonist drug-induced expression profile is similar to that of MCOLN1 overexpression and yielded the highest-ranked expression profile of 83 drug classes. Thus, MCOLN1 may be a risk gene for OpOD, but replication is needed. This knowledge could be helpful in the identification of drug targets for preventing OpOD.

16.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 206: 107703, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the functional mechanisms through which genetic loci associated with substance use traits ascertain their effect. This study aims to identify and functionally annotate loci associated with substance use traits based on their role in genetic regulation of gene expression. METHODS: We evaluated expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTLs) from 13 brain regions and whole blood of the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) database, and from whole blood of the Depression Genes and Networks (DGN) database. The role of single eQTLs was examined for six substance use traits: alcohol consumption (N = 537,349), cigarettes per day (CPD; N = 263,954), former vs. current smoker (N = 312,821), age of smoking initiation (N = 262,990), ever smoker (N = 632,802), and cocaine dependence (N = 4,769). Subsequently, we conducted a gene level analysis of gene expression on these substance use traits using S-PrediXcan. RESULTS: Using an FDR-adjusted p-value <0.05 we found 2,976 novel candidate genetic loci for substance use traits, and identified genes and tissues through which these loci potentially exert their effects. Using S-PrediXcan, we identified significantly associated genes for all substance traits. DISCUSSION: Annotating genes based on transcriptomic regulation improves the identification and functional characterization of candidate loci and genes for substance use traits.

17.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 45(1): 34-44, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490055

RESUMO

Background: Phenotypic heterogeneity and complicated gene­environment interplay in etiology are among the primary factors that hinder the identification of genetic variants associated with cocaine use disorder. Methods: To detect novel genetic variants associated with cocaine use disorder, we derived disease traits with reduced phenotypic heterogeneity using cluster analysis of a study sample (n = 9965). We then used these traits in genome-wide association tests, performed separately for 2070 African Americans and 1570 European Americans, using a new mixed model that accounted for the moderating effects of 5 childhood environmental factors. We used an independent sample (918 African Americans, 1382 European Americans) for replication. Results: The cluster analysis yielded 5 cocaine use disorder subtypes, of which subtypes 4 (n = 3258) and 5 (n = 1916) comprised heavy cocaine users, had high heritability estimates (h2 = 0.66 and 0.64, respectively) and were used in association tests. Seven of the 13 identified genetic loci in the discovery phase were available in the replication sample. In African Americans, rs114492924 (discovery p = 1.23 × E−8), a single nucleotide polymorphism in LINC01411, was replicated in the replication sample (p = 3.63 × E−3). In a meta-analysis that combined the discovery and replication results, 3 loci in African Americans were significant genome-wide: rs10188036 in TRAK2 (p = 2.95 × E−8), del-1:15511771 in TMEM51 (p = 9.11 × E−10) and rs149843442 near LPHN2 (p = 3.50 × E−8). Limitations: Lack of data prevented us from replicating 6 of the 13 identified loci. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate the importance of considering phenotypic heterogeneity and gene­environment interplay in detecting genetic variations that contribute to cocaine use disorder, because new genetic loci have been identified using our novel analytic method.

18.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18774, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801960

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18070, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792237

RESUMO

Sex differences in opioid dependence (OD) are genetically influenced. We conducted genomewide gene-by-sex interaction scans for the DSM-IV diagnosis of OD in 8,387 African-American (AA) or European-American subjects (43.6% women; 4,715 OD subjects). Among AAs, 9 SNPs were genome-wide significant at ADGRV1 (adhesion G-protein-coupled receptor V1, lead-SNP rs2366929*(C/T), p = 1.5 × 10-9) for sex-different risk of OD, with the rs2366929*C-allele increasing OD risk only for men. The top co-expressions in brain were between ADGRV1 and GRIK2 in substantia nigra and medullary inferior olivary nucleus, and between ADGRV1 and EFHC2 in frontal cortex and putamen. Significant sex-differential ADGRV1 expression from GTEx was detected in breast (Bonferroni-corrected-p < 0.002) and in heart (p < 0.0125), with nominal significance identified in brain, thyroid, lung, and stomach (p < 0.05). ADGRV1 co-expression and disease-enrichment analysis identifying the top 10 diseases showed strikingly sexually dimorphic risks. The enrichment and transcriptome analyses provided convergent support that ADGRV1 exerts a sex-different effect on OD risk. This is the first study to identify genetic variants contributing to sex differences in OD. It shows that ADGRV1 contributes to OD risk only in AA men, a finding that warrants further study.

20.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 205: 107524, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hydrocodone and oxycodone are the Schedule II opioids most often prescribed in primary care. Notwithstanding the dangers of prescription opioid use, the likelihood of long-term use with either drug is presently unknown. METHODS: Using a retrospective cohort design and data from a commerical healthcare claims repository, we compared the likelihood of long-term use of hydrocodone and oxycodone in primary care patients presenting with acute back pain. Treatment was categorized as long-term if the prescription dates spanned ≥90 days from initial prescription to the run-out date of the last prescription, and included ≥120 days' supply or ≥10 fills. Instrumental variable methods and probit regression were used to model the effect of drug choice on long-term use, estimate the average treatment effect, and correct for confounding by indication. RESULTS: A total of 3,983 patients who were prescribed only hydrocodone or only oxycodone were followed for 270 days in 2016. Long-term opioid use was observed in 320 patients (8%). Controlling for potential confounders including morphine milligram equivalents and dosage, an estimated 12% (95 CI, 10%-14%) treated with hydrocodone transitioned to long-term use vs. 2% (95 CI, 1%-3%) on oxycodone. Among patients who received more than one prescription (n = 1,866), an estimated 23% (95 CI, 19%-26%) treated with hydrocodone transitioned to long-term use vs. 5% (95 CI, 3%-7%) on oxycodone. The difference between drugs was supported in sensitivity and subgroup analyses. Sample selection bias was not detected. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term use was substantially greater for patients treated with hydrocodone than oxycodone, despite equianalgesia.

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