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1.
Nutrients ; 12(3)2020 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156010

RESUMO

Vitamin D and calcium supplementation have been posited to improve body composition and different formulations of calcium may impact bioavailability. However, data are lacking regarding the combinatorial effects of exercise, diet, and calcium and/or vitamin D supplementation on body composition changes in post-menopausal women. Herein, 128 post-menopausal women (51.3 ± 4.5 years, 36.4 ± 5.7 kg/m2, 46.2 ± 4.5% fat) were assigned to diet and supplement groups while participating in a supervised circuit-style resistance-training program (3 d/week) over a 14-week period. Diet groups included: (1) normal diet (CTL), (2) a low-calorie, higher protein diet (LCHP; 1600 kcal/day, 15% carbohydrates, 55% protein, 30% fat), and (3) a low-calorie, higher carbohydrate diet (LCHC; 1600 kcal/day, 55% carbohydrates, 15% protein, 30% fat). Supplement groups consisted of: (1) maltodextrin (PLA), (2) 800 mg/day of calcium carbonate (Ca), and (3) 800 mg/day of calcium citrate and malate and 400 IU/day of vitamin D (Ca+D). Fasting blood samples, body composition, resting energy expenditure, aerobic capacity, muscular strength and endurance measures were assessed. Data were analyzed by mixed factorial ANOVA with repeated measures and presented as mean change from baseline [95% CI]. Exercise training promoted significant improvements in strength, peak aerobic capacity, and blood lipids. Dieting resulted in greater losses of body mass (CTL -0.4 ± 2.4; LCHC -5.1 ± 4.2; LCHP -3.8 ± 4.2 kg) and fat mass (CTL -1.4 ± 1.8; LCHC -3.7 ± 3.7; LCHP -3.4 ± 3.4 kg). When compared to LCHC-PLA, the LCHC + Ca combination led to greater losses in body mass (PLA -4.1 [-6.1, -2.1], Ca -6.4 [-8.1, -4.7], Ca+D -4.4 [-6.4, -2.5] kg). In comparison to LCHC-Ca, the LCHC-Ca+D led to an improved maintenance of fat-free mass (PLA -0.3 [-1.4, 0.7], Ca -1.4 [-2.3, -0.5], Ca+D 0.4 [-0.6, 1.5] kg) and a greater loss of body fat (PLA -2.3 [-3.4, -1.1], Ca -1.3 [-2.3, -0.3], Ca+D -3.6 [-4.8, -2.5]%). Alternatively, no significant differences in weight loss or body composition resulted when adding Ca or Ca+D to the LCHP regimen in comparison to when PLA was added to the LCHP diet. When combined with an energy-restricted, higher carbohydrate diet, adding 800 mg of Ca carbonate stimulated greater body mass loss compared to when a PLA was added. Alternatively, adding Ca+D to the LCHC diet promoted greater% fat changes and attenuation of fat-free mass loss. Our results expand upon current literature regarding the impact of calcium supplementation with dieting and regular exercise. This data highlights that different forms of calcium in combination with an energy restricted, higher carbohydrate diet may trigger changes in body mass or body composition while no impact of calcium supplementation was observed when participants followed an energy restricted, higher protein diet.

2.
J Strength Cond Res ; 34(2): 295-297, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977587
3.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 62, 2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864419

RESUMO

Position statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review of the mechanisms and use of probiotic supplementation to optimize the health, performance, and recovery of athletes. Based on the current available literature, the conclusions of the ISSN are as follows: 1)Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host (FAO/WHO).2)Probiotic administration has been linked to a multitude of health benefits, with gut and immune health being the most researched applications.3)Despite the existence of shared, core mechanisms for probiotic function, health benefits of probiotics are strain- and dose-dependent.4)Athletes have varying gut microbiota compositions that appear to reflect the activity level of the host in comparison to sedentary people, with the differences linked primarily to the volume of exercise and amount of protein consumption. Whether differences in gut microbiota composition affect probiotic efficacy is unknown.5)The main function of the gut is to digest food and absorb nutrients. In athletic populations, certain probiotics strains can increase absorption of key nutrients such as amino acids from protein, and affect the pharmacology and physiological properties of multiple food components.6)Immune depression in athletes worsens with excessive training load, psychological stress, disturbed sleep, and environmental extremes, all of which can contribute to an increased risk of respiratory tract infections. In certain situations, including exposure to crowds, foreign travel and poor hygiene at home, and training or competition venues, athletes' exposure to pathogens may be elevated leading to increased rates of infections. Approximately 70% of the immune system is located in the gut and probiotic supplementation has been shown to promote a healthy immune response. In an athletic population, specific probiotic strains can reduce the number of episodes, severity and duration of upper respiratory tract infections.7)Intense, prolonged exercise, especially in the heat, has been shown to increase gut permeability which potentially can result in systemic toxemia. Specific probiotic strains can improve the integrity of the gut-barrier function in athletes.8)Administration of selected anti-inflammatory probiotic strains have been linked to improved recovery from muscle-damaging exercise.9)The minimal effective dose and method of administration (potency per serving, single vs. split dose, delivery form) of a specific probiotic strain depends on validation studies for this particular strain. Products that contain probiotics must include the genus, species, and strain of each live microorganism on its label as well as the total estimated quantity of each probiotic strain at the end of the product's shelf life, as measured by colony forming units (CFU) or live cells.10)Preclinical and early human research has shown potential probiotic benefits relevant to an athletic population that include improved body composition and lean body mass, normalizing age-related declines in testosterone levels, reductions in cortisol levels indicating improved responses to a physical or mental stressor, reduction of exercise-induced lactate, and increased neurotransmitter synthesis, cognition and mood. However, these potential benefits require validation in more rigorous human studies and in an athletic population.


