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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008464, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614822

RESUMO

Infection with parasitic helminths has been reported to improve insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis, lowering the risk for type 2 diabetes. However, little is known about its impact on whole-body lipid homeostasis, especially in obese individuals. For this purpose, a cross-sectional study was carried out in lean and overweight/obese adults residing in the Lambaréné region of Gabon, an area endemic for Schistosoma haematobium. Helminth infection status, peripheral blood immune cell counts, and serum metabolic and lipid/lipoprotein levels were analyzed. We found that urine S. haematobium egg-positive individuals exhibited lower serum total cholesterol (TC; 4.42 vs 4.01 mmol/L, adjusted mean difference [95%CI] -0.30 [-0.68,-0.06]; P = 0.109), high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-C (1.44 vs 1.12 mmol/L, -0.24 [-0.43,-0.06]; P = 0.009) and triglyceride (TG; 0.93 vs 0.72 mmol/L, -0.20 [-0.39,-0.03]; P = 0.022) levels than egg-negative individuals. However, when stratified according to body mass index, these effects were only observed in overweight/obese infected individuals. Similarly, significant negative correlations between the intensity of infection, assessed by serum circulating anodic antigen (CAA) concentrations, and TC (r = -0.555; P<0.001), HDL-C (r = -0.327; P = 0.068), LDL-C (r = -0.396; P = 0.025) and TG (r = -0.381; P = 0.032) levels were found in overweight/obese individuals but not in lean subjects. Quantitative lipidomic analysis showed that circulating levels of some lipid species associated with cholesterol-rich lipoprotein particles were also significantly reduced in overweight/obese infected individuals in an intensity-dependent manner. In conclusion, we reported that infection with S. haematobium is associated with improved lipid profile in overweight/obese individuals, a feature that might contribute reducing the risk of cardiometabolic diseases in such population.

3.
Vaccine ; 38(27): 4263-4272, 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite appreciable immunogenicity in malaria-naive populations, many candidate malaria vaccines are considerably less immunogenic in malaria-exposed populations. This could reflect induction of immune regulatory mechanisms involving Human Leukocyte Antigen G (HLA-G), regulatory T (Treg), and regulatory B (Breg) cells. Here, we addressed the question whether there is correlation between these immune regulatory pathways and both plasmablast frequencies and vaccine-specific IgG concentrations. METHODS: Fifty Gabonese adults with lifelong exposure to Plasmodium spp were randomized to receive three doses of either 30 µg or 100 µg GMZ2-CAF01, or 100 µg GMZ2-alum, or control vaccine (rabies vaccine) at 4-week intervals. Only plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from blood samples collected before (D0) and 28 days after the third vaccination (D84) of 35 participants were used to measure sHLA-G levels and anti-GMZ2 IgG concentrations, and to quantify Treg, Breg and plasmablast cells. Vaccine efficacy was assessed using controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) by direct venous inoculation of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ Challenge). RESULTS: The sHLA-G concentration increased from D0 to D84 in all GMZ2 vaccinated participants and in the control group, whereas Treg frequencies increased only in those receiving 30 µg or 100 µg GMZ2-CAF01. The sHLA-G level on D84 was associated with a decrease of the anti-GMZ2 IgG concentration, whereas Treg frequencies on D0 or on D84, and Breg frequency on D84 were associated with lower plasmablast frequencies. Importantly, having a D84:D0 ratio of sHLA-G above the median was associated with an increased risk of P. falciparum infection after sporozoites injection. CONCLUSION: Regulatory immune responses are induced following immunization. Stronger sHLA-G and Treg immune responses may suppress vaccine induced immune responses, and the magnitude of the sHLA-G response increased the risk of Plasmodium falciparum infection after CHMI. These findings could have implications for the design and testing of malaria vaccine candidates in semi-immune individuals.

4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(16): 9074-9081, 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32265284

