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1.
Prev Med Rep ; 24: 101633, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777985

RESUMO

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is widespread and has played critical roles in preventing infections, including previous coronaviruses. This study sought to document current practices in the use of CAM for the prevention of COVID-19 disease in Ghana. An anonymous electronic survey was conducted from February 1, 2021 to April 30, 2021. Data on demographic characteristics, basic clinical information, illness perceptions about COVID-19, and CAM use during the pandemic period were generated. While about 82.5% (986/1195) of the participants used CAM during the COVID-19 period, 69.1% (681/986) of CAM users intented it for COVID-19 infection prevention. Vitamin supplements (88.1%, 869/986), spiritual healing/prayer (23.3%, 230/986), mineral supplements (22.3%, 220/986), botanical/herbal medicines (22.2%, 219/986), and diet therapy (19.4%, 191/986) were the main types of CAM used. From the adjusted binary logistic regression model, current age (aOR: 1.03, 95%CI: 1.01-1.05), sex (aOR: 1.41, 95%CI: 1.02-1.95), participants' perceptions of consequences (aOR: 1.10, 95%CI: 1.04-1.17), identity (aOR: 1.15, 95%CI: 1.06-1.25) and concerns about COVID-19 (aOR: 0.91, 95%CI: 0.85-0.97) were statistically significant predictors of CAM use. These results suggest the need for appropriate public health policy on COVID-19 and CAM use in addition to directing further research initiatives toward an optimized COVID-19 prevention scheme using clinically validated CAM treatments. Research to validate the clinical efficacy of these products, especially the herbs, for COVID-19 prevention while isolating lead compounds that could be optimized and used for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19 is also recommended.

2.
J Diabetes Res ; 2021: 9941538, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34395632

RESUMO

Background: Optimal adherence to prescribed medications in women with gestational diabetes is relevant for perinatal outcomes. Objective: To summarize available information on the prevalence and factors contributing to medication adherence in women with gestational diabetes from the biological and psychosocial perspectives. Methods: A literature search on adherence in gestational diabetes was conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, Scopus, and the Directory of Open Access Journals for studies published on the topic. The Arksey and O'Malley framework for scoping reviews was used to explore and summarize the evidence. Results: A total of 2395 studies were retrieved of which 13 fully met the eligibility criteria. The studies were reported in Zimbabwe (n = 5), Iran (n = 1), Mexico (n = 1), South India (n = 1), the United States of America (n = 4), and one multinational study covering Australia, Europe, North and South America. The main types of antidiabetic medications used were insulin (n = 6), metformin (n = 4), and glyburide (n = 2). The prevalence of adherence ranged from 35.6% to 97%, with the assessment tool being self-report measures (n = 8). The main factors associated with nonadherence included worsening pregnancy symptoms, side effects of medications, perceived risks, mental health symptoms, poor social support, and socioeconomic status. Recommendations that evolved from the studies to improve adherence included education, counselling, improved support networks, and social interventions, while the main reported interventional study employed continuous education on the impact of adherence on perinatal outcomes. Conclusion: Medication nonadherence in gestational diabetes seems to be influenced by multiple factors with some educational interventions positively impacting adherence behaviours. Thus, future research in women with gestational diabetes could consider interventions from a multifactorial perspective to improve therapeutic outcomes.

3.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 43(5): 1370-1380, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835372

