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JAMA Dermatol ; 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365035


Importance: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic illness that has been associated with variation in the filaggrin gene (FLG). Four variants are most often evaluated. Objectives: To comprehensively describe and compare results from targeted sequencing of FLG loss-of-function (LoF) variants in children of African and European ancestry and the association of these variants with onset and persistence of AD. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective US cohort study assessed the genetic subcohort of the Pediatric Eczema Elective Registry (PEER). Children with mild to moderate AD were included in the analysis. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) was used to focus on FLG LoF variation in white and African American children. Patients were enrolled from June 2005 through July 2017. Data were analyzed from January 25 through May 10, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Associations of FLG LoF variation with white and African American ancestry and with the risk and persistence of AD. Results: A total of 741 children were included in the analysis (394 [53.2%] female and 347 [46.8%] male; mean [SD] age at onset, 1.97 [2.72] years); of these, 394 (53.2%) were white, 326 (44.0%) were African American, and 21 (2.8%) were of other ancestries. Using MPS technology, 23 FLG LoF variants were found in children with AD. The prevalence of FLG LoF variants was 177 participants (23.9%) in the full cohort, 124 white participants (31.5%), and 50 African American participants (15.3%). The odds ratio for carrying any FLG LoF variant in a white child compared with an African American child with AD was 2.44 (95% CI, 1.76-3.39). Some FLG LoF variants are only found in children of a specific ancestry (eg, p.S3316* and p.R826* were not seen in white patients). Children with an FLG LoF were more likely to have persistent AD (odds ratio, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.56-0.80). Conclusions and Relevance: The FLG LoF variants in a US cohort of children with mild to moderate AD differ significantly by race and their association with the persistence of AD. Conventional testing of the 4 frequently evaluated variants is inadequate. Any planned genetic diagnostic test for AD based on FLG LoF variants must be inclusive and not rely on the most frequently studied variants.

Clin Cancer Res ; 25(14): 4363-4374, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914433


PURPOSE: Breast cancers with BRCA1/2 alterations have a relatively high mutational load, suggesting that immune checkpoint blockade may be a potential treatment option. However, the degree of immune cell infiltration varies widely, and molecular features contributing to this variability remain unknown. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We hypothesized that genomic signatures might predict immunogenicity in BRCA1/2 breast cancers. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) genomic data, we compared breast cancers with (89) and without (770) either germline or somatic BRCA1/2 alterations. We also studied 35 breast cancers with germline BRCA1/2 mutations from Penn using WES and IHC. RESULTS: We found that homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) scores were negatively associated with expression-based immune indices [cytolytic index (P = 0.04), immune ESTIMATE (P = 0.002), type II IFN signaling (P = 0.002)] despite being associated with a higher mutational/neoantigen burden, in BRCA1/2 mutant breast cancers. Further, absence of allele-specific loss of heterozygosity (LOH negative; P = 0.01) or subclonality (P = 0.003) of germline and somatic BRCA1/2 mutations, respectively, predicted for heightened cytolytic activity. Gene set analysis found that multiple innate and adaptive immune pathways that converge on NF-κB may contribute to this heightened immunogenicity. IHC of Penn breast cancers demonstrated increased CD45+ (P = 0.039) and CD8+ infiltrates (P = 0.037) and increased PDL1 expression (P = 0.012) in HRD-low or LOH-negative cancers. Triple-negative cancers with low HRD had far greater CD8+ T cells (P = 0.0011) and Perforin 1 expression (P = 0.014) compared with hormone receptor-positive HRD-high cancers. CONCLUSIONS: HRD scores and hormone receptor subtype are predictive of immunogenicity in BRCA1/2 breast cancers and may inform the design of optimal immune therapeutic strategies.

Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Recombinação Homóloga , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Proteína BRCA2/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Genômica/métodos , Humanos
Nat Med ; 25(3): 454-461, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804515