RESUMO

Malaria caused by the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum has served as a strong evolutionary force throughout human history, selecting for red blood cell polymorphisms that confer innate protection against severe disease. Recently, gain-of-function mutations in the mechanosensitive ion channel PIEZO1 were shown to ameliorate Plasmodium parasite growth, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, and mortality in a mouse model of malaria. In humans, the gain-of-function allele PIEZO1 E756del is highly prevalent and enriched in Africans, raising the possibility that it is under positive selection due to malaria. Here we used a case-control study design to test for an association between PIEZO1 E756del and malaria severity among children in Gabon. We found that the E756del variant is strongly associated with protection against severe malaria in heterozygotes. In subjects with sickle cell trait, heterozygosity for PIEZO1 E756del did not confer additive protection and homozygosity was associated with an elevated risk of severe disease, suggesting an epistatic relationship between hemoglobin S and PIEZO1 E756del. Using donor blood samples, we show that red cells heterozygous for PIEZO1 E756del are not dehydrated and can support the intracellular growth of P. falciparum similar to wild-type cells. However, surface expression of the P. falciparum virulence protein PfEMP-1 was significantly reduced in infected cells heterozygous for PIEZO1 756del, a phenomenon that has been observed with other protective polymorphisms, such as hemoglobin C. Our findings demonstrate that PIEZO1 is an important innate determinant of malaria susceptibility in humans and suggest that the mechanism of protection may be related to impaired export of P. falciparum virulence proteins.

6.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(5)2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102854

RESUMO

Microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are the main diagnostic tools for malaria but fail to detect low-density parasitemias that are important for maintaining malaria transmission. To complement existing diagnostic methods, an isothermal reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification and lateral flow assay (RT-RPA) was developed. We compared the performance with that of ultrasensitive reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (uRT-qPCR) using nucleic acid extracts from blood samples (n = 114) obtained after standardized controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) with Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites. As a preliminary investigation, we also sampled asymptomatic individuals (n = 28) in an area of malaria endemicity (Lambaréné, Gabon) to validate RT-RPA and assess its performance with unprocessed blood samples (dbRT-RPA). In 114 samples analyzed from CHMI trials, the positive percent agreement to uRT-qPCR was 90% (95% confidence interval [CI], 80 to 96). The negative percent agreement was 100% (95% CI, 92 to 100). The lower limit of detection was 64 parasites/ml. In Gabon, RT-RPA was 100% accurate with asymptomatic volunteers (n = 28), while simplified dbRT-RPA showed 89% accuracy. In a subgroup analysis, RT-RPA detected 9/10 RT-qPCR-positive samples, while loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) detected 2/10. RT-RPA is a reliable diagnostic test for asymptomatic low-density infections. It is particularly useful in settings where uRT-qPCR is difficult to implement.

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2797, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32071406

RESUMO

SMYD3 (SET and MYND domain-containing protein 3) is involved in histone modification, which initiates oncogenesis by activating transcription of multiple downstream genes. To investigate associations of variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTR) variants in the SMYD3 gene promoter, SMYD3 serum levels and SMYD3 mRNA expression in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and clinical progression of related liver disease. SMYD3 VNTRs were genotyped in 756 HBV patients and 297 healthy controls. SMYD3 serum levels were measured in 293 patients and SMYD3 mRNA expression was quantified in 48 pairs of hepatocellular tumor and adjacent non-tumor liver tissues. Genotype SYMD3 VNTR 3/3 was more frequent among HCC patients than in controls (Padjusted = 0.037). SMYD3 serum levels increased according to clinical progression of liver diseases (P = 0.01); HCC patients had higher levels than non-HCC patients (P = 0.04). Among patients with SMYD3 VNTR 3/3, HCC patients had higher SMYD3 levels than others (P < 0.05). SMYD3 mRNA expression was up-regulated in HCC tumor tissues compared to other tissues (P = 0.008). In conclusion, upregulation of SMYD3 correlates with the occurrence of HCC and SMYD3 VNTR 3/3 appears to increase the risk of HCC through increasing SMYD3 levels. SMYD3 may be an indicator for HCC development in HBV patients.

8.
Trop Med Int Health ; 25(3): 380-386, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808594

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ivermectin is safe and widely used for treating helminth infections. It also kills arthropods feeding on treated subjects, including malaria vectors. Thus, ivermectin mass drug administration as an additional tool for malaria control is being evaluated by WHO. As in vitro data, animal experiments and epidemiological observations suggest that ivermectin has a direct effect on the liver stages of the malaria parasite, this study was designed to assess the prophylactic effect of ivermectin on Plasmodium falciparum controlled human malaria infection. METHODS: A total of 4 volunteers were randomised to placebo, and 8 volunteers were randomised to receive ivermectin 0.4 mg/kg, orally, once 2 h before being experimentally infected intravenously with 3200 P. falciparum sporozoites. The primary endpoint was time to parasitaemia detected by positive thick blood smear; RT-qPCR was performed in parallel. RESULTS: All but one volunteer became thick blood smear positive between day 11 and day 12 after infection, and there was no significant effect of ivermectin on parasitaemia. CONCLUSION: Ivermectin - at the dose used - has no clinically relevant activity against the pre-erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum.