RESUMO

Background Medication adherence is essential in the management of schizophrenia. Yet poor treatment uptake has negative consequences on patients and their primary caregivers. Objective To examine the association among beliefs about psychotropic medications, side effects and adherence from a patient-caregiver dyad perspective. Setting This study was conducted in a public psychiatric hospital setting in Accra, Ghana. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 121 patient-caregiver dyads using an interviewer-administered data collection approach.Main outcome measure Beliefs about medicines, side-effects and medication adherence. Results The patient and caregiver-reported level of medication adherence was 28.1 %. Using the Kappa index, the level of agreement between the responses of patients and their caregivers ranged from slight to moderate. Both patients and caregivers rated necessity higher than concern (patients: 1.67 ± 0.84, caregiver: 1.79 ± 0.96). Significant positive relations between specific-necessity, necessity-concerns differential and medication adherence were recorded while specific-concern, general harm and side-effects correlated negatively with medication adherence from the dyad. The odds of adhering to medications increased by 58 and 64 % for each unit increase in specific-necessity and general overuse scores respectively. However, a unit increase in specific-concern score and high side-effects scores were associated with lower odds of adherence. Conclusions This study highlights the need for patient-caregiver collaborations in decision-making relating to medication adherence in schizophrenia. Thus, in clinical practice, there is the need to recognize that caregivers are essential partners, and patient-caregiver views about psychotropic medications are critical in enhancing adherence for positive mental health outcomes.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Esquizofrenia , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Psicotrópicos , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Nurs Open ; 8(5): 2595-2604, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626226

RESUMO

AIM: To assess how illness perceptions and social support influence antiretroviral medication adherence in a HIV patient population in Ghana. DESIGN: This study used a correlational research design with cross-sectional data. METHOD: A total of 235 people living with HIV at two general hospitals in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana provided data on illness perceptions, social support and medication adherence. Hierarchical multiple regression test was used to analyse the data. RESULTS: Illness perceptions' facets of timeline, personal control and treatment control were negatively associated with medication adherence, whereas emotional response was positively associated with adherence. Further, significant other support was negatively associated with adherence. Family and friend support were not associated with adherence. The findings offer preliminary evidence that illness perceptions may have utility for medication adherence in a HIV patient population in Ghana.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Estudos Transversais , Gana/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Percepção Social , Apoio Social
5.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e044293, 2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622951

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ensuring universal availability and accessibility of medicines and supplies is critical for national health systems to equitably address population health needs. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), this is a recognised priority with multiple medicines pricing policies enacted. However, medicine prices have remained high, continue to rise and constrain their accessibility. In this systematic review, we aim to identify and analyse experiences of implementation of medicines pricing policies in SSA. Our ambition is for this evidence to contribute to improved implementation of medicines pricing policies in SSA. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will search: Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, Global Health, Embase, Cairn.Info International Edition, Erudit and African Index Medicus, the grey literature and reference from related publications. The searches will be limited to literature published from the year 2000 onwards that is, since the start of the Millennium Development Goals.Published peer-reviewed studies of implementation of medicines pricing policies in SSA will be eligible for inclusion. Broader policy analyses and documented experiences of implementation of other health policies will be excluded. The team will collaboratively screen titles and abstracts, then two reviewers will independently screen full texts, extract data and assess quality of the included studies. Disagreements will be resolved by discussion or a third reviewer. Data will be extracted on approaches used for policy implementation, actors involved, evidence used in decision making and key contextual influences on policy implementation. A narrative approach will be used to synthesise the data. Reporting will be informed by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols guideline. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: No ethics approvals are required for systematic reviews.Results will be disseminated through academic publications, policy briefs and presentations to national policymakers in Ghana and mode widely across countries in SSA. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020178166.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Políticas , Custos e Análise de Custo , Gana , Humanos , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
6.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 17(1): 2023-2026, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307319

RESUMO

The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is placing a huge strain on health systems worldwide. Suggested solutions like social distancing and lockdowns in some areas to help contain the spread of the virus may affect special patient populations like those with chronic illnesses who are unable to access healthcare facilities for their routine care and medicines management. Retail pharmacy outlets are the likely facilities for easy access by these patients. The contribution of community pharmacists in these facilities to manage chronic conditions and promote medication adherence during this COVID-19 pandemic will be essential in easing the burden on already strained health systems. This paper highlights the pharmaceutical care practices of community pharmacists for patients with chronic diseases during this pandemic. This would provide support for the call by the WHO to maintain essential services during the pandemic, in order to prevent non-COVID disease burden on healthcare systems particularly in low-and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Doença Crônica/terapia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Adesão à Medicação , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/economia , COVID-19/economia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica/economia , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Humanos , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/tendências
7.
Trop Med Int Health ; 26(4): 410-420, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350035

