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1.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 70(6): 541-558, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519620

RESUMO

The manualized focused infant/toddler-parent psychotherapy fSKEPT is a psychodynamic focal treatment of early childhood regulatory disorders, in which either a conflict-related or a personality functioning-related treatment focus is carried out. The aim of the study is to review the effectiveness of fSKEPT depending on two different therapeutic treatment focuses. For this purpose, n = 81 families who received fSKEPT were examined as part of secondary analyzes of a randomized controlled study. The therapeutic treatment focus did not predict the effectiveness for any of the examined target criteria (maternal psychological stress F(1,70) = 0.71, p = .401, maternal depression F(1,70) = 0.18, p = .678, infant regulatory symptoms F(1,70) = 0.11, p = .753, maternal self-efficacy F(1,70) = 0.038, p = .847, maternal reflective functioning F(1,50) = 0.56, p = .458). In a subsample of n = 33 families (40 % of the total sample) we tested whether the therapeutic interventions used in the therapy correspond to the treatment focus of the therapists. No significant difference was found between personality functioning-specific interventions (t(28) = 1.71, p = .099) and unspecific interventions (t(28) = 1.77, p = .087) when comparing the two treatment focus groups. In the conflict focus group significantly more conflict-specific interventions were used (t(28) = 2,71, p = .011). The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the focus concept of the fSKEPT treatment. The focus and the flexible individual adaptation of the interventions in the course of the treatment may help offering parents with different psychological vulnerabilities and ressources an equally effective treatment. In addition, the relevance of unspecific interventions and relationship-promoting aspects of the treatment are discussed.


Assuntos
Pais , Psicoterapia , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Transtornos da Personalidade , Estresse Psicológico , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Shock ; 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) is a clinically established drug with antioxidant and sulfide releasing properties. Na2S2O3 mediated neuro- and cardioprotective effects in ischemia/reperfusion models and anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-induced acute lung injury. Moreover, Na2S2O3 improved lung function during resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock in swine with pre-existing atherosclerosis, characterized by decreased expression of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), a major source of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) synthesis in the vasculature. Based on these findings, we investigated the effects of Na2S2O3 administration during resuscitation from trauma-and-hemorrhage in mice under conditions of whole body CSE deficit. METHODS: After blast wave-induced blunt chest trauma and surgical instrumentation, CSE knockout (CSE-/-) mice underwent one hour of hemorrhagic shock (MAP 35 ±â€Š5mmHg). At the beginning of resuscitation comprising re-transfusion, norepinephrine support and lung-protective mechanical ventilation, animals received either i.v. Na2S2O3 (0.45 mg g-1, n = 12) or vehicle (saline, n = 13). Hemodynamics, acid-base status, metabolism using stable isotopes, and visceral organ function were assessed. Blood and organs were collected for analysis of cytokines, mitochondrial respiratory capacity and immunoblotting. RESULTS: Na2S2O3 treatment improved arterial paO2 (p = 0.03) coinciding with higher lung tissue glucocorticoid receptor expression. Norepinephrine requirements were lower in the Na2S2O3 group (p < 0.05), which was associated with lower endogenous glucose production and higher urine output. Na2S2O3 significantly increased renal tissue IκBα and heme oxygenase-1 expression, whereas it lowered kidney IL-6 and MCP-1 levels. CONCLUSION: Na2S2O3 exerted beneficial effects during resuscitation of murine trauma-and-hemorrhage in CSE-/- mice, confirming and extending the previously described organ-protective and anti-inflammatory properties of Na2S2O3. The findings make Na2S2O3 a potentially promising therapeutic option in the context of impaired CSE activity and/or reduced endogenous H2S availability.

3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2321: 121-135, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34048012

RESUMO

The translation of preclinical results into successful clinical therapies remains a challenge in sepsis research. One reason for this lack of translation might be the discrepancy between preclinical models and the clinical reality: nonresuscitated young healthy rodents in contrast to elderly comorbid patients in an intensive care unit. We introduce the mouse intensive care unit (MICU) as a concept to address the lack of resuscitation in preclinical studies as one of the limiting issues in translational research. The MICU reflects standard procedures of the clinical intensive care unit: fluid resuscitation, lung-protective mechanical ventilation, and hemodynamic monitoring and management, all tailored to organ- and function-specific targets. Thus, the MICU gives an experimental animal the intermediate possibility of recovery and survival due to "patient" management, which is not reflected in less complex experimental scenarios, which either result in acute survival or death.