9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18134, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792345

RESUMO

The pathophysiology of malarial anemia is multifactorial and incompletely understood. We assessed mechanistic and risk factors for post-malarial anemia in Ghanaian and Gabonese children with severe P. falciparum malaria treated with parenteral artesunate followed by an oral artemisinin-combination therapy. We analyzed data from two independent studies in which children were followed on Days 7,14, and 28 after treatment with artesunate. Specific hematological parameters included the presence of hemoglobinopathies and erythropoietin. Presence of once-infected erythrocytes was assessed by flow cytometry in a sub-population. Of 143 children with a geometric mean parasitemia of 116,294/µL (95% CI: 95,574-141,505), 91 (88%) had anemia (Hb < 10 g/dL) at presentation. Hemoglobin increased after Day 7 correlating with increased erythropoiesis through adequate erythropoietin stimulation. 22 children (24%) remained anemic until Day 28. Post-artesunate delayed hemolysis was detected in 7 children (5%) with only minor differences in the dynamics of once-infected erythrocytes. Hyperparasitemia and hemoglobin at presentation were associated with anemia on Day 14. On Day 28 only lower hemoglobin at presentation was associated with anemia. Most children showed an adequate erythropoiesis and recovered from anemia within one month. Post-artesunate delayed hemolysis (PADH) and hyperparasitemia are associated with early malarial anemia and pre-existing anemia is the main determinant for prolonged anemia.

10.
J Infect Dis ; 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844885

RESUMO

Schistosoma infection has been associated with altered immune function, including hyporesponsiveness. S. haematobium-infected schoolchildren were studied before and after praziquantel treatment and compared to uninfected controls. Cellular responses were characterised by cytokine production and flow cytometry, and in a subset of children RNA-Seq transcriptome profiling performed. Removal of S. haematobium infection resulted in increased schistosome-specific cytokine responses which were negatively associated with CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ T cells and accompanied by increased frequency of effector memory T cells. Innate responses to TLR ligation decreased with treatment and showed positive association with CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ T cells. At the transcriptome level, schistosome infection was associated with enrichment in cell adhesion, while parasite removal with a more quiescent profile. Further analysis indicated alteration in cellular energy metabolism to be associated with S. haematobium infection and that EGR2 and EGR3, transcription factors which negatively regulate T cell activation, may play a role in adaptive immune hyporesponsiveness.

11.
Malar J ; 18(1): 424, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a major public health problem, affecting mainly low-and middle-income countries. The management of this parasitic disease is challenged by ever increasing drug resistance. This study, investigated the therapeutic efficacy, tolerability and safety of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and artesunate-amodiaquine (AS-AQ), used as first-line drugs to treat uncomplicated malaria in Lambaréné, Gabon. METHODS: A non-randomized clinical trial was conducted between October 2017 and March 2018 to assess safety, clinical and parasitological efficacy of fixed-doses of AL and AS-AQ administered to treat uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children aged from 6 months to 12 years. After 50 children were treated with AL, another 50 children received ASAQ. The 2009 World Health Organization protocol for monitoring of the efficacy of anti­malarial drugs was followed. Molecular markers msp1 and msp2 were used to differentiate recrudescence and reinfection. For the investigation of artemisinin resistant markers, gene mutations in Pfk13 were screened. RESULTS: Per-protocol analysis on day 28 showed a PCR corrected cure rate of 97% (95% CI 86-100) and 95% (95% CI 84-99) for AL and AS-AQ, respectively. The most frequent adverse event in both groups was asthenia. No mutations in the kelch-13 gene associated with artemisinin resistance were identified. All participants had completed microscopic parasite clearance by day 3 post-treatment. CONCLUSION: This study showed that AL and AS-AQ remain efficacious, well-tolerated, and are safe to treat uncomplicated malaria in children from Lambaréné. However, a regular monitoring of efficacy and a study of molecular markers of drug resistance to artemisinin in field isolates is essential. Trial registration ANZCTR, ACTRN12616001600437. Registered 18 November, http://www.anzctr.org.au/TrialSearch.aspx?searchTxt=ACTRN12616001600437p&isBasic=True.


