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1.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216705, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095607

RESUMO

The cilium is an essential organelle at the surface of mammalian cells whose dysfunction causes a wide range of genetic diseases collectively called ciliopathies. The current rate at which new ciliopathy genes are identified suggests that many ciliary components remain undiscovered. We generated and rigorously analyzed genomic, proteomic, transcriptomic and evolutionary data and systematically integrated these using Bayesian statistics into a predictive score for ciliary function. This resulted in 285 candidate ciliary genes. We generated independent experimental evidence of ciliary associations for 24 out of 36 analyzed candidate proteins using multiple cell and animal model systems (mouse, zebrafish and nematode) and techniques. For example, we show that OSCP1, which has previously been implicated in two distinct non-ciliary processes, causes ciliogenic and ciliopathy-associated tissue phenotypes when depleted in zebrafish. The candidate list forms the basis of CiliaCarta, a comprehensive ciliary compendium covering 956 genes. The resource can be used to objectively prioritize candidate genes in whole exome or genome sequencing of ciliopathy patients and can be accessed at http://bioinformatics.bio.uu.nl/john/syscilia/ciliacarta/.

2.
Hear Res ; 376: 58-68, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30665849

RESUMO

Hereditary hearing loss is both clinically and genetically very heterogeneous. Despite the large number of genes that have been associated with the condition, many cases remain unexplained. Novel gene associations with hearing loss are to be expected but also are defects of regulatory regions of the genome which are currently not routinely addressed in molecular genetic testing and research. Inheritance patterns other than monogenic might be more common than assumed in isolated cases and diagnoses might have been missed because of misinterpretation of identified DNA variants. This review summarizes current insights in the genetics of hearing loss, the next steps that are being taken in research, and their challenges. Furthermore, genotype-phenotype correlations and modifying factors are discussed as these are instrumental in counselling hearing impaired individuals and/or their family members.

3.
Hum Genet ; 138(1): 61-72, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30535804

RESUMO

ATP2B2 encodes the PMCA2 Ca2+ pump that plays an important role in maintaining ion homeostasis in hair cells among others by extrusion of Ca2+ from the stereocilia to the endolymph. Several mouse models have been described for this gene; mice heterozygous for loss-of-function defects display a rapidly progressive high-frequency hearing impairment. Up to now ATP2B2 has only been reported as a modifier, or in a digenic mechanism with CDH23 for hearing impairment in humans. Whole exome sequencing in hearing impaired index cases of Dutch and Polish origins revealed five novel heterozygous (predicted to be) loss-of-function variants of ATP2B2. Two variants, c.1963G>T (p.Glu655*) and c.955delG (p.Ala319fs), occurred de novo. Three variants c.397+1G>A (p.?), c.1998C>A (p.Cys666*), and c.2329C>T (p.Arg777*), were identified in families with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern of hearing impairment. After normal newborn hearing screening, a rapidly progressive high-frequency hearing impairment was diagnosed at the age of about 3-6 years. Subjects had no balance complaints and vestibular testing did not yield abnormalities. There was no evidence for retrocochlear pathology or structural inner ear abnormalities. Although a digenic inheritance pattern of hearing impairment has been reported for heterozygous missense variants of ATP2B2 and CDH23, our findings indicate a monogenic cause of hearing impairment in cases with loss-of-function variants of ATP2B2.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Perda Auditiva/genética , Mutação , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio da Membrana Plasmática/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
4.
Hum Mutat ; 39(11): 1593-1613, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30311386

RESUMO

Due to the high genetic heterogeneity of hearing loss (HL), current clinical testing includes sequencing large numbers of genes, which often yields a significant number of novel variants. Therefore, the standardization of variant interpretation is crucial to provide consistent and accurate diagnoses. The Hearing Loss Variant Curation Expert Panel was created within the Clinical Genome Resource to provide expert guidance for standardized genomic interpretation in the context of HL. As one of its major tasks, our Expert Panel has adapted the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics/Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP) guidelines for the interpretation of sequence variants in HL genes. Here, we provide a comprehensive illustration of the newly specified ACMG/AMP HL rules. Three rules remained unchanged, four rules were removed, and the remaining 21 rules were specified. These rules were further validated and refined using a pilot set of 51 variants assessed by curators and disease experts. Of the 51 variants evaluated in the pilot, 37% (19/51) changed category based upon application of the expert panel specified rules and/or aggregation of evidence across laboratories. These HL-specific ACMG/AMP rules will help standardize variant interpretation, ultimately leading to better care for individuals with HL.