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Worldwide, herbal medicinal products (HMPs) play key roles in healthcare systems, especially in developing countries, yet there is inconsistent evidence about their prevalence and patterns of use in Ghana. This study therefore sought to determine the prevalence, patterns and beliefs about the use of HMPs in Ghana. METHODS: A descriptive community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted using a researcher-administered questionnaire on 1364 adults, selected from five communities for each of the ecological zones in Ghana using a multi-stage sampling procedure. The study was conducted between December 2019 and March 2020. RESULTS: The prevalence of ever use of HMPs was 76.5% with 73.0% of respondents using these products within the past year. Almost 60% of respondents reported using HMPs that were registered by the Ghana Food and Drugs Authority. About 56.7% used these products to cure diseases. All the sociodemographic characteristics (age, religion, marital status, educational level and employment status) except for sex were significantly associated with the use of HMPs (P < 0.001). For beliefs about HMPs, the proportion of respondents classified to be accepting, ambivalent, indifferent and sceptical was 14.3%, 25.2%, 47.5% and 13.07%, respectively. About 62.2% of study participants had plans to use HMPs in the future, and 69.1% were willing to encourage others to use such products. However, 51.6% of the participants did not perceive HMPs as more effective and safe compared with orthodox products. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of use of HMPs in Ghana is high, thus suggesting an appropriate public health policy to improve the regulation of these products and also provide basis for the integration of HMPs into the healthcare system in Ghana.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Gana , Medicina Herbária , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Diabetes Res ; 2020: 4760624, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32190697

RESUMO

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major public health problem associated with distress. T2DM can affect health outcomes and adherence to medications. Little is however known about the association between diabetes distress and medication adherence among patients with T2DM in Ghana. Objective: The objective of the present study is twofold: to estimate distress associated with T2DM and to examine its association with medication adherence. Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 188 patients with T2DM recruited from a diabetes specialist outpatient clinic at the Pantang Hospital in Accra, Ghana. Data were obtained using the Problem Areas In Diabetes (PAID) scale and the Medication Adherence Report Scale. Results: The findings showed that about 44.7% of the patients showed high levels of diabetes-related distress. Poor adherence to medications was recorded in 66.5% of the patients. Patients who were highly distressed had 68% lower odds of adhering to their medications compared to those who were not (OR: 0.32, 95% CI: 0.15-0.65). A principal component analysis revealed four areas of T2DM distress which were conceptualized as negative emotions about diabetes, dietary concerns and diabetes care, dissatisfaction with external support, and diabetes management helplessness. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that diabetes distress is a significant determinant of medication adherence behaviour in patients with T2DM. Thus, incorporating routine screening for distress into the standard diabetes care within the Ghanaian health system and having health practitioners adopt holistic approaches to diabetes management will be important context-specific interventions to improve adherence and health outcomes of people living and coping with T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autocuidado
9.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227874, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995606

RESUMO

Medication adherence is a key health outcome that reflects the health and general well-being of patients with hypertension. Challenges with adherence are common and associated with clinical, behavioural and psychosocial factors. This study sought to provide data on the extent of medication adherence among male patients with hypertension and their biopsychosocial predictors. Patient and clinical characteristics, psychological distress, insomnia and sexual dysfunction were hypothesized to predict outcomes of medication adherence. Utilizing quantitative data from a hospital-based cross-sectional study from 358 male out-patients with hypertension attending a tertiary hospital in Ghana, medication adherence was associated with age, marital status, educational level, income, duration of diagnosis, number of medications taken and sexual dysfunction. These findings support the need for biopsychosocial interventions aiming at promoting adherence while taking these factors into consideration for the benefit of improving the health and general well-being of male patients with hypertension.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adesão à Medicação , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas/etiologia , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas/psicologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/etiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária
10.
Int J Hypertens ; 2019: 7489875, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30719339