Assuntos
Estudos Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Camundongos/fisiologia , Animais , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Sepse/fisiopatologia , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/métodos
4.
J Breath Res ; 15(2): 026013, 2021 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630755

RESUMO

In studies that target specific functions or organs, the response is often overlaid by indirect effects of the intervention on global metabolism. The metabolic side of these interactions can be assessed based on total energy expenditure (TEE) and the contributions of the principal energy sources, carbohydrates, proteins and fat to whole body CO2 production. These parameters can be identified from indirect calorimetry using respiratory oxygen intake and CO2 dioxide production data that are combined with the response of the 13CO2 release in the expired air and the glucose tracer enrichment in plasma following a 13C glucose stable isotope infusion. This concept is applied to a mouse protocol involving anesthesia, mechanical respiration, a disease model, like hemorrhage and therapeutic intervention. It faces challenges caused by a small sample size for both breath and plasma as well as changes in metabolic parameters caused by disease and intervention. Key parameters are derived from multiple measurements, all afflicted with errors that may accumulate leading to unrealistic values. To cope with these challenges, a sensitive on-line breath analysis system based on substrate-integrated hollow waveguide infrared spectroscopy and luminescence (iHWG-IR-LS) was used to monitor gas exchange values. A Bayesian statistical model is developed that uses established equations for indirect calorimetry to predict values for respiratory gas exchange and tracer data that are consistent with the corresponding measurements and also provides statistical error bands for these parameters. With this new methodology, it was possible to estimate important metabolic parameters (respiratory quotient (RQ), relative contribution of carbohydrate, protein and fat oxidation fcarb, ffat and fprot , total energy expenditure TEE) in a resolution never available before for a minimal invasive protocol of mice under anesthesia.


Assuntos
Testes Respiratórios , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Dióxido de Carbono , Isótopos de Carbono , Luminescência , Camundongos , Análise Espectral
5.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 60(6): 723-733, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976954

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Early regulatory disorders (ERD) place considerable strain on the parent-infant relationship and are associated with high parental distress. Brief (4-session) psychodynamic-based focused parent-infant psychotherapy (fPIP) treats ERD by strengthening the quality of the parent-infant relationship. This randomized controlled trial investigates the efficacy of fPIP for treating ERD compared to standard pediatric care (treatment as usual [TAU]). METHOD: Participants were 154 mothers and infants from 4 to 15 months who met criteria for persistent excessive crying, sleeping disorders, feeding disorders, or regulation disorders of sensory processing and were randomly assigned to fPIP (n = 81) or TAU (n = 73). Assessments took place at baseline and at the end of treatment after 12 weeks. Primary outcomes were the infants' regulatory symptoms and remission rate. Secondary outcomes were parents' psychological distress, depression, parenting stress, maternal self-efficacy, parental reflective functioning, and observer-rated emotional availability. RESULTS: fPIP was superior to TAU in reducing infants' overall symptoms (p = .004, η2 = 0.05, CI = 0.01-0.12), night-waking disorders (p = .030, odds ratio = 3.12, CI = 1.21-9.22), and mothers' psychological distress (p = .000, η2 = 0.08, CI = 0.03-0.16) and depression (p = .002, η2 = 0.06, CI = 0.02-0.13). There was a trend suggesting that fPIP led to increased maternal self-efficacy and parental reflective functioning. CONCLUSION: Results underscore the efficacy of brief fPIP in significantly reducing symptoms in infants with ERD and their mothers. Generalizability is restricted to low psychosocial risk samples with highly distressed mothers and comorbid ERD with a predominance of night-waking disorders. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION INFORMATION: The Efficacy of a Brief Parent-Infant Psychotherapy for the Treatment of Early Regulatory Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Trial; https://www.drks.de/drks_web/; DRKS00005739.