Assuntos
Probióticos , Ciências da Nutrição e do Esporte , Atletas , Desempenho Atlético , Composição Corporal , Exercício , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Sociedades Médicas
4.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 50, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699159

RESUMO

Background In this Position Statement, the International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review of the literature pertinent to nutritional considerations for training and racing in single-stage ultra-marathon. Recommendations for Training. i) Ultra-marathon runners should aim to meet the caloric demands of training by following an individualized and periodized strategy, comprising a varied, food-first approach; ii) Athletes should plan and implement their nutrition strategy with sufficient time to permit adaptations that enhance fat oxidative capacity; iii) The evidence overwhelmingly supports the inclusion of a moderate-to-high carbohydrate diet (i.e., ~ 60% of energy intake, 5-8 g·kg- 1·d- 1) to mitigate the negative effects of chronic, training-induced glycogen depletion; iv) Limiting carbohydrate intake before selected low-intensity sessions, and/or moderating daily carbohydrate intake, may enhance mitochondrial function and fat oxidative capacity. Nevertheless, this approach may compromise performance during high-intensity efforts; v) Protein intakes of ~ 1.6 g·kg- 1·d- 1 are necessary to maintain lean mass and support recovery from training, but amounts up to 2.5 g.kg- 1·d- 1 may be warranted during demanding training when calorie requirements are greater; Recommendations for Racing. vi) To attenuate caloric deficits, runners should aim to consume 150-400 Kcal·h- 1 (carbohydrate, 30-50 g·h- 1; protein, 5-10 g·h- 1) from a variety of calorie-dense foods. Consideration must be given to food palatability, individual tolerance, and the increased preference for savory foods in longer races; vii) Fluid volumes of 450-750 mL·h- 1 (~ 150-250 mL every 20 min) are recommended during racing. To minimize the likelihood of hyponatraemia, electrolytes (mainly sodium) may be needed in concentrations greater than that provided by most commercial products (i.e., > 575 mg·L- 1 sodium). Fluid and electrolyte requirements will be elevated when running in hot and/or humid conditions; viii) Evidence supports progressive gut-training and/or low-FODMAP diets (fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol) to alleviate symptoms of gastrointestinal distress during racing; ix) The evidence in support of ketogenic diets and/or ketone esters to improve ultra-marathon performance is lacking, with further research warranted; x) Evidence supports the strategic use of caffeine to sustain performance in the latter stages of racing, particularly when sleep deprivation may compromise athlete safety.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Necessidades Nutricionais , Corrida/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Atletas , Desempenho Atlético , Comportamento Competitivo , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Resistência Física , Corrida/classificação , Sociedades
5.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(13): 842-849, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491790