RESUMO

Background: Hypertension is a major health problem that remains a significant threat to the health and general wellbeing of many people all over the world. In some patients, the etiology and prognosis of hypertension have been linked to psychological factors including personality traits. One primary goal of management is to improve the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients with hypertension. This study aimed to examine the association between personality traits, clinical characteristics, and HRQoL in hypertension. Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted in a sample of 331 individuals with hypertension. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, clinical information, personality traits, and HRQoL were obtained from participants using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Results: The number of participants with a 1-10 years' duration of diagnosis for hypertension was highest (56.8%), with 52.9% having comorbidities such as diabetes (40.2%) and dyslipidaemia (20.9%). The average number of medications taken per patient was 2.14 (SD±0.79) and about 47.1% of the participants reported adequate medication adherence. Significant associations for age, education, monthly income, number of years with hypertension, and HRQoL were observed. While conscientiousness was significantly associated with all HRQoL domains, extraversion and agreeableness were significantly related to only the environmental domain. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that clinical characteristics and patients' perception of their personality are relevant to their health-related quality of life outcomes. The findings suggest that when intervention efforts to improve the quality of life of patients with hypertension are being considered, a biopsychosocial approach should be employed. The implication is that treatment of hypertension in Ghana should be broadened to include the expertise of mental health professionals.

11.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 6(5): e117, 2018 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29728343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Voluntary blood donation rates are low in sub-Saharan Africa. Sociobehavioral factors such as a belief that donated blood would be used for performing rituals deter people from donating blood. There is a need for culturally appropriate communication interventions to encourage individuals to donate blood. Health care interventions that use mobile phones have increased in developing countries, although many of them focus on SMS text messaging (short message service, SMS). A unique feature of mobile phones that has so far not been used for aiding blood donation is caller tunes. Caller tunes replace the ringing sound heard by a caller to a mobile phone before the called party answers the call. In African countries such as Ghana, instead of the typical ringing sound, a caller may hear a message or song. Despite the popularity of such caller tunes, there is a lack of empirical studies on their potential use for promoting blood donation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to use the technology acceptance model to explore the influence of the factors-perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, attitude, and free of cost-on intentions of blood or nonblood donors to download blood donation-themed caller tunes to promote blood donation, if available. METHODS: A total of 478 blood donors and 477 nonblood donors were purposively sampled for an interviewer-administered questionnaire survey at blood donation sites in Accra, Ghana. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factory analysis or structural equation modeling, leading to hypothesis testing to examine factors that determine intention to use caller tunes for blood donation among blood or nonblood donors who use or do not use mobile phone caller tunes. RESULTS: Perceived usefulness had a significant effect on intention to use caller tunes among blood donors with caller tunes (beta=.293, P<.001), blood donors without caller tunes (beta=.165, P=.02, nonblood donors with caller tunes (beta=.278, P<.001), and nonblood donors without caller tunes (beta=.164, P=.01). Attitudes had significant effect on intention to use caller tunes among blood donors without caller tunes (beta=.351, P<.001), nonblood donors with caller tunes (beta=.384, P<.001), nonblood donors without caller tunes (beta=.539, P<.001) but not among blood donors with caller tunes (beta=.056, P=.44). The effect of free-of-cost caller tunes on the intention to use for blood donation was statistically significant (beta=.169, P<.001) only in the case of nonblood donors without caller tunes, whereas this path was statistically not significant in other models. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide empirical evidence for designing caller tunes to promote blood donation in Ghana. The study found that making caller tunes free is particularly relevant for nonblood donors with no caller tunes.