6.
J Breath Res ; 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344393

RESUMO

In studies that target specific functions or organs, the response is often overlaid by indirect effects of the intervention on global metabolism. The metabolic side of these interactions can be assessed based on total energy expenditure (TEE) and the contributions of the principal energy sources, carbohydrates, proteins and fat to whole body CO2 production. These parameters can be identified from indirect calorimetry using respiratory oxygen intake and CO2 dioxide production data that are combined with the response of the 13CO2 release in the expired air and the glucose tracer enrichment in plasma following a 13C glucose stable isotope infusion. This concept is applied to a mouse protocol involving anesthesia, mechanical respiration, a disease model, like hemorrhage and therapeutic intervention. It faces challenges caused by a small sample size for both breath and plasma as well as changes in metabolic parameters caused by disease and intervention. Key parameters are derived from multiple measurements, all afflicted with errors that may accumulate leading to unrealistic values. To cope with these challenges, a sensitive on-line breath analysis system based on substrate-integrated hollow waveguide infrared spectroscopy and luminescence (iHWG-IR-LS) was used to monitor gas exchange values. A Bayesian statistical model is developed that uses established equations for indirect calorimetry to predict values for respiratory gas exchange and tracer data that are consistent with the corresponding measurements and also provides statistical error bands for these parameters. With this new methodology, it was possible to estimate important metabolic parameters (respiratory quotient (RQ), relative contribution of carbohydrate, protein and fat oxidation fcarb, ffat and fprot, total energy expenditure TEE) in a resolution never available before for a minimal invasive protocol of mice under anesthesia.

7.
J Clin Psychol ; 75(5): 859-873, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793312

RESUMO

Parent-infant psychotherapy treats parents to reduce infants' symptoms and strengthen the quality of the parent-infant relationship. However, little is known about the change processes that are set in place in parent-infant psychotherapy and the therapeutic techniques that are most helpful. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive description of the course of one treatment with a depressed mother of an 8 months old infant who received focused parent-infant psychotherapy (fPIP), a brief psychological intervention that aims at fostering mentalizing in the parent. This study also aimed at examining the specific interventions that fostered mentalizing in this case. We assessed therapeutic interventions with the fPIP adherence scale and in-session mentalizing with the Reflective Functioning Scale, and we analyzed qualitatively the moments in therapy that were relevant for the treatment focus and during which the mother demonstrated an increase in reflective functioning. We discussed the results with regard to the processes in the course of treatment and the strengths and limitations of fPIP.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Mentalização , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães , Psicoterapia Breve/métodos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente
8.
Front Immunol ; 10: 3152, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32038649

RESUMO

Background: Sepsis, that can be modeled by LPS injections, as an acute systemic inflammation syndrome is the most common cause for acute lung injury (ALI). ALI induces acute respiratory failure leading to hypoxemia, which is often associated with multiple organ failure (MOF). During systemic inflammation, the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) is activated and anti-inflammatory acting glucocorticoids (GCs) are released to overcome the inflammation. GCs activate the GC receptor (GR), which mediates its effects via a GR monomer or GR dimer. The detailed molecular mechanism of the GR in different inflammatory models and target genes that might be crucial for resolving inflammation is not completely identified. We previously observed that mice with attenuated GR dimerization (GRdim/dim) had a higher mortality in a non-resuscitated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced inflammation model and are refractory to exogenous GCs to ameliorate ALI during inflammation. Therefore, we hypothesized that impaired murine GR dimerization (GRdim/dim) would further impair organ function in LPS-induced systemic inflammation under human like intensive care management and investigated genes that are crucial for lung function in this setup. Methods: Anesthetized GRdim/dim and wildtype (GR+/+) mice were challenged with LPS (10 mg·kg-1, intraperitoneal) and underwent intensive care management ("lung-protective" mechanical ventilation, crystalloids, and norepinephrine) for 6 h. Lung mechanics and gas exchange were assessed together with systemic hemodynamics, acid-base status, and mitochondrial oxygen consumption (JO2). Western blots, immunohistochemistry, and real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction were performed to analyze lung tissue and inflammatory mediators were analyzed in plasma and lung tissue. Results: When animals were challenged with LPS and subsequently resuscitated under intensive care treatment, GRdim/dim mice had a higher mortality compared to GR+/+ mice, induced by an increased need of norepinephrine to achieve hemodynamic targets. After challenge with LPS, GRdim/dim mice also displayed an aggravated ALI shown by a more pronounced impairment of gas exchange, lung mechanics and increased osteopontin (Opn) expression in lung tissue. Conclusion: Impairment of GR dimerization aggravates systemic hypotension and impairs lung function during LPS-induced endotoxic shock in mice. We demonstrate that the GR dimer is an important mediator of hemodynamic stability and lung function, possibly through regulation of Opn, during LPS-induced systemic inflammation.