RESUMO

The purpose was to analyze the influence of oral contraceptive use on body composition and strength levels in trained women. Twenty-three resistance-trained women participated in this study (age=27.4±3.4 years; fat mass=28.0±5.0%; BMI=22.9±2.7 kg∙m-2). Subjects performed an 8-week non-linear resistance-training program. Participants were assigned to either a group that consumed oral contraceptives (n=12, OC) or to a group that did not consume (n=11, NOC). Changes in body composition were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Strength performance was assessed via the one maximum repetition (1RM) test in the squat and bench press, and muscular power was evaluated using the countermovement jump (CMJ) test. Fat free mass increased significantly in OC but no changes were seen in NOC. There were no changes in fat mass for either OC or NOC. Significant changes were found in bench press 1RM for both OC and NOC; similarly, increases in squat 1RM were reported in OC and NOC. Alternatively, no significant changes were found in CMJ in both OC and NOC. No significant between-group differences were detected in any of the studied variables. The use of oral contraceptives during resistance training did not negatively affect body composition or strength levels in trained women.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Anticoncepcionais Orais/farmacologia , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Treinamento de Resistência , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Exercício Pliométrico , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 34, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously reported that consuming a food bar (FB) containing whey protein and the plant fiber isomalto-oligosaccharides [IMO] had a lower glycemic (GI) but similar insulinemic response as a high GI carbohydrate. Therefore, we hypothesized that ingestion of this FB before, during, and following intense exercise would better maintain glucose homeostasis and performance while hastening recovery in comparison to the common practice of ingesting carbohydrate alone. METHODS: Twelve resistance-trained males participated in an open label, randomized, counterbalanced, crossover trial with a 7-d washout period. Participants consumed a carbohydrate matched dextrose comparitor (CHO) or a FB containing 20 g of whey, 25 g of IMO, and 7 g of fat 30-min before, mid-way, and following intense exercise. Participants performed 11 resistance-exercises (3 sets of 10 repetitions at 70% of 1RM) followed by agility and sprint conditioning drills for time. Participants donated blood to assess catabolic and inflammatory markers, performed isokinetic strength tests, and rated perceptions of muscle soreness, hypoglycemia before, and following exercise and after 48 h of recovery. Data were analyzed using general linear models (GLM) for repeated measures and mean changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CI) with a one-way analysis of variance. Data are reported as mean change from baseline with 95% CI. RESULTS: GLM analysis demonstrated that blood glucose was significantly higher 30-min post-ingestion for CHO (3.1 [2.0, 4.3 mmol/L,] and FB (0.8 [0.2, 1.5, mmol/L, p = 0.001) while the post-exercise ratio of insulin to glucose was greater with FB (CHO 0.04 [0.00, 0.08], FB 0.11 [0.07, 0.15], p = 0.013, η2 = 0.25). GLM analysis revealed no significant interaction effects between treatments in lifting volume of each resistance-exercise or total lifting volume. However, analysis of mean changes from baseline with 95% CI's revealed that leg press lifting volume (CHO -130.79 [- 235.02, - 26.55]; FB -7.94 [- 112.17, 96.30] kg, p = 0.09, η2 = 0.12) and total lifting volume (CHO -198.26 [- 320.1, - 76.4], FB -81.7 [- 203.6, 40.1] kg, p = 0.175, η2 = 0.08) from set 1 to 3 was significantly reduced for CHO, but not for the FB. No significant interaction effects were observed in ratings of muscle soreness. However, mean change analysis revealed that ratings of soreness of the distal vastus medialis significantly increased from baseline with CHO while being unchanged with FB (CHO 1.88 [0.60, 3.17]; FB 0.29 [- 0.99, 1.57] cm, p = 0.083, η2 = 0.13). No significant GLM interaction or mean change analysis effects were seen between treatments in sprint performance, isokinetic strength, markers of catabolism, stress and sex hormones, or inflammatory markers. CONCLUSION: Pilot study results provide some evidence that ingestion of this FB can positively affect glucose homeostasis, help maintain workout performance, and lessen perceptions of muscle soreness. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov, # NCT03704337 . Retrospectively registered 12, July 2018.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Treinamento de Resistência , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/administração & dosagem , Glicemia , Estudos Cross-Over , Ingestão de Alimentos , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Contração Isométrica , Masculino , Mialgia , Oligossacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Projetos Piloto , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Adulto Jovem
7.
Front Nutr ; 6: 124, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448281

RESUMO

Sarcopenia is an age-related muscle condition characterized by a reduction in muscle quantity, force generating capacity and physical performance. Sarcopenia occurs in 8-13% of adults ≥ 60 years of age and can lead to disability, frailty, and various other diseases. Over the past few decades, several leading research groups have focused their efforts on developing strategies and recommendations for attenuating sarcopenia. One potential nutritional intervention for sarcopenia is creatine supplementation. However, research is inconsistent regarding the effectiveness of creatine on aging muscle. The purpose of this perspective paper is to: (1) propose possible reasons for the inconsistent responsiveness to creatine in aging adults, (2) discuss the potential mechanistic actions of creatine on muscle biology, (3) determine whether the timing of creatine supplementation influences aging muscle, (4) evaluate the evidence investigating the effects of creatine with other compounds (protein, conjugated linoleic acid) in aging adults, and (5) provide insight regarding the safety of creatine for aging adults.

8.
J Clin Med ; 8(4)2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978926

RESUMO

Sarcopenia, defined as the age-related decrease in muscle mass, strength and physical performance, is associated with reduced bone mass and elevated low-grade inflammation. From a healthy aging perspective, interventions which overcome sarcopenia are clinically relevant. Accumulating evidence suggests that exogenous creatine supplementation has the potential to increase aging muscle mass, muscle performance, and decrease the risk of falls and possibly attenuate inflammation and loss of bone mineral. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to: (1) summarize the effects of creatine supplementation, with and without resistance training, in aging adults and discuss possible mechanisms of action, (2) examine the effects of creatine on bone biology and risk of falls, (3) evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory effects of creatine and (4) determine the safety of creatine supplementation in aging adults.

9.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 119(4): 933-940, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30680448

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of resistance training (RT) with an emphasis on either muscular strength-type RT or muscular endurance-type RT on measures of body composition. METHODS: Twenty-five resistance-trained men (age 28.4 ± 6.4 years; body mass 75.9 ± 8.4 kg; height 176.9 ± 7.5 cm) were randomly assigned to either a strength-type RT group that performed three sets of 6-8 repetition maximum (RM) with 3-min rest (n = 10), an endurance-type RT group that performed three sets of 20-25 RM with a 60-s rest interval (n = 10), or a control group (n = 5, CG). All groups completed each set until muscular failure and were supervised to follow a hyperenergetic diet (39 kcal·kg-1·day-1). Body composition changes were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: After 8 weeks, we found significant increases in total body mass (0.9 [0.3-1.5] kg; p < 0.05; ES = < 0.2) and lean body mass (LBM) (1.3 [0.5-2.2] kg; p < 0.05; ES = 0.31) only in the strength-type RT group; however, no significant interactions were noted between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Although only strength-type RT showed statistically significant increases in LBM from baseline, no between-group differences were noted for any body composition outcome. These findings suggest that LBM gains in resistance trained are not significantly influenced by the type of training stimulus over an 8-week training period.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência , Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia
10.
Nutrients ; 10(8)2018 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30103509