Immunologic responses to anti-PD-1 therapy in melanoma patients occur rapidly with pharmacodynamic T cell responses detectable in blood by 3 weeks. It is unclear, however, whether these early blood-based observations translate to the tumor microenvironment. We conducted a study of neoadjuvant/adjuvant anti-PD-1 therapy in stage III/IV melanoma. We hypothesized that immune reinvigoration in the tumor would be detectable at 3 weeks and that this response would correlate with disease-free survival. We identified a rapid and potent anti-tumor response, with 8 of 27 patients experiencing a complete or major pathological response after a single dose of anti-PD-1, all of whom remain disease free. These rapid pathologic and clinical responses were associated with accumulation of exhausted CD8 T cells in the tumor at 3 weeks, with reinvigoration in the blood observed as early as 1 week. Transcriptional analysis demonstrated a pretreatment immune signature (neoadjuvant response signature) that was associated with clinical benefit. In contrast, patients with disease recurrence displayed mechanisms of resistance including immune suppression, mutational escape, and/or tumor evolution. Neoadjuvant anti-PD-1 treatment is effective in high-risk resectable stage III/IV melanoma. Pathological response and immunological analyses after a single neoadjuvant dose can be used to predict clinical outcome and to dissect underlying mechanisms in checkpoint blockade.

Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Dermatológicos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Transcriptoma , Evasão Tumoral
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 319, 2017 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28831036


Complete loss of BRCA1 or BRCA2 function is associated with sensitivity to DNA damaging agents. However, not all BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutation-associated tumors respond. Herein we report analyses of 160 BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutation-associated breast and ovarian tumors. Retention of the normal BRCA1 or BRCA2 allele (absence of locus-specific loss of heterozygosity (LOH)) is observed in 7% of BRCA1 ovarian, 16% of BRCA2 ovarian, 10% of BRCA1 breast, and 46% of BRCA2 breast tumors. These tumors have equivalent homologous recombination deficiency scores to sporadic tumors, significantly lower than scores in tumors with locus-specific LOH (ovarian, P = 0.0004; breast P < 0.0001, two-tailed Student's t-test). Absence of locus-specific LOH is associated with decreased overall survival in ovarian cancer patients treated with platinum chemotherapy (P = 0.01, log-rank test). Locus-specific LOH may be a clinically useful biomarker to predict primary resistance to DNA damaging agents in patients with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations.Most tumours associated with germline BRCA1/BRCA2 loss of function mutations respond to DNA damaging agents, however, some do not. Herein, the authors identify that a subset of breast/ovarian tumors retain a normal allele, which is associated with decreased overall survival after DNA damage-inducing platinum chemotherapy.

Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
Autophagy ; 11(1): 60-74, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25484078


Macroautophagy, a catabolic process of cellular self-digestion, is an important tumor cell survival mechanism and a potential target in antineoplastic therapies. Recent discoveries have implicated autophagy in the cellular secretory process, but potential roles of autophagy-mediated secretion in modifying the tumor microenvironment are poorly understood. Furthermore, efforts to inhibit autophagy in clinical trials have been hampered by suboptimal methods to quantitatively measure tumor autophagy levels. Here, we leveraged the autophagy-based involvement in cellular secretion to identify shed proteins associated with autophagy levels in melanoma. The secretome of low-autophagy WM793 melanoma cells was compared to its highly autophagic metastatic derivative, 1205Lu in physiological 3-dimensional cell culture using quantitative proteomics. These comparisons identified candidate autophagy biomarkers IL1B (interleukin 1, ß), CXCL8 (chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8), LIF (leukemia inhibitory factor), FAM3C (family with sequence similarity 3, member C), and DKK3 (dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor 3) with known roles in inflammation and tumorigenesis, and these proteins were subsequently shown to be elevated in supernatants of an independent panel of high-autophagy melanoma cell lines. Secretion levels of these proteins increased when low-autophagy melanoma cells were treated with the autophagy-inducing tat-BECN1 (Beclin 1) peptide and decreased when ATG7 (autophagy-related 7) was silenced in high-autophagy cells, thereby supporting a mechanistic link between these secreted proteins and autophagy. In addition, serum from metastatic melanoma patients with high tumor autophagy levels exhibited higher levels of these proteins than serum from patients with low-autophagy tumors. These results suggest that autophagy-related secretion affects the tumor microenvironment and measurement of autophagy-associated secreted proteins in plasma and possibly in tumors can serve as surrogates for intracellular autophagy dynamics in tumor cells.

Autofagia , Melanoma/patologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteína 7 Relacionada à Autofagia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Meios de Cultura , Inativação Gênica , Humanos , Melanoma/sangue , Melanoma/ultraestrutura , Metástase Neoplásica , Proteínas de Neoplasias/sangue , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares/patologia , Esferoides Celulares/ultraestrutura , Enzimas Ativadoras de Ubiquitina/metabolismo