Assuntos
Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/química , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Choque Séptico/metabolismo , Choque Séptico/fisiopatologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/metabolismo , Animais , Dimerização , Camundongos , Multimerização Proteica , Choque Séptico/complicações
9.
Shock ; 51(1): 68-77, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29424792

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hemorrhagic shock accounts for a large amount of trauma-related mortality. The severity of trauma can be further aggravated by an additional blunt chest trauma (TxT), which independently contributes to mortality upon the development of an acute lung injury (ALI). Besides, cigarette smoke (CS) exposure before TxT enhanced posttraumatic inflammation, thereby aggravating ALI. We therefore aimed to characterize the impact of an acute and/or chronic lung injury on organ dysfunction in a murine model of traumatic hemorrhagic shock (HS). METHODS: After 3 weeks of CS exposure, anesthetized mice underwent HS with/without TxT. Hemorrhagic shock was implemented for 1 h followed by retransfusion of shed blood and intensive care therapy for 4 h including lung-protective mechanical ventilation, fluid resuscitation, and noradrenaline titrated to maintain mean arterial pressure ≥50 mmHg. Lung mechanics and gas exchange were assessed together with systemic hemodynamics, metabolism, and acid-base status. Postmortem blood and tissue samples were analyzed for cytokine and chemokine levels, protein expression, mitochondrial respiration, and histological changes. RESULTS: CS exposure and HS alone coincided with increased inflammation, decreased whole blood sulfide concentrations, and decreased diaphragmatic mitochondrial respiration. CS-exposed mice, which were subjected to TxT and subsequent HS, showed hemodynamic instability, acute kidney injury, and high mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic CS exposure per se had the strongest impact on inflammatory responses. The degree of inflammation was similar upon an additional TxT, however, mice presented with organ dysfunction and increased mortality rates. Hence, in mice the degree of inflammation may be dissociated from the severity of organ dysfunction or injury.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/sangue , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/sangue , Fumar Cigarros , Choque Hemorrágico/sangue , Sulfetos/sangue , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/sangue , Doença Aguda , Animais , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cigarros/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos
10.
Shock ; 52(2): 230-239, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29927788