RESUMO

Resistance training and maintenance of a higher protein diet have been recommended to help older individuals maintain muscle mass. This study examined whether adherence to a higher protein diet while participating in a resistance-based exercise program promoted more favorable changes in body composition, markers of health, and/or functional capacity in older females in comparison to following a traditional higher carbohydrate diet or exercise training alone with no diet intervention. In total, 54 overweight and obese females (65.9 ± 4.7 years; 78.7 ± 11 kg, 30.5 ± 4.1 kg/m², 43.5 ± 3.6% fat) were randomly assigned to an exercise-only group (E), an exercise plus hypo-energetic higher carbohydrate (HC) diet, or a higher protein diet (HP) diet. Participants followed their respective diet plans and performed a supervised 30-min circuit-style resistance exercise program 3 d/wk. Participants were tested at 0, 10, and 14 weeks. Data were analyzed using univariate, multivariate, and repeated measures general linear model (GLM) statistics as well as one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of changes from baseline with [95% confidence intervals]. Results revealed that after 14 weeks, participants in the HP group experienced significantly greater reductions in weight (E -1.3 ± 2.3, [-2.4, -0.2]; HC -3.0 ± 3.1 [-4.5, -1.5]; HP -4.8 ± 3.2, [-6.4, -3.1]%, p = 0.003), fat mass (E -2.7 ± 3.8, [-4.6, -0.9]; HC -5.9 ± 4.2 [-8.0, -3.9]; HP -10.2 ± 5.8 [-13.2, ⁻7.2%], p < 0.001), and body fat percentage (E -2.0 ± 3.5 [-3.7, -0.3]; HC -4.3 ± 3.2 [-5.9, -2.8]; HP -6.3 ± 3.5 [-8.1, -4.5] %, p = 0.002) with no significant reductions in fat-free mass or resting energy expenditure over time or among groups. Significant differences were observed in leptin (E -1.8 ± 34 [-18, 14]; HC 43.8 ± 55 [CI 16, 71]; HP -26.5 ± 70 [-63, -9.6] ng/mL, p = 0.001) and adiponectin (E 43.1 ± 76.2 [6.3, 79.8]; HC -27.9 ± 33.4 [-44.5, -11.3]; HP 52.3 ± 79 [11.9, 92.8] µg/mL, p = 0.001). All groups experienced significant improvements in muscular strength, muscular endurance, aerobic capacity, markers of balance and functional capacity, and several markers of health. These findings indicate that a higher protein diet while participating in a resistance-based exercise program promoted more favorable changes in body composition compared to a higher carbohydrate diet in older females.


Assuntos
Dieta Rica em Proteínas , Tolerância ao Exercício , Obesidade/terapia , Cooperação do Paciente , Treinamento de Resistência , Perda de Peso , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Composição Corporal , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Texas , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 15(1): 38, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sports nutrition is a constantly evolving field with hundreds of research papers published annually. In the year 2017 alone, 2082 articles were published under the key words 'sport nutrition'. Consequently, staying current with the relevant literature is often difficult. METHODS: This paper is an ongoing update of the sports nutrition review article originally published as the lead paper to launch the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition in 2004 and updated in 2010. It presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to optimization of training and performance enhancement through exercise training and nutrition. Notably, due to the accelerated pace and size at which the literature base in this research area grows, the topics discussed will focus on muscle hypertrophy and performance enhancement. As such, this paper provides an overview of: 1.) How ergogenic aids and dietary supplements are defined in terms of governmental regulation and oversight; 2.) How dietary supplements are legally regulated in the United States; 3.) How to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 4.) General nutritional strategies to optimize performance and enhance recovery; and, 5.) An overview of our current understanding of nutritional approaches to augment skeletal muscle hypertrophy and the potential ergogenic value of various dietary and supplemental approaches. CONCLUSIONS: This updated review is to provide ISSN members and individuals interested in sports nutrition with information that can be implemented in educational, research or practical settings and serve as a foundational basis for determining the efficacy and safety of many common sport nutrition products and their ingredients.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Regulamentação Governamental , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/normas , Atletas , Dieta , Exercício , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Necessidades Nutricionais , Sociedades , Ciências da Nutrição e do Esporte , Estados Unidos
12.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 15(1): 31, 2018 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29986720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ketogenic diets (KD) have become a popular method of promoting weight loss. More recently, some have recommended that athletes adhere to ketogenic diets in order to optimize changes in body composition during training. This study evaluated the efficacy of an 8-week ketogenic diet (KD) during energy surplus and resistance training (RT) protocol on body composition in trained men. METHODS: Twenty-four healthy men (age 30 ± 4.7 years; weight 76.7 ± 8.2 kg; height 174.3 ± 19.7 cm) performed an 8-week RT program. Participants were randomly assigned to a KD group (n = 9), non-KD group (n = 10, NKD), and control group (n = 5, CG) in hyperenergetic condition. Body composition changes were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Compliance with the ketosis state was monitored by measuring urinary ketones weekly. Data were analyzed using a univariate, multivariate and repeated measures general linear model (GLM) statistics. RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in fat mass (mean change, 95% CI; p-value; Cohen's d effect size [ES]; - 0.8 [- 1.6, - 0.1] kg; p < 0.05; ES = - 0.46) and visceral adipose tissue (- 96.5 [- 159.0, - 34.0] g; p < 0.05; ES = - 0.84), while no significant changes were observed in the NKD and CG in fat mass (- 0,5 [- 1.2, 0.3] kg; p > 0.05; ES = - 0.17 and - 0,5 [- 2.4, 1.3] kg; p > 0.05; ES = - 0.12, respectively) or visceral adipose tissue (- 33.8 [- 90.4, 22.8]; p > 0.5; ES = - 0.17 and 1.7 [- 133.3, 136.7]; p > 0.05; ES = 0.01, respectively). No significant increases were observed in total body weight (- 0.9 [- 2.3, 0.6]; p > 0.05; ES = [- 0.18]) and muscle mass (- 0.1 [- 1.1,1.0]; p > 0,05; ES = - 0.04) in the KD group, but the NKD group showed increases in these parameters (0.9 [0.3, 1.5] kg; p < 0.05; ES = 0.18 and (1.3[0.5, 2.2] kg; p < 0,05; ES = 0.31, respectively). There were no changes neither in total body weight nor lean body mass (0.3 [- 1.2, 1.9]; p > 0.05; ES = 0.05 and 0.8 [- 0.4, 2.1]; p > 0.05; ES = 0.26, respectively) in the CG. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that a KD might be an alternative dietary approach to decrease fat mass and visceral adipose tissue without decreasing lean body mass; however, it might not be useful to increase muscle mass during positive energy balance in men undergoing RT for 8 weeks.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Dieta Cetogênica , Treinamento de Resistência , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Metabolismo Energético , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Food Funct ; 9(6): 3097-3103, 2018 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29850709