5.
Zebrafish ; 15(6): 597-609, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30281416

RESUMO

The frequent deep-intronic c.7595-2144A>G mutation in intron 40 of USH2A generates a high-quality splice donor site, resulting in the incorporation of a pseudoexon (PE40) into the mature transcript that is predicted to prematurely terminate usherin translation. Aberrant USH2A pre-mRNA splicing could be corrected in patient-derived fibroblasts using antisense oligonucleotides. With the aim to study the effect of the c.7595-2144A>G mutation and USH2A splice redirection on retinal function, a humanized zebrafish knockin model was generated, in which 670 basepairs of ush2a intron 40 were exchanged for 557 basepairs of the corresponding human sequence using an optimized CRISPR/Cas9-based protocol. However, in the retina of adult homozygous humanized zebrafish, only 7.4% ± 3.9% of ush2a transcripts contained the human PE40 sequence and immunohistochemical analyses revealed no differences in the usherin expression and localization between the retina of humanized and wild-type zebrafish larvae. Nevertheless, we were able to partially correct aberrant ush2a splicing using a PE40-targeting antisense morpholino. Our results indicate a clear difference in splice-site recognition by the human and zebrafish splicing machinery. Therefore, we propose a protocol in which the effect of human splice-modulating mutations is studied in a zebrafish-specific cell-based splice assay before the generation of a humanized zebrafish knockin model.

6.
Genet Med ; 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30287925

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To characterize new molecular factors implicated in a hereditary congenital facial paresis (HCFP) family and otosclerosis. METHODS: We performed exome sequencing in a four-generation family presenting nonprogressive HCFP and mixed hearing loss (HL). MEPE was analyzed using either Sanger sequencing or molecular inversion probes combined with massive parallel sequencing in 89 otosclerosis families, 1604 unrelated affected subjects, and 1538 unscreened controls. RESULTS: Exome sequencing in the HCFP family led to the identification of a rare segregating heterozygous frameshift variant p.(Gln425Lysfs*38) in MEPE. As the HL phenotype in this family resembled otosclerosis, we performed variant burden and variance components analyses in a large otosclerosis cohort and demonstrated that nonsense and frameshift MEPE variants were significantly enriched in affected subjects (p = 0.0006-0.0060). CONCLUSION: MEPE exerts its function in bone homeostasis by two domains, an RGD and an acidic serine aspartate-rich MEPE-associated (ASARM) motif inhibiting respectively bone resorption and mineralization. All variants associated with otosclerosis are predicted to result in nonsense mediated decay or an ASARM-and-RGD-truncated MEPE. The HCFP variant is predicted to produce an ASARM-truncated MEPE with an intact RGD motif. This difference in effect on the protein corresponds with the presumed pathophysiology of both diseases, and provides a plausible molecular explanation for the distinct phenotypic outcome.

7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1828: 519-530, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30171565

RESUMO

Antisense oligonucleotide (AON)-based splice modulation has been proven to hold great promise as a therapeutic strategy for a number of hereditary conditions. AONs are small modified single-stranded RNA or DNA molecules that are complementary to splice enhancer or silencer target sites. Upon pre-mRNA binding, AONs will prevent or stimulate binding of the spliceosome thereby modulating splicing events. AONs can be designed and applied for different genes and genetic disorders as the specificity depends on their nucleotide sequence. Here we provide a guideline for setting up AON-based splice-modulation experiments by describing a detailed protocol to design and evaluate AONs using a combination of in silico and in vitro analyses.