RESUMO

Hemorrhagic shock (HS) accounts for 30% to 40% of trauma-induced mortality, which is due to multi-organ-failure subsequent to systemic hyper-inflammation, triggered by hypoxemia and tissue ischemia. The slow-releasing, mitochondria-targeted H2S donor AP39 exerted beneficial effects in several models of ischemia-reperfusion injury and acute inflammation. Therefore, we tested the effects of AP39-treatment in a murine model of combined blunt chest trauma (TxT) and HS with subsequent resuscitation. METHODS: After blast wave-induced TxT or sham procedure, anesthetized and instrumented mice underwent 1 h of hemorrhage followed by 4 h of resuscitation comprising an i.v. bolus injection of 100 or 10 nmol kg AP39 or vehicle, retransfusion of shed blood, fluid resuscitation, and norepinephrine. Lung mechanics and gas exchange were assessed together with hemodynamics, metabolism, and acid-base status. Blood and tissue samples were analyzed for cytokine and chemokine levels, western blot, immunohistochemistry, mitochondrial oxygen consumption (JO2), and histological changes. RESULTS: High dose AP39 attenuated systemic inflammation and reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and IκBα expression in lung tissue. In the combined trauma group (TxT + HS), animals treated with high dose AP39 presented with the lowest mean arterial pressure and thus highest norepinephrine requirements and higher mortality. Low dose AP39 had no effects on hemodynamics, leading to unchanged norepinephrine requirements and mortality rates. CONCLUSION: AP39 is a systemic anti-inflammatory agent. In our model of trauma with HS, there may be a narrow dosing and timing window due to its potent vasodilatory properties, which might result in or contribute to aggravation of circulatory shock-related hypotension.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Compostos Organofosforados/uso terapêutico , Choque Hemorrágico/tratamento farmacológico , Choque Hemorrágico/metabolismo , Tionas/uso terapêutico , Traumatismos Torácicos/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismos Torácicos/metabolismo , Ferimentos e Lesões/tratamento farmacológico , Ferimentos e Lesões/metabolismo , Animais , Temperatura Corporal , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Immunoblotting , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/tratamento farmacológico , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/metabolismo
11.
Shock ; 51(6): 725-730, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29889818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypoxemia and tissue ischemia during hemorrhage as well as formation of oxygen and nitrogen radicals during resuscitation promote hyperinflammation and, consequently, trigger severe multi-organ failure (MOF). Individuals diagnosed with stress-related disorders or reporting a life history of psychosocial stress are characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation and a reduced glucocorticoid (GC) signaling. We hypothesized that exposure to chronic psychosocial stress during adulthood prior to hemorrhagic shock increases oxidative/nitrosative stress and therefore the risk of developing MOF in mice. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To induce chronic psychosocial stress linked to mild immune activation and reduced GC signaling in male mice, the chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC) paradigm was employed. Single-housed (SHC) mice were used as controls. Subsequently, CSC and SHC mice were exposed to hemorrhagic shock following resuscitation to investigate the effects of prior psychosocial stress load on survival, organ function, metabolism, oxidative/nitrosative stress, and inflammatory readouts. An increased adrenal weight in CSC mice indicates that the stress paradigm reliably worked. However, no effect of prior psychosocial stress on outcome after subsequent hemorrhage and resuscitation could be detected. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic psychosocial stress during adulthood is not sufficient to promote hemodynamic complications, organ dysfunction, metabolic disturbances and did not increase the risk of MOF after subsequent hemorrhage and resuscitation. Intravenous norepinephrine to keep target hemodynamics might have led to a certain level of oxidative stress in both groups and, therefore, disguised potential effects of chronic psychosocial stress on organ function after hemorrhagic shock in the present murine trauma model.


Assuntos
Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos , Ressuscitação , Choque Hemorrágico , Estresse Psicológico , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/patologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/terapia , Choque Hemorrágico/patologia , Choque Hemorrágico/fisiopatologia , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Estresse Psicológico/patologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/terapia
12.
Shock ; 51(4): 472-478, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29668565

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hemorrhagic shock is a major cause of death after trauma. An additional blunt chest trauma independently contributes to mortality upon the development of an acute lung injury (ALI) by aggravating pathophysiological consequences of hemorrhagic shock. The maintenance of hydrogen sulfide availability is known to play an important role during hemorrhage and ALI. We therefore tested the impact of a genetic 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase mutation (Δ3-MST) in a resuscitated murine model of traumatic-hemorrhagic shock. METHODS: Anesthetized wild-type (WT) and Δ3-MST mice underwent hemorrhagic shock with/without blunt chest trauma. Hemorrhagic shock was implemented for 1 h followed by retransfusion of shed blood and intensive care therapy for 4 h, including lung-protective mechanical ventilation, fluid resuscitation, and noradrenaline titrated to maintain a mean arterial pressure at least 50 mmHg. Systemic hemodynamics, metabolism, and acid-base status were assessed together with lung mechanics and gas exchange. Postmortem tissue samples were analyzed for immunohistological protein expression and mitochondrial oxygen consumption. RESULTS: 3-MST-deficient mice showed similar results in parameters of hemodynamics, gas exchange, metabolism, acid base status, and survival compared with the respective WT controls. Renal albumin extravasation was increased in Δ3-MST mice during hemorrhagic shock, together with a decrease of LEAK respiration in heart tissue. In contrast, mitochondrial oxygen consumption in the uncoupled state was increased in kidney and liver tissue of Δ3-MST mice subjected to the combined trauma. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, in a resuscitated murine model of traumatic-hemorrhagic shock, 3-MST deficiency had no physiologically relevant impact on hemodynamics and metabolism, which ultimately lead to unchanged mortality regardless of an additional blunt chest trauma.