RESUMO

Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) berries, characterized by high polyphenol concentrations (predominantly anthocyanins), have demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activities. The study objective was to determine the modulation of lipid and glucose-metabolism, as well as oxidative stress and inflammation, by an açaí-beverage (containing 1139 mg L-1 gallic acid equivalents of total polyphenolics) in 37 individuals with metabolic syndrome (BMI 33.5 ± 6.7 kg m-2) who were randomized to consume 325 mL twice per d of a placebo control or açaí-beverage for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, dietary intake, and blood and urine samples were collected at baseline and after 12 weeks of consumption. Two functional biomarkers, plasma level of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and urinary level of 8-isoprostane, were significantly decreased after 12 weeks of açaí consumption compared to the placebo control (p = 0.0141 and 0.0099, respectively). No significant modification of biomarkers for lipid- and glucose-metabolism was observed in this study. Findings from this small pilot study provide a weak indication that the selected dose of açaí polyphenols may be beneficial in metabolic syndrome as only two biomarkers for inflammation and oxidative stress were improved over 12 weeks. Follow-up studies should be conducted with higher polyphenol-doses before drawing conclusions regarding the efficacy of açaí polyphenols in metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Euterpe/química , Glucose/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Feminino , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/imunologia , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo , Projetos Piloto , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Exerc Nutrition Biochem ; 22(4): 7-19, 2018 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661327

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Studies of L-carnitine in healthy athletic populations have yielded equivocal results. Further scientific-based knowledge is needed to clarify the ability of L-carnitine to improve exercise capacity and expedite the recovery process by reducing oxidative stress. This study aimed to examine the 9-week effects of L-carnitine supplementation on exercise performance, anaerobic capacity, and exercise-induced oxidative stress markers in resistance-trained males. METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled treatment, 23 men (age, 25±2y; weight, 81.2±8.31 kg; body fat, 17.1±5.9%) ingested either a placebo (2 g/d, n=11) or L-carnitine (2 g/d, n=12) for 9 weeks in conjunction with resistance training. Primary outcome measurements were analyzed at baseline and at weeks 3, 6, and 9. Participants underwent a similar resistance training (4 d/w, upper/lower body split) for a 9-week period. Two-way ANOVA with repeated measures was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: There were significant increases in bench press lifting volume at wk-6 (146 kg, 95% CI 21.1, 272) and wk-9 (245 kg, 95% CI 127, 362) with L-carnitine. A similar trend was observed for leg press. In the L-carnitine group, at wk-9, there were significant increases in mean power (63.4 W, 95% CI 32.0, 94.8) and peak power (239 W, 95% CI 86.6, 392), reduction in post-exercise blood lactate levels (-1.60 mmol/L, 95% CI -2.44, -0.75) and beneficial changes in total antioxidant capacity (0.18 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.07, 0.28). CONCLUSION: L-carnitine supplementation enhances exercise performance while attenuating blood lactate and oxidative stress responses to resistance training.