Assuntos
Amodiaquina/uso terapêutico , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Combinação Arteméter e Lumefantrina/uso terapêutico , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Gabão , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética
12.
EBioMedicine ; 50: 14-22, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum deficient for hrp2 and hrp3 genes are a threat to malaria management and elimination, since they escape widely used HRP2-based rapid diagnostic tests and treatment. Hrp2/hrp3 deletions are increasingly reported from all malaria endemic regions but are currently only identified by laborious methodologies. METHODS: We developed a novel hydrolysis probe-based, quantitative, real-time PCR (4plex qPCR) for detection and discrimination of P. falciparum infection (cytb) and hrp2 and hrp3 gene status, and to control assay validity (btub). A cross-sectional, diagnostic accuracy study was performed in Gabon for assay validation and deletion screening. FINDINGS: In parallel to identification of P. falciparum infection in samples down to 0.05 parasites/µl, the 4plex qPCR enabled specific and valid interrogation of the parasites´s hrp2 and hrp3 genes in one go - even in low parasitemic samples. The assay was precise and robust also when performed in a routine healthcare setting in Gabon. The risk of falsely identifying hrp2 or hrp3 deletion was reduced by 100-fold compared to conventional PCR. Evaluation against microscopy was performed on 200 blood samples collected in Gabon: sensitivity and specificity of 4plex qPCR (cytb) were 100% and 80%, respectively. Stringent testing revealed hrp2 deletion in 2 of 95 P. falciparum positive and validated samples. INTERPRETATION: The novel 4plex qPCR is sensitive, accurate and allows resource-efficient rapid screening. Monitoring and mapping of hrp2/hrp3 deletions is required to identify areas where control strategies may need to be adapted to ensure appropriate patient care and ultimately achieve malaria elimination. FUNDING: BMBF (03VP00402).


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Malária Falciparum/diagnóstico , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Estudos Transversais , Eletroforese Capilar , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/normas , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
13.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 6(9): ofz306, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660396

RESUMO

Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection can occur through consumption of undercooked pork meat or exposure to animal feces. Because there are scarce data only in developing countries, we assessed whether pigs might be a potential source of human HEV infections in Vietnam. In addition, we determined anti-HEV seroprevalences in the general population and in individuals professionally exposed to pigs and pork meat. Methods: The study took place in Hanoi, Vietnam. Liver tissues from domestic pigs (n = 210) and serum samples obtained from individuals occupationally exposed to pigs and pork meat (n = 283) and from unexposed healthy controls (n = 168) were screened for HEV-ribonucleic acid (RNA) by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The exposed group was divided into pork meat vendors (n = 81), pig farmers (n = 96), and slaughterers (n = 106). Serum samples were subjected to HEV immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The HEV genotypes were assessed by direct sequencing, followed by phylogenetic analyses. Results: Hepatitis E virus seroprevalence was higher among persons occupationally exposed to pigs/pork meat compared with unexposed individuals (anti-HEV IgM 11% vs 6%, P = .07; anti-HEV IgG 53% vs 31%, P < .0001). Positivity of anti-HEV IgG among slaughterhouse staff was 66%, followed by 51% in pig-farmers and 38% in pork meat vendors (P = .00073). A similar trend was observed for IgM positivity. Of the pig liver tissues, 26 of 210 (12.4%) were positive for HEV-RNA and assessed to be HEV genotype 3. Conclusions: Hepatitis E virus circulates in domestic pigs in Hanoi and constitutes a permanent zoonotic disease risk. The high HEV seroprevalence among occupationally exposed individuals indicates an associated risk of HEV infection.

14.
EBioMedicine ; 48: 442-452, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The transcriptome of Plasmodium falciparum clinical isolates varies according to strain, mosquito bites, disease severity and clinical history. Therefore, it remains a challenge to directly interpret the parasite's transcriptomic information into a more general biological signature in a natural human malaria infection. These confounding variations can be potentially overcome with parasites derived from controlled-human malaria infection (CHMI) studies. METHODS: We performed CHMI studies in healthy and immunologically naïve volunteers receiving the same P. falciparum strain ((Sanaria® PfSPZ Challenge (NF54)), but with different sporozoite dosage and route of infection. Parasites isolated from these volunteers at the day of patency were subjected to in vitro culture for several generations and synchronized ring-stage parasites were subjected to transcriptome profiling. FINDINGS: We observed clear deviations between CHMI-derived parasites from volunteer groups receiving different PfSPZ dose and route. CHMI-derived parasites and the pre-mosquito strain used for PfSPZ generation showed significant transcriptional variability for gene clusters associated with malaria pathogenesis, immune evasion and transmission. These transcriptional variation signature clusters were also observed in the transcriptome of P. falciparum isolates from acute clinical infections. INTERPRETATION: Our work identifies a previously unrecognized transcriptional pattern in malaria infections in a non-immune background. Significant transcriptome heterogeneity exits between parasites derived from human infections and the pre-mosquito strain, implying that the malaria parasites undergo a change in functional state to adapt to its host environment. Our work also highlights the potential use of transcriptomics data from CHMI study advance our understanding of malaria parasite adaptation and transmission in humans. FUND: This work is supported by German Israeli Foundation, German ministry for education and research, MOE Tier 1 from the Singapore Ministry of Education Academic Research Fund, Singapore Ministry of Health's National Medical Research Council, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, USA and the German Centre for Infection Research (Deutsches Zentrum für Infektionsforschung-DZIF).