8.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0201713, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157177

RESUMO

Hearing and balance depend upon the precise morphogenesis and mechanosensory function of stereocilia, the specialized structures on the apical surface of sensory hair cells in the inner ear. Previous studies of Grxcr1 mutant mice indicated a critical role for this gene in control of stereocilia dimensions during development. In this study, we analyzed expression of the paralog Grxcr2 in the mouse and evaluated auditory and vestibular function of strains carrying targeted mutations of the gene. Peak expression of Grxcr2 occurs during early postnatal development of the inner ear and GRXCR2 is localized to stereocilia in both the cochlea and in vestibular organs. Homozygous Grxcr2 deletion mutants exhibit significant hearing loss by 3 weeks of age that is associated with developmental defects in stereocilia bundle orientation and organization. Despite these bundle defects, the mechanotransduction apparatus assembles in relatively normal fashion as determined by whole cell electrophysiological evaluation and FM1-43 uptake. Although Grxcr2 mutants do not exhibit overt vestibular dysfunction, evaluation of vestibular evoked potentials revealed subtle defects of the mutants in response to linear accelerations. In addition, reduced Grxcr2 expression in a hypomorphic mutant strain is associated with progressive hearing loss and bundle defects. The stereocilia localization of GRXCR2, together with the bundle pathologies observed in the mutants, indicate that GRXCR2 plays an intrinsic role in bundle orientation, organization, and sensory function in the inner ear during development and at maturity.

9.
J Med Genet ; 55(10): 705-712, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30120214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) shows substantial genetic heterogeneity. It has been estimated that in approximately 60%-80% of RP cases, the genetic diagnosis can be found using whole exome sequencing (WES). In this study, the purpose was to identify causative variants in individuals with genetically unexplained retinal disease, which included one consanguineous family with two affected siblings and one case with RP. METHODS: To identify the genetic defect, WES was performed in both probands, and clinical analysis was performed. To obtain insight into the function of KIAA1549 in photoreceptors, mRNA expression, knockdown and protein localisation studies were performed. RESULTS: Through analysis of WES data, based on population allele frequencies, and in silico prediction tools, we identified a homozygous missense variant and a homozygous frameshift variant in KIAA1549 that segregate in two unrelated families. Kiaa1549 was found to localise at the connecting cilium of the photoreceptor cells and the synapses of the mouse retina. Both variants affect the long transcript of KIAA1549, which encodes a 1950 amino acid protein and shows prominent brain expression. The shorter transcript encodes a 734 amino acid protein with a high retinal expression and is affected by the identified missense variant. Strikingly, knockdown of the long transcript also leads to decreased expression of the short transcript likely explaining the non-syndromic retinal phenotype caused by the two variants targeting different transcripts. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our results underscore the causality of segregating variants in KIAA1549 for autosomal recessive RP. Moreover, our data indicate that KIAA1549 plays a role in photoreceptor function.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(1): 74-88, 2018 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29961571

RESUMO

In a Dutch consanguineous family with recessively inherited nonsyndromic hearing impairment (HI), homozygosity mapping combined with whole-exome sequencing revealed a MPZL2 homozygous truncating variant, c.72del (p.Ile24Metfs∗22). By screening a cohort of phenotype-matched subjects and a cohort of HI subjects in whom WES had been performed previously, we identified two additional families with biallelic truncating variants of MPZL2. Affected individuals demonstrated symmetric, progressive, mild to moderate sensorineural HI. Onset of HI was in the first decade, and high-frequency hearing was more severely affected. There was no vestibular involvement. MPZL2 encodes myelin protein zero-like 2, an adhesion molecule that mediates epithelial cell-cell interactions in several (developing) tissues. Involvement of MPZL2 in hearing was confirmed by audiometric evaluation of Mpzl2-mutant mice. These displayed early-onset progressive sensorineural HI that was more pronounced in the high frequencies. Histological analysis of adult mutant mice demonstrated an altered organization of outer hair cells and supporting cells and degeneration of the organ of Corti. In addition, we observed mild degeneration of spiral ganglion neurons, and this degeneration was most pronounced at the cochlear base. Although MPZL2 is known to function in cell adhesion in several tissues, no phenotypes other than HI were found to be associated with MPZL2 defects. This indicates that MPZL2 has a unique function in the inner ear. The present study suggests that deleterious variants of Mplz2/MPZL2 affect adhesion of the inner-ear epithelium and result in loss of structural integrity of the organ of Corti and progressive degeneration of hair cells, supporting cells, and spiral ganglion neurons.