15.
Nutrients ; 9(12)2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29244743

RESUMO

In a double-blind, crossover, randomized and placebo-controlled trial; 28 men and women ingested a placebo (PLA), 3 g of creatine nitrate (CNL), and 6 g of creatine nitrate (CNH) for 6 days. Participants repeated the experiment with the alternate supplements after a 7-day washout. Hemodynamic responses to a postural challenge, fasting blood samples, and bench press, leg press, and cycling time trial performance and recovery were assessed. Data were analyzed by univariate, multivariate, and repeated measures general linear models (GLM). No significant differences were found among treatments for hemodynamic responses, clinical blood markers or self-reported side effects. After 5 days of supplementation, one repetition maximum (1RM) bench press improved significantly for CNH (mean change, 95% CI; 6.1 [3.5, 8.7] kg) but not PLA (0.7 [-1.6, 3.0] kg or CNL (2.0 [-0.9, 4.9] kg, CNH, p = 0.01). CNH participants also tended to experience an attenuated loss in 1RM strength during the recovery performance tests following supplementation on day 5 (PLA: -9.3 [-13.5, -5.0], CNL: -9.3 [-13.5, -5.1], CNH: -3.9 [-6.6, -1.2] kg, p = 0.07). After 5 days, pre-supplementation 1RM leg press values increased significantly, only with CNH (24.7 [8.8, 40.6] kg, but not PLA (13.9 [-15.7, 43.5] or CNL (14.6 [-0.5, 29.7]). Further, post-supplementation 1RM leg press recovery did not decrease significantly for CNH (-13.3 [-31.9, 5.3], but did for PLA (-30.5 [-53.4, -7.7] and CNL (-29.0 [-49.5, -8.4]). CNL treatment promoted an increase in bench press repetitions at 70% of 1RM during recovery on day 5 (PLA: 0.4 [-0.8, 1.6], CNL: 0.9 [0.35, 1.5], CNH: 0.5 [-0.2, 0.3], p = 0.56), greater leg press endurance prior to supplementation on day 5 (PLA: -0.2 [-1.6, 1.2], CNL: 0.9 [0.2, 1.6], CNH: 0.2 [-0.5, 0.9], p = 0.25) and greater leg press endurance during recovery on day 5 (PLA: -0.03 [-1.2, 1.1], CNL: 1.1 [0.3, 1.9], CNH: 0.4 [-0.4, 1.2], p = 0.23). Cycling time trial performance (4 km) was not affected. Results indicate that creatine nitrate supplementation, up to a 6 g dose, for 6 days, appears to be safe and provide some ergogenic benefit.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Creatina/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Nitratos/administração & dosagem , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Antropometria , Ciclismo , Composição Corporal , Creatina/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Nitratos/sangue , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/sangue , Resistência Física , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 14: 33, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28919842

RESUMO

The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review regarding the timing of macronutrients in reference to healthy, exercising adults and in particular highly trained individuals on exercise performance and body composition. The following points summarize the position of the ISSN:Nutrient timing incorporates the use of methodical planning and eating of whole foods, fortified foods and dietary supplements. The timing of energy intake and the ratio of certain ingested macronutrients may enhance recovery and tissue repair, augment muscle protein synthesis (MPS), and improve mood states following high-volume or intense exercise.Endogenous glycogen stores are maximized by following a high-carbohydrate diet (8-12 g of carbohydrate/kg/day [g/kg/day]); moreover, these stores are depleted most by high volume exercise.If rapid restoration of glycogen is required (< 4 h of recovery time) then the following strategies should be considered:aggressive carbohydrate refeeding (1.2 g/kg/h) with a preference towards carbohydrate sources that have a high (> 70) glycemic indexthe addition of caffeine (3-8 mg/kg)combining carbohydrates (0.8 g/kg/h) with protein (0.2-0.4 g/kg/h) Extended (> 60 min) bouts of high intensity (> 70% VO2max) exercise challenge fuel supply and fluid regulation, thus carbohydrate should be consumed at a rate of ~30-60 g of carbohydrate/h in a 6-8% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (6-12 fluid ounces) every 10-15 min throughout the entire exercise bout, particularly in those exercise bouts that span beyond 70 min. When carbohydrate delivery is inadequate, adding protein may help increase performance, ameliorate muscle damage, promote euglycemia and facilitate glycogen re-synthesis.Carbohydrate ingestion throughout resistance exercise (e.g., 3-6 sets of 8-12 repetition maximum [RM] using multiple exercises targeting all major muscle groups) has been shown to promote euglycemia and higher glycogen stores. Consuming carbohydrate solely or in combination with protein during resistance exercise increases muscle glycogen stores, ameliorates muscle damage, and facilitates greater acute and chronic training adaptations.Meeting the total daily intake of protein, preferably with evenly spaced protein feedings (approximately every 3 h during the day), should be viewed as a primary area of emphasis for exercising individuals.Ingestion of essential amino acids (EAA; approximately 10 g)either in free form or as part of a protein bolus of approximately 20-40 g has been shown to maximally stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS).Pre- and/or post-exercise nutritional interventions (carbohydrate + protein or protein alone) may operate as an effective strategy to support increases in strength and improvements in body composition. However, the size and timing of a pre-exercise meal may impact the extent to which post-exercise protein feeding is required.Post-exercise ingestion (immediately to 2-h post) of high-quality protein sources stimulates robust increases in MPS.In non-exercising scenarios, changing the frequency of meals has shown limited impact on weight loss and body composition, with stronger evidence to indicate meal frequency can favorably improve appetite and satiety. More research is needed to determine the influence of combining an exercise program with altered meal frequencies on weight loss and body composition with preliminary research indicating a potential benefit.Ingesting a 20-40 g protein dose (0.25-0.40 g/kg body mass/dose) of a high-quality source every three to 4 h appears to most favorably affect MPS rates when compared to other dietary patterns and is associated with improved body composition and performance outcomes.Consuming casein protein (~ 30-40 g) prior to sleep can acutely increase MPS and metabolic rate throughout the night without influencing lipolysis.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência , Ciências da Nutrição e do Esporte , Composição Corporal , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Necessidades Nutricionais , Sociedades , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Nutrients ; 9(8)2017 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28763003