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Transcriptoma , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Carga Parasitária
15.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(7): e1007906, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295334

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria is linked to the variant surface antigen PfEMP1, which mediates tethering of infected erythrocytes to the host endothelium and is encoded by approximately 60 var genes per parasite genome. Repeated episodes of malaria infection result in the gradual acquisition of protective antibodies against PfEMP1 variants. The antibody repertoire is believed to provide a selective pressure driving the clonal expansion of parasites expressing unrecognized PfEMP1 variants, however, due to the lack of experimental in vivo models there is only limited experimental evidence in support of this concept. To get insight into the impact of naturally acquired immunity on the expressed var gene repertoire early during infection we performed controlled human malaria infections of 20 adult African volunteers with life-long malaria exposure using aseptic, purified, cryopreserved P. falciparum sporozoites (Sanaria PfSPZ Challenge) and correlated serological data with var gene expression patterns from ex vivo parasites. Among the 10 African volunteers who developed patent infections, individuals with low antibody levels showed a steep rise in parasitemia accompanied by broad activation of multiple, predominantly subtelomeric var genes, similar to what we previously observed in naïve volunteers. In contrast, individuals with intermediate antibody levels developed asymptomatic infections and the ex vivo parasite populations expressed only few var gene variants, indicative of clonal selection. Importantly, in contrast to parasites from naïve volunteers, expression of var genes coding for endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR)-binding PfEMP1 that are associated with severe childhood malaria was rarely detected in semi-immune adult African volunteers. Moreover, we followed var gene expression for up to six parasite replication cycles and demonstrated for the first time in vivo a shift in the dominant var gene variant. In conclusion, our data suggest that P. falciparum activates multiple subtelomeric var genes at the onset of blood stage infection facilitating rapid expansion of parasite clones which express PfEMP1 variants unrecognized by the host's immune system, thus promoting overall parasite survival in the face of host immunity.


Assuntos
Malária Falciparum/imunologia , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/patogenicidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Protozoários , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Masculino , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Plasmodium falciparum/imunologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Virulência/genética , Virulência/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Malar J ; 18(1): 212, 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In a previous study, severe and cerebral malaria have been connected with acute cochlear malfunction in children, demonstrated by a decrease of transitory evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) reproducibility. This study aims to determine whether cochlear malfunction persists for 4 years after recovery from severe malaria in a subset of the previous study's collective. Follow-up TEOAEs were performed on site (CERMEL, Hôpital Albert Schweitzer, Lambaréné, Gabon) or at the participants' homes; 33 out of 90 participants included in the initial investigation by Schmutzhard et al. could be retrieved and were re-examined, 31/33 could be included. Of the 57 missing participants, 51 could not be contacted, 1 had moved away, 4 refused to cooperate, and 1 had died. METHODS: As in the initial investigation, participants of this prospective follow-up study were subjected to TEOAE examination on both ears separately. A wave correlation rate of > 60% on both ears was considered a "pass"; if one ear failed to pass, the examination was considered a "fail". The results were compared to the primary control group. Additionally, a questionnaire has been applied focusing on subsequent malaria infections between the primary inclusion and follow-up and subjective impairment of hearing and/or understanding. RESULTS: The cohort's mean age was 9 years, 14 children were female, 18 male. 31 had been originally admitted with severe, one with cerebral malaria. 83.8% of participants (n = 26) presented with a TEOAE correlation rate of > 60% on both ears (the cut-off for good cochlear function); in the control group, 92.2% (n = 83) had passed TEOAE examination on both ears. Recurrent severe malaria was associated with a worse TEOAE correlation rate. Age at infection and gender had no influence on the outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Cochlear malfunction seems to be persistent after 4 years in more than 16% of children hospitalized for malaria. In a healthy control group, this proportion was 7.8%. Yet, the severity of the initial TEOAE-decrease did not predict a worse outcome.