11.
Exp Eye Res ; 173: 148-159, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29777677

RESUMO

Mutations in USH2A are the most frequent cause of Usher syndrome and autosomal recessive nonsyndromic retinitis pigmentosa. To unravel the pathogenic mechanisms underlying USH2A-associated retinal degeneration and to evaluate future therapeutic strategies that could potentially halt the progression of this devastating disorder, an animal model is needed. The available Ush2a knock-out mouse model does not mimic the human phenotype, because it presents with only a mild and late-onset retinal degeneration. Using CRISPR/Cas9-technology, we introduced protein-truncating germline lesions into the zebrafish ush2a gene (ush2armc1: c.2337_2342delinsAC; p.Cys780GlnfsTer32 and ush2ab1245: c.15520_15523delinsTG; p.Ala5174fsTer). Homozygous mutants were viable and displayed no obvious morphological or developmental defects. Immunohistochemical analyses with antibodies recognizing the N- or C-terminal region of the ush2a-encoded protein, usherin, demonstrated complete absence of usherin in photoreceptors of ush2armc1, but presence of the ectodomain of usherin at the periciliary membrane of ush2ab1245-derived photoreceptors. Furthermore, defects of usherin led to a reduction in localization of USH2 complex members, whirlin and Adgrv1, at the photoreceptor periciliary membrane of both mutants. Significantly elevated levels of apoptotic photoreceptors could be observed in both mutants when kept under constant bright illumination for three days. Electroretinogram (ERG) recordings revealed a significant and similar decrease in both a- and b-wave amplitudes in ush2armc1 as well as ush2ab1245 larvae as compared to strain- and age-matched wild-type larvae. In conclusion, this study shows that mutant ush2a zebrafish models present with early-onset retinal dysfunction that is exacerbated by light exposure. These models provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology underlying USH2A-associated RP and a unique opportunity to evaluate future therapeutic strategies.

12.
Hum Genet ; 2018 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29754270

RESUMO

Unraveling the causes and pathomechanisms of progressive disorders is essential for the development of therapeutic strategies. Here, we identified heterozygous pathogenic missense variants of LMX1A in two families of Dutch origin with progressive nonsyndromic hearing impairment (HI), using whole exome sequencing. One variant, c.721G > C (p.Val241Leu), occurred de novo and is predicted to affect the homeodomain of LMX1A, which is essential for DNA binding. The second variant, c.290G > C (p.Cys97Ser), predicted to affect a zinc-binding residue of the second LIM domain that is involved in protein-protein interactions. Bi-allelic deleterious variants of Lmx1a are associated with a complex phenotype in mice, including deafness and vestibular defects, due to arrest of inner ear development. Although Lmx1a mouse mutants demonstrate neurological, skeletal, pigmentation and reproductive system abnormalities, no syndromic features were present in the participating subjects of either family. LMX1A has previously been suggested as a candidate gene for intellectual disability, but our data do not support this, as affected subjects displayed normal cognition. Large variability was observed in the age of onset (a)symmetry, severity and progression rate of HI. About half of the affected individuals displayed vestibular dysfunction and experienced symptoms thereof. The late-onset progressive phenotype and the absence of cochleovestibular malformations on computed tomography scans indicate that heterozygous defects of LMX1A do not result in severe developmental abnormalities in humans. We propose that a single LMX1A wild-type copy is sufficient for normal development but insufficient for maintenance of cochleovestibular function. Alternatively, minor cochleovestibular developmental abnormalities could eventually lead to the progressive phenotype seen in the families.