RESUMO

In a double-blind, randomized and crossover manner, 25 resistance-trained participants ingested a placebo (PLA) beverage containing 12 g of dextrose and a beverage (RTD) containing caffeine (200 mg), ß-alanine (2.1 g), arginine nitrate (1.3 g), niacin (65 mg), folic acid (325 mcg), and Vitamin B12 (45 mcg) for 7-days, separated by a 7-10-day. On day 1 and 6, participants donated a fasting blood sample and completed a side-effects questionnaire (SEQ), hemodynamic challenge test, 1-RM and muscular endurance tests (3 × 10 repetitions at 70% of 1-RM with the last set to failure on the bench press (BP) and leg press (LP)) followed by ingesting the assigned beverage. After 15 min, participants repeated the hemodynamic test, 1-RM tests, and performed a repetition to fatigue (RtF) test at 70% of 1-RM, followed by completing the SEQ. On day 2 and 7, participants donated a fasting blood sample, completed the SEQ, ingested the assigned beverage, rested 30 min, and performed a 4 km cycling time-trial (TT). Data were analyzed by univariate, multivariate, and repeated measures general linear models (GLM), adjusted for gender and relative caffeine intake. Data are presented as mean change (95% CI). An overall multivariate time × treatment interaction was observed on strength performance variables (p = 0.01). Acute RTD ingestion better maintained LP 1-RM (PLA: -0.285 (-0.49, -0.08); RTD: 0.23 (-0.50, 0.18) kg/kgFFM, p = 0.30); increased LP RtF (PLA: -2.60 (-6.8, 1.6); RTD: 4.00 (-0.2, 8.2) repetitions, p = 0.031); increased BP lifting volume (PLA: 0.001 (-0.13, 0.16); RTD: 0.03 (0.02, 0.04) kg/kgFFM, p = 0.007); and, increased total lifting volume (PLA: -13.12 (-36.9, 10.5); RTD: 21.06 (-2.7, 44.8) kg/kgFFM, p = 0.046). Short-term RTD ingestion maintained baseline LP 1-RM (PLA: -0.412 (-0.08, -0.07); RTD: 0.16 (-0.50, 0.18) kg/kgFFM, p = 0.30); LP RtF (PLA: 0.12 (-3.0, 3.2); RTD: 3.6 (0.5, 6.7) repetitions, p = 0.116); and, LP lifting volume (PLA: 3.64 (-8.8, 16.1); RTD: 16.25 (3.8, 28.7) kg/kgFFM, p = 0.157) to a greater degree than PLA. No significant differences were observed between treatments in cycling TT performance, hemodynamic assessment, fasting blood panels, or self-reported side effects.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Exercício , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Adulto , Bebidas/análise , Estudos Cross-Over , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Alimentos Formulados , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 14: 20, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28642676