Assuntos
Doenças Cocleares/etiologia , Doenças Cocleares/patologia , Malária/complicações , Emissões Otoacústicas Espontâneas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Cocleares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Gabão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Malária Cerebral/complicações , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 69(12): 2119-2126, 2019 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium ovale curtisi and wallikeri are perceived as relapsing malarial parasites. Contrary to Plasmodium vivax, direct evidence for this hypothesis is scarce. The aim of this prospective study was to characterize the reappearance patterns of ovale parasites. METHODS: P. ovale spp. infected patients were treated with artemether-lumefantrine and followed biweekly for up to 1 year for the detection of reappearing parasitemia. Molecular analysis of reappearing isolates was performed to identify homologous isolates by genotyping and to define cases of relapse following predefined criteria. RESULTS: At inclusion, 26 participants were positive for P. ovale curtisi and/or P. ovale wallikeri. The median duration of follow-up was 35 weeks. Reappearance of the same P. ovale species was observed in 46% of participants; 61% of P. ovale curtisi and 19% of P. ovale wallikeri infection-free intervals were estimated to end with reappearance by week 32. Based on the predefined criteria, 23% of participants were identified with 1 or 2 relapses, all induced by P. ovale curtisi. CONCLUSION: These findings are in line with the currently accepted relapse theory inasmuch as the reappearance of P. ovale curtisi strains following initial blood clearance was conclusively demonstrated. Interestingly, no relapse of P. ovale wallikeri was observed.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109978

RESUMO

Ivermectin is the drug of choice for many parasitic infections, with more than one billion doses being distributed in onchocerciasis programs. The drug has been put into focus recently by the malaria community because of its potential to kill blood-sucking mosquitoes, thereby reducing malaria transmission. However, the activity of ivermectin against the malaria parasite itself has been only partly investigated. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro activity of ivermectin against asexual and sexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum Both asexual and late-stage gametocytes were incubated with ivermectin and control drugs in vitro The growth-inhibiting effects were assessed for asexual stages of different Plasmodium falciparum laboratory strains and culture-adapted clinical isolates using the histidine-rich protein 2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. The effect against stage IV/V gametocytes was evaluated based on ATP quantification. Ivermectin showed activities at nanomolar concentrations against asexual stages (50% inhibitory concentration of ∼100 nM) and stage IV/V gametocytes (500 nM) of P. falciparum Stage-specific assays suggested that ivermectin arrests the parasite cycle at the trophozoite stage. Ivermectin might add a feature to its "wonder drug" properties with activity against asexual stages of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum The observed activities might be difficult to reach with current regimens but will be more relevant with future high-dose regimens under investigation. Further studies should be performed to confirm these results in vitro and in vivo.

20.
EBioMedicine ; 40: 614-625, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcriptomic research of blood cell lineages supports the understanding of distinct features of the immunopathology in human malaria. METHODS: We used microarray hybridization, validated by real-time RT-PCR to analyze whole blood gene expression in healthy Gabonese children and children with various conditions of Plasmodium falciparum infection, including i) asymptomatic infection, ii) uncomplicated malaria, iii) malaria associated with severe anemia and iv) cerebral malaria. FINDINGS: Our data indicate that the expression profile of 22 genes significantly differed among the investigated groups. Immunoglobulin production, complement regulation and IFN beta signaling, in particular IRF7 and ISRE binding signatures in the corresponding genes, were most conspicuous. Down-regulation in cerebral malaria seems to rely on AhRF, GABP and HIF1 hypoxia transcription factors. ARG1, BPI, CD163, IFI27, HP and TNFAIP6 transcript levels correlated positively with lactatemia, and negatively with hemoglobin concentrations. INTERPRETATION: Differences in gene expression profile reflect distinct immunopathological mechanisms of P. falciparum infection. They emerge as potential prognostic markers for early therapeutic measures and need to be validated further. FUND: This work was supported by a grant of the NGFN (Nationales Genomforschungsnetz 01GS0114) and by a CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, Brazil) PhD scholarship for A. B. W. Boldt. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


Assuntos
Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/sangue , Malária Falciparum/sangue , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Transcriptoma , Doenças Assintomáticas , Biomarcadores , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Contagem de Eritrócitos , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Lactente , Malária Cerebral/sangue , Malária Cerebral/parasitologia , Malária Falciparum/diagnóstico , Masculino , Plasmodium falciparum , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
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