13.
Hear Res ; 347: 56-62, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28089734

RESUMO

DFNB28 is characterized by prelingual, severe to profound sensorineural hearing impairment (HI). It is associated with mutations in exon 6 and 7 of TRIOBP and has not been reported in the European population. Here, we describe two isolated cases of Dutch origin with congenital, moderate HI and compound heterozygous mutations in TRIOBP. Three of the mutations are novel, one nonsense mutation (c.5014G>T (p.Gly1672*)) and two frameshift mutations (c.2653del (p.Arg885Alafs*120) and c.3460_3461del (p.Leu1154Alafs*29)). The fourth mutation is the known c.3232dup (p.Arg1078Profs*6) mutation. Longitudinal audiometric analyses in one of the subjects revealed that HI was stable over a period of 15 years. Vestibular function was normal. Predicted effects of the mutations do not explain the relatively mild phenotype in the presented subjects, whereas location of the mutation might well contribute to the milder HI in one of the subjects. It is known that isoform classes TRIOBP-4 and TRIOBP-5 are important for stereocilia stability and rigidity. To our knowledge, p.Gly1672* is the first pathogenic variant identified in DFNB28 that does not affect isoform class TRIOBP-4. This suggests that a single TRIOBP copy to encode wildtype TRIOBP-4 is insufficient for normal hearing, and that at least one TRIOBP copy to encode TRIOBP-5 is indispensable for normal inner ear function. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that DFNB28 can be milder than reported so far and that mutations in TRIOBP are thus associated with a heterogeneous phenotype.


Assuntos
Códon sem Sentido , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Audição/genética , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Limiar Auditivo , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/psicologia , Testes Auditivos , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
14.
Dis Model Mech ; 10(2): 105-118, 2017 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28067622

RESUMO

A consanguineous family from Pakistan was ascertained to have a novel deafness-dystonia syndrome with motor regression, ichthyosis-like features and signs of sensory neuropathy. By applying a combined strategy of linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing in the presented family, a homozygous nonsense mutation, c.4G>T (p.Glu2*), in FITM2 was identified. FITM2 and its paralog FITM1 constitute an evolutionary conserved protein family involved in partitioning of triglycerides into cellular lipid droplets. Despite the role of FITM2 in neutral lipid storage and metabolism, no indications for lipodystrophy were observed in the affected individuals. In order to obtain independent evidence for the involvement of FITM2 in the human pathology, downregulation of the single Fitm ortholog, CG10671, in Drosophila melanogaster was pursued using RNA interference. Characteristics of the syndrome, including progressive locomotor impairment, hearing loss and disturbed sensory functions, were recapitulated in Drosophila, which supports the causative nature of the FITM2 mutation. Mutation-based genetic counseling can now be provided to the family and insight is obtained into the potential impact of genetic variation in FITM2.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Surdocegueira/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Distonia/genética , Ictiose/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Atividade Motora , Mutação/genética , Atrofia Óptica/genética , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/patologia , Adiposidade , Animais , Audiometria de Tons Puros , Sequência de Bases , Criança , Códon sem Sentido/genética , Transtornos da Surdocegueira/sangue , Transtornos da Surdocegueira/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Distonia/sangue , Distonia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Células HEK293 , Perda Auditiva/genética , Homozigoto , Humanos , Ictiose/complicações , Ictiose/fisiopatologia , Deficiência Intelectual/sangue , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Locomoção , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Atrofia Óptica/sangue , Atrofia Óptica/fisiopatologia , Linhagem , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
15.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(3): 308-314, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28000701

RESUMO

Hearing impairment (HI) is genetically heterogeneous which hampers genetic counseling and molecular diagnosis. Testing of several single HI-related genes is laborious and expensive. In this study, we evaluate the diagnostic utility of whole-exome sequencing (WES) targeting a panel of HI-related genes. Two hundred index patients, mostly of Dutch origin, with presumed hereditary HI underwent WES followed by targeted analysis of an HI gene panel of 120 genes. We found causative variants underlying the HI in 67 of 200 patients (33.5%). Eight of these patients have a large homozygous deletion involving STRC, OTOA or USH2A, which could only be identified by copy number variation detection. Variants of uncertain significance were found in 10 patients (5.0%). In the remaining 123 cases, no potentially causative variants were detected (61.5%). In our patient cohort, causative variants in GJB2, USH2A, MYO15A and STRC, and in MYO6 were the leading causes for autosomal recessive and dominant HI, respectively. Segregation analysis and functional analyses of variants of uncertain significance will probably further increase the diagnostic yield of WES.