12.
Psychiatry J ; 2018: 9850594, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29536020

RESUMO

Background: Patients with schizophrenia are managed with antipsychotics and other psychotropic medications. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the commonly prescribed psychotropic medications for patients with schizophrenia, explore the types of therapeutic monitoring that were performed, and find out whether the side effects experienced by the patients played any role in their adherence behaviour. Methods: This hospital-based cross-sectional study enrolled 259 patients with schizophrenia from Accra Psychiatric Hospital and Pantang Psychiatric Hospital. Data were collected on mental status, side effects, types of therapeutic monitoring performed, and adherence behaviour. Results: Olanzapine was the commonly prescribed psychotropic medication. Most of respondents (73.4%) experienced mild levels of side effects. The negative effects were predominantly genitourinary (26%) and gastrointestinal (17.2%). Blood pressure and heart rate measures were the main types of monitoring performed but no measurement of drug levels was reported. About 98.1% of the participants poorly adhered to their medications and the major reasons for poor adherence were economic challenges, forgetfulness, and the feeling of wellness. Conclusion: Adherence to medication is a major health problem among patients with schizophrenia and there is a need to improve adherence and treatment outcomes.

13.
Psychiatry Res ; 259: 289-294, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29091831

RESUMO

The study examined the association between psychological distress, caregiving burden and caregiver-reported medication adherence in 444 informal family caregivers of patients with schizophrenia. Participants were assessed on the Depression, Anxiety Stress Scale, Zarit Burden Interview and the Medication Adherence Report Scale. Caregivers reported a non-adherence rate of 54.5% among patients with schizophrenia. Poor adherence to antipsychotics was significantly associated with caregiver burden (p < 0.01) and experience of anxiety (p < 0.0001). The burden of caregiving should be considered during the assessment of adherence. The findings suggest a need for culturally appropriate interventions that improve antipsychotic adherence of outpatients with schizophrenia with specific attention to the burden of the caregiver.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Cuidadores/psicologia , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/psicologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
14.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 17(Suppl 2): 697, 2017 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29219074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low and middle income countries face many challenges in meeting their populations' mental health care needs. Though family caregiving is crucial to the management of severe mental health disabilities, such as schizophrenia, the economic costs borne by family caregivers often go unnoticed. In this study, we estimated the household economic costs of schizophrenia and quality of life of family caregivers in Ghana. METHODS: We used a cost of illness analysis approach. Quality of life (QoL) was assessed using the abridged WHO Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) tool. Cross-sectional data were collected from 442 caregivers of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia at least six months prior to the study and who received consultation in any of the three psychiatric hospitals in Ghana. Economic costs were categorized as direct costs (including medical and non-medical costs of seeking care), indirect costs (productivity losses to caregivers) and intangible costs (non-monetary costs such as stigma and pain). Direct costs included costs of medical supplies, consultations, and travel. Indirect costs were estimated as value of productive time lost (in hours) to primary caregivers. Intangible costs were assessed using the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI). We employed multiple regression models to assess the covariates of costs, caregiver burden, and QoL. RESULTS: Total monthly cost to caregivers was US$ 273.28, on average. Key drivers of direct costs were medications (50%) and transportation (27%). Direct costs per caregiver represented 31% of the reported monthly earnings. Mean caregiver burden (measured by the ZBI) was 16.95 on a scale of 0-48, with 49% of caregivers reporting high burden. Mean QoL of caregivers was 28.2 (range: 19.6-34.8) out of 100. Better educated caregivers reported lower indirect costs and better QoL. Caregivers with higher severity of depression, anxiety and stress reported higher caregiver burden and lower QoL. Males reported better QoL. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the high household burden of caregiving for people living with schizophrenia in low income settings. Results underscore the need for policies and programs to support caregivers.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia/economia , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Adulto , Cuidadores/psicologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Gana , Hospitalização/economia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/economia , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Transportes/economia , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Res Notes ; 10(1): 115, 2017 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28253905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stress among pharmacy students could greatly affect their learning activities and general well-being. It is therefore necessary to investigate how stress relates with the quality of life of students to maintain and/or improve their personal satisfaction and academic performance. A school-based longitudinal study was used to investigate the relationship between stress and quality of life of undergraduate pharmacy students. The 10-item perceived stress scale and the shorter version of the WHO quality of life scale were administered to the same participants at two time points i.e. Time 1 (4 weeks into the semester) and Time 2 (8 weeks afterwards). The correlations and differences between the study variables were tested using the Pearson's coefficient and independent sample t test. RESULTS: The mean stress scores were higher at Time 2 compared to Time 1 for the first and second years. However, there was no significant difference in stress for different year groups-Time 1 [F (3) = 0.410; p = 0.746] and Time 2 [F(3) = 0.909; p = 0.439]. Female students had higher stress scores at Time 2 compared to male students. The main stressors identified in the study were; large volume of material to be studied (88.2%), laboratory report writing (78.2%), constant pressure to maintain good grades (66.4%) and the lack of leisure time (46.4%). Even though most students employed positive stress management strategies such as time management (68.2%), other students resorted to emotional eating (9.1%) and alcohol/substance use (1.8%). At Time 2, perceived stress scores were significantly negatively correlated with social relationship (r = -0.40, p ≤ 0.0001), environmental health (r = -0.37, p ≤ 0.0001), physical health (r = -0.49, p ≤ 0.0001) and psychological health (r = -0.51, p ≤ 0.0001). CONCLUSION: The study reported significant correlations between stress and various domains of quality of life of undergraduate pharmacy students. It is thus necessary to institute some personal and institutional strategies to ameliorate the effect of stress on the quality of life of pharmacy students while encouraging the use of positive stress management strategies.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estudantes de Farmácia/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Emoções , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Integr Med ; 14(5): 380-8, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27641609