Assuntos
Cisteína/análogos & derivados , Choque Hemorrágico/enzimologia , Choque Hemorrágico/metabolismo , Sulfurtransferases/genética , Sulfurtransferases/metabolismo , Animais , Cisteína/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mutação/genética , Choque Hemorrágico/genética , Choque Traumático/enzimologia , Choque Traumático/genética , Choque Traumático/metabolismo
13.
ACS Sens ; 3(9): 1743-1749, 2018 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30074387

RESUMO

A multiparameter gas sensor based on distributed feedback interband cascade lasers emitting at 4.35 µm and ultrafast electro-spun luminescence oxygen sensors has been developed for the quantification and continuous monitoring of 13CO2/12CO2 isotopic ratio changes and oxygen in exhaled mouse breath samples. Mid-infrared absorption spectra for quantitatively monitoring the enrichment of 13CO2 levels were recorded in a miniaturized dual-channel substrate-integrated hollow waveguide using balanced ratiometric detection, whereas luminescence quenching was used for synchronously detecting exhaled oxygen levels. Allan variance analysis verified a CO2 measurement precision of 1.6‰ during a 480 s integration time. Routine online monitoring of exhaled mouse breath was performed in 14 mechanically ventilated and instrumented mice and demonstrated the feasibility of online isotope-selective exhaled breath analysis within microliters of probed gas samples using the reported combined sensor platform.


Assuntos
Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Lasers , Oxigênio/análise , Animais , Testes Respiratórios/instrumentação , Carbono/química , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Isótopos de Carbono/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Técnicas Fotoacústicas/métodos , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/métodos
14.
J Breath Res ; 12(3): 036018, 2018 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29674598

RESUMO

Exhaled breath offers monitoring bio markers, as well as diagnosing diseases and therapeutic interventions. In addition, vital functions may be non-invasively monitored online. Animal models are frequently used in research for determining novel therapeutic approaches and/or for investigating biological pathways. The exhaled carbon dioxide concentration, exhaled and inhaled oxygen concentration, and the subsequent respiratory quotient (RQ) offer insight into metabolic activity. One may adapt breath sampling systems and equipment designed for human applications to large animal studies. However, such adaptations are usually impossible for small animals due to their minuscule breath volume. Here, we present a system for the online monitoring of exhaled breath in a 'mouse intensive care unit' (MICU) based on a modified Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer equipped with a substrate-integrated hollow waveguide gas cell, and a luminescence-based oxygen flow-through sensor integrated into the respiratory equipment of the MICU. Thereby, per-minute resolution of O2 consumption and CO2 production was obtained, and the 95% confidence range of the determined RQ was ±0.04 or approximately ±5% of the nominal value. Changes in the RQ value caused by intervention in either the metabolic or respiratory system may therefore reliably be detected.


Assuntos
Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Expiração , Luminescência , Sistemas On-Line , Oxigênio/análise , Animais , Calibragem , Umidade , Inalação , Pulmão/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Análise Espectral
15.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22957399

RESUMO

Maternal intuitive skills can be threatened as a result of severe deprivation or unresolved trauma in the own childhood and can even be inaccessible to the mother. A mother's own childhood experience of abuse maybe a risk factor for repeated child abuse. As a follow-up study to assess the emotional availability of abused mothers it was investigated how a physical or sexual abuse appears in the mother-child interaction and communication in the context of "cycle of abuse" and whether it could give effect to it. Interactions of mothers with abuse experience were compared with those of mothers without an abuse experience and evaluated five months postpartum with the Munich clinical communication scale (MKK). The results suggest that maltreatment experienced mothers show less emotion tuning to their child in a standardized interaction sequence.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Emoções , Transtornos do Humor/diagnóstico , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães/psicologia , Adulto , Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Abuso Sexual na Infância/prevenção & controle , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Intuição , Estudos Longitudinais , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Determinação da Personalidade , Estudos Prospectivos
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