Assuntos
Exoma , Testes Genéticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Perda Auditiva/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/estatística & dados numéricos , Conexinas/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Testes Genéticos/normas , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva/epidemiologia , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/genética , Miosinas/genética , Países Baixos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/normas
16.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 5(10): e381, 2016 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27802265

RESUMO

Usher syndrome (USH) is the most common cause of combined deaf-blindness in man. The hearing loss can be partly compensated by providing patients with hearing aids or cochlear implants, but the loss of vision is currently untreatable. In general, mutations in the USH2A gene are the most frequent cause of USH explaining up to 50% of all patients worldwide. The first deep-intronic mutation in the USH2A gene (c.7595-2144A>G) was reported in 2012, leading to the insertion of a pseudoexon (PE40) into the mature USH2A transcript. When translated, this PE40-containing transcript is predicted to result in a truncated non-functional USH2A protein. In this study, we explored the potential of antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) to prevent aberrant splicing of USH2A pre-mRNA as a consequence of the c.7595-2144A>G mutation. Engineered 2'-O-methylphosphorothioate AONs targeting the PE40 splice acceptor site and/or exonic splice enhancer regions displayed significant splice correction potential in both patient derived fibroblasts and a minigene splice assay for USH2A c.7595-2144A>G, whereas a non-binding sense oligonucleotide had no effect on splicing. Altogether, AON-based splice correction could be a promising approach for the development of a future treatment for USH2A-associated retinitis pigmentosa caused by the deep-intronic c.7595-2144A>G mutation.

17.
Hear Res ; 339: 60-8, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27318125

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Usher syndrome is an inherited disorder that is characterized by hearing impairment (HI), retinitis pigmentosa, and in some cases vestibular dysfunction. Usher syndrome type IIa is caused by mutations in USH2A. HI in these patients is highly heterogeneous and the present study evaluates the effects of different types of USH2A mutations on the audiometric phenotype. Data from two large centres of expertise on Usher Syndrome in the Netherlands and Sweden were combined in order to create a large combined sample of patients to identify possible genotype-phenotype correlations. DESIGN: A retrospective study on HI in 110 patients (65 Dutch and 45 Swedish) genetically diagnosed with Usher syndrome type IIa. We used methods especially designed for characterizing and testing differences in audiological phenotype between patient subgroups. These methods included Age Related Typical Audiograms (ARTA) and a method to evaluate the difference in the degree of HI developed throughout life between subgroups. RESULTS: Cross-sectional linear regression analysis of last-visit audiograms for the best hearing ear demonstrated a gradual decline of hearing over decades. The congenital level of HI was in the range of 16-33 dB at 0.25-0.5 kHz, and in the range of 51-60 dB at 1-8 kHz. The annual threshold deterioration was in the range of 0.4-0.5 dB/year at 0.25-2 kHz and in the range of 0.7-0.8 dB/year at 4-8 kHz. Patients with two truncating mutations, including homozygotes for the common c.2299delG mutation, developed significantly more severe HI throughout life than patients with one truncating mutation combined with one nontruncating mutation, and patients with two nontruncating mutations. CONCLUSIONS: The results have direct implications for patient counselling in terms of prognosis of hearing and may serve as baseline measures for future (genetic) therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Mutação , Síndromes de Usher/genética , Síndromes de Usher/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Audiometria , Audiometria de Tons Puros , Limiar Auditivo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Audição , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Fenótipo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nat Commun ; 7: 11491, 2016 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27173435

RESUMO

Cellular organelles provide opportunities to relate biological mechanisms to disease. Here we use affinity proteomics, genetics and cell biology to interrogate cilia: poorly understood organelles, where defects cause genetic diseases. Two hundred and seventeen tagged human ciliary proteins create a final landscape of 1,319 proteins, 4,905 interactions and 52 complexes. Reverse tagging, repetition of purifications and statistical analyses, produce a high-resolution network that reveals organelle-specific interactions and complexes not apparent in larger studies, and links vesicle transport, the cytoskeleton, signalling and ubiquitination to ciliary signalling and proteostasis. We observe sub-complexes in exocyst and intraflagellar transport complexes, which we validate biochemically, and by probing structurally predicted, disruptive, genetic variants from ciliary disease patients. The landscape suggests other genetic diseases could be ciliary including 3M syndrome. We show that 3M genes are involved in ciliogenesis, and that patient fibroblasts lack cilia. Overall, this organelle-specific targeting strategy shows considerable promise for Systems Medicine.