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Integrative medicine refers to ongoing efforts to combine the best of conventional and evidence-based complementary therapies. While this effort for collaboration is increasing, traditional complementary and alternative medicine (TM-CAM) remains poorly integrated into the current healthcare system of Ghana. At present, it is not clear if practitioners of mainstream medicine favor integrative medicine. The present study, therefore, sought to explore the perceptions of conventional healthcare professionals on integrative medicine. METHODS: A qualitative design composed of semi-structured interviews was conducted with 23 conventional healthcare professionals comprising pharmacists, physicians, nurses and dieticians from two quasi-government hospitals in Accra, Ghana. RESULTS: Participants' knowledge of TM-CAM was low, and although they perceived alternative medicine as important to current conventional healthcare in Ghana, they expressed anxieties about the potential negative effects of the use of TM-CAM. This paradox was found to account for the low levels of use among these professionals, as well as the low level of recommendation to their patients. The practitioners surveyed recommended that alternative medicine could be integrated into mainstream allopathic healthcare in Ghana through improving knowledge, training as well as addressing concerns of safety and efficacy. These findings are discussed under the themes: the knowledge gap, the paradox of TM-CAM, experience of use and prescription, and guided integration. We did not observe any differences in views among the participants. CONCLUSION: The conventional healthcare professionals were ready to accept the idea of integrative medicine based on knowledge of widespread use and the potential role of TM-CAM products and practices in improving healthcare delivery in the country. However, to achieve an institutional integration, practitioners' understanding of TM-CAM must be improved, with specific attention to issues of safety, regulation and evidence-based practice of TM-CAM products and services in Ghana.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Terapias Complementares , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Medicina Integrativa , Medicina Tradicional , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Pesquisa Qualitativa
17.
Int J Ment Health Syst ; 10: 28, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27051464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Ghana, about 13 % of the adult population is estimated to be affected by mental health disorders of varying forms. In managing these patients, psychotropic medications are mostly employed. Since most of these conditions are chronic cases, the medications are consumed for prolonged periods of time. However, there exists an absence of information on efficacy, side effects, accessibility and prescription practices of psychotropic medication utilization from the viewpoint of the practitioners who are primarily involved in prescribing, dispensing and administering these medications. METHOD: Qualitative study composed of semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty three (23) participants from Accra psychiatry, Pantang and Ankaful hospitals. These were fifteen (15) nurses, six (6) clinicians and two (2) pharmacists. All interviews were recorded digitally and analyzed thematically. RESULTS: The commonly prescribed psychotropic medications were grouped into four classes. These were antipsychotics, antidepressants, anticonvulsants and hypnosedatives. Although each facility had at least one drug belonging to each class, there were frequent shortages recorded across the board. Also, drugs were free when supplied by government, and expensive when obtained from outside. When subsidized, the average cost of a day's supply of the most common antipsychotic was 4 % of the daily minimum wage. The procurement system for the medications was fraught with challenges such as inadequate financing, poor procurement practices and bureaucracies with the process which affected the availability and quality of medications. CONCLUSION: The commonly prescribed psychotropic medications are in conformity with the recommendations of the WHO guidelines and the standard treatment guidelines of Ghana. However, the accessibility and quality of medications in the sector are inadequate. To improve mental health services in the country, it is important to ensure the adequate and regular provision of quality medicines in the mental health sector.