RESUMO

The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review related to the intake of protein for healthy, exercising individuals. Based on the current available literature, the position of the Society is as follows:An acute exercise stimulus, particularly resistance exercise, and protein ingestion both stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and are synergistic when protein consumption occurs before or after resistance exercise.For building muscle mass and for maintaining muscle mass through a positive muscle protein balance, an overall daily protein intake in the range of 1.4-2.0 g protein/kg body weight/day (g/kg/d) is sufficient for most exercising individuals, a value that falls in line within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range published by the Institute of Medicine for protein.Higher protein intakes (2.3-3.1 g/kg/d) may be needed to maximize the retention of lean body mass in resistance-trained subjects during hypocaloric periods.There is novel evidence that suggests higher protein intakes (>3.0 g/kg/d) may have positive effects on body composition in resistance-trained individuals (i.e., promote loss of fat mass).Recommendations regarding the optimal protein intake per serving for athletes to maximize MPS are mixed and are dependent upon age and recent resistance exercise stimuli. General recommendations are 0.25 g of a high-quality protein per kg of body weight, or an absolute dose of 20-40 g.Acute protein doses should strive to contain 700-3000 mg of leucine and/or a higher relative leucine content, in addition to a balanced array of the essential amino acids (EAAs).These protein doses should ideally be evenly distributed, every 3-4 h, across the day.The optimal time period during which to ingest protein is likely a matter of individual tolerance, since benefits are derived from pre- or post-workout ingestion; however, the anabolic effect of exercise is long-lasting (at least 24 h), but likely diminishes with increasing time post-exercise.While it is possible for physically active individuals to obtain their daily protein requirements through the consumption of whole foods, supplementation is a practical way of ensuring intake of adequate protein quality and quantity, while minimizing caloric intake, particularly for athletes who typically complete high volumes of training. Rapidly digested proteins that contain high proportions of essential amino acids (EAAs) and adequate leucine, are most effective in stimulating MPS. Different types and quality of protein can affect amino acid bioavailability following protein supplementation. Athletes should consider focusing on whole food sources of protein that contain all of the EAAs (i.e., it is the EAAs that are required to stimulate MPS). Endurance athletes should focus on achieving adequate carbohydrate intake to promote optimal performance; the addition of protein may help to offset muscle damage and promote recovery. Pre-sleep casein protein intake (30-40 g) provides increases in overnight MPS and metabolic rate without influencing lipolysis.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Exercício , Necessidades Nutricionais , Ciências da Nutrição e do Esporte/normas , Aminoácidos Essenciais/administração & dosagem , Atletas , Desempenho Atlético , Composição Corporal , Peso Corporal , Humanos , Leucina/administração & dosagem
19.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 14: 18, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28615996

RESUMO

Creatine is one of the most popular nutritional ergogenic aids for athletes. Studies have consistently shown that creatine supplementation increases intramuscular creatine concentrations which may help explain the observed improvements in high intensity exercise performance leading to greater training adaptations. In addition to athletic and exercise improvement, research has shown that creatine supplementation may enhance post-exercise recovery, injury prevention, thermoregulation, rehabilitation, and concussion and/or spinal cord neuroprotection. Additionally, a number of clinical applications of creatine supplementation have been studied involving neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., muscular dystrophy, Parkinson's, Huntington's disease), diabetes, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, aging, brain and heart ischemia, adolescent depression, and pregnancy. These studies provide a large body of evidence that creatine can not only improve exercise performance, but can play a role in preventing and/or reducing the severity of injury, enhancing rehabilitation from injuries, and helping athletes tolerate heavy training loads. Additionally, researchers have identified a number of potentially beneficial clinical uses of creatine supplementation. These studies show that short and long-term supplementation (up to 30 g/day for 5 years) is safe and well-tolerated in healthy individuals and in a number of patient populations ranging from infants to the elderly. Moreover, significant health benefits may be provided by ensuring habitual low dietary creatine ingestion (e.g., 3 g/day) throughout the lifespan. The purpose of this review is to provide an update to the current literature regarding the role and safety of creatine supplementation in exercise, sport, and medicine and to update the position stand of International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN).


Assuntos
Creatina/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Exercício/fisiologia , Ciências da Nutrição e do Esporte/normas , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Desempenho Atlético , Humanos , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/administração & dosagem , Sociedades Científicas
20.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ; 42(2): 216-227, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28044449

RESUMO

While commercial dietary weight-loss programs typically advise exercise, few provide actual programing. The goal of this study was to compare the Curves Complete 90-day Challenge (CC, n = 29), which incorporates exercising and diet, to programs advocating exercise (Weight Watchers Points Plus (WW, n = 29), Jenny Craig At Home (JC, n = 27), and Nutrisystem Advance Select (NS, n = 28)) or control (n = 20) on metabolic syndrome (MetS) and weight loss. We randomized 133 sedentary, overweight women (age, 47 ± 11 years; body mass, 86 ± 14 kg; body mass index, 35 ± 6 kg/m2) into respective treatment groups for 12 weeks. Data were analyzed using chi square and general linear models adjusted for age and respective baseline measures. Data are means ± SD or mean change ± 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We observed a significant trend for a reduction in energy intake for all treatment groups and significant weight loss for all groups except control: CC (-4.32 kg; 95% CI, -5.75, -2.88), WW (-4.31 kg; 95% CI, -5.82, -2.96), JC (-5.34 kg; 95% CI, -6.86, -3.90), NS (-5.03 kg; 95% CI, -6.49, -3.56), and control (0.16 kg, 95% CI, -1.56, 1.89). Reduced MetS prevalence was observed at follow-up for CC (35% vs. 14%, adjusted standardized residuals (adjres.) = 3.1), but not WW (31% vs. 28% adjres. = 0.5), JC (37% vs. 42%, adjres. = -0.7), NS (39% vs. 50% adjres. = -1.5), or control (45% vs. 55% adjres. = -1.7). While all groups improved relative fitness (mL·kg-1·min-1) because of weight loss, only the CC group improved absolute fitness (L/min). In conclusion, commercial programs offering concurrent diet and exercise programming appear to offer greater improvements in MetS prevalence and cardiovascular function after 12 weeks of intervention.


Assuntos
Dieta Redutora , Exercício , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Terapia Combinada/economia , Dieta Redutora/economia , Método Duplo-Cego , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Cooperação do Paciente , Prevalência , Treinamento de Resistência , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Texas/epidemiologia , Perda de Peso
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