Assuntos
Cílios/metabolismo , Ciliopatias/genética , Nanismo/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Proteínas/metabolismo , Coluna Vertebral/anormalidades , Transporte Biológico/fisiologia , Cromatografia de Afinidade/métodos , Ciliopatias/patologia , Ciliopatias/terapia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Nanismo/patologia , Nanismo/terapia , Fibroblastos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Hipotonia Muscular/patologia , Hipotonia Muscular/terapia , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas/métodos , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas/isolamento & purificação , Proteômica/métodos , Coluna Vertebral/patologia , Análise de Sistemas
19.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 24(4): 542-9, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26173970

RESUMO

Variants in CIB2 can underlie either Usher syndrome type I (USH1J) or nonsyndromic hearing impairment (NSHI) (DFNB48). Here, a novel homozygous missense variant c.196C>T and compound heterozygous variants, c.[97C>T];[196C>T], were found, respectively, in two unrelated families of Dutch origin. Besides, the previously reported c.272 T>C functional missense variant in CIB2 was identified in two families of Pakistani origin. The missense variants are demonstrated not to affect subcellular localization of CIB2 in vestibular hair cells in ex vivo expression experiments. Furthermore, these variants do not affect the ATP-induced calcium responses in COS-7 cells. However, based on the residues affected, the variants are suggested to alter αIIß integrin binding. HI was nonsyndromic in all four families. However, deafness segregating with the c.272T>C variant in one Pakistani family is remarkably less severe than that in all other families with this mutation. Our results contribute to the insight in genotype-phenotype correlations of CIB2 mutations.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Cálcio/metabolismo , Surdez/genética , Células Ciliadas Auditivas/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Células COS , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Cercopithecus aethiops , Criança , Surdez/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Integrina alfa2beta1/metabolismo , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Linhagem , Ligação Proteica
20.
Ear Hear ; 37(1): 103-11, 2016 Jan-Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26331839

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mutations in EYA4 can cause nonsyndromic autosomal dominant sensorineural hearing impairment (DFNA10) or a syndromic variant with hearing impairment and dilated cardiomyopathy. A mutation in EYA4 was found in a Dutch family, causing DFNA10. This study is focused on characterizing the hearing impairment in this family. DESIGN: Whole exome sequencing was performed in the proband. In addition, peripheral blood samples were collected from 23 family members, and segregation analyses were performed. All participants underwent otorhinolaryngological examinations and pure-tone audiometry, and 12 participants underwent speech audiometry. In addition, an extended set of audiometric measurements was performed in five family members to evaluate the functional status of the cochlea. Vestibular testing was performed in three family members. Two individuals underwent echocardiography to evaluate the nonsyndromic phenotype. RESULTS: The authors present a Dutch family with a truncating mutation in EYA4 causing a mid-frequency hearing impairment. This mutation (c.464del) leads to a frameshift and a premature stop codon (p.Pro155fsX). This mutation is the most N-terminal mutation in EYA4 found to date. In addition, a missense mutation, predicted to be deleterious, was found in EYA4 in two family members. Echocardiography in two family members revealed no signs of dilated cardiomyopathy. Results of caloric and velocity step tests in three family members showed no abnormalities. Hearing impairment was found to be symmetric and progressive, beginning as a mid-frequency hearing impairment in childhood and developing into a high-frequency, moderate hearing impairment later in life. Furthermore, an extended set of audiometric measurements was performed in five family members. The results were comparable to those obtained in patients with other sensory types of hearing impairments, such as patients with Usher syndrome type IIA and presbyacusis, and not to those obtained in patients with (cochlear) conductive types of hearing impairment, such as DFNA8/12 and DFNA13. CONCLUSIONS: The mid-frequency hearing impairment in the present family was found to be symmetric and progressive, with a predominantly childhood onset. The results of psychophysical measurements revealed similarities to other conditions involving a sensory type of hearing impairment, such as Usher syndrome type IIA and presbyacusis. The study results suggest that EYA4 is expressed in the sensory cells of the cochlea. This phenotypic description will facilitate counseling for hearing impairment in DFNA10 patients.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Família , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/fisiopatologia , Percepção da Fala , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Audiometria da Fala , Criança , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Transativadores/genética , Testes de Função Vestibular
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