18.
Clin Hypertens ; 21: 19, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26893929

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study examined whether psychosocial variables influenced patients' perception and experience of side effects of their medicines, how they coped with these experiences and the impact on medication adherence behaviour. METHODS: A hospital-based mixed methods study using quantitative and qualitative approaches was conducted with hypertensive patients. Participants were asked about side effects, medication adherence, common psychological symptoms and coping mechanisms with the aid of standard questionnaires and an interview guide. RESULTS: The experiences of side effects-such as palpitations, frequent urination, recurrent bouts of hunger, erectile dysfunction, dizziness, cough, physical exhaustion-were categorized as no/low (39.75 %), moderate (53.0 %) and high (7.25 %). Significant relationships between depression (x (2) = 24.21, p < 0.0001), anxiety (x (2) = 42.33, p < 0.0001), stress (x (2) = 39.73, p < 0.0001) and side effects were observed. A logistic regression model using the adjusted results for this association is reported-depression [OR = 1.9 (1.03-3.57), p = 0.04], anxiety [OR = 1.5 (1.22-1.77), p ≤ 0.001] and stress [OR = 1.3 (1.02-1.71), p = 0.04]. Side effects significantly increased the probability of individuals to be non-adherent [OR = 4.84 (95 % CI 1.07-1.85), p = 0.04] with social factors, media influences and attitudes of primary care givers further explaining this relationship. Personal adoption of medication modifying strategies, espousing the use of complementary and alternative treatments and interventions made by clinicians were the main forms of coping with side effects. DISCUSSION: Results from this study show that, in addition to a biomedical approach, the experience of side effects has biological, social and psychological interrelations. The results offer more support for the need for a multi-disciplinary approach to healthcare where all forms of expertise are incorporated into health provision and patient care.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24987456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic conditions like hypertension may experience many negative emotions which increase their risk for the development of mental health disorders particularly anxiety and depression. For Ghanaian patients with hypertension, the interaction between hypertension and symptoms of anxiety, depression and stress remains largely unexplored. To fill this knowledge gap, the study sought to ascertain the prevalence and role of these negative emotions on anti-hypertensive medication adherence while taking into account patients' belief systems. METHODS: The hospital-based cross-sectional study involving 400 hypertensive patients was conducted in two tertiary hospitals in Ghana. Data were gathered on patient's socio-demographic characteristics, anxiety, depression and stress symptoms, spiritual beliefs, and medication adherence. RESULTS: Hypertensive patients experienced symptoms of anxiety (56%), stress (20%) and depression (4%). As a coping mechanism, a significant relation was observed between spiritual beliefs and anxiety (x (2) = 13.352, p = 0.010), depression (x (2) = 6.205, p = 0.045) and stress (x (2) = 14.833, p = 0.001). Stress among patients increased their likelihood of medication non-adherence [odds ratio (OR) = 2.42 (95% CI 1.06 - 5.5), p = 0.035]. CONCLUSION: The study has demonstrated the need for clinicians to pay attention to negative emotions and their role in medication non-adherence. The recommendation is that attention should be directed toward the use of spirituality as a possible mechanism by which negative emotions could be managed among hypertensive patients.

20.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 14: 44, 2014 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24495363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is widespread and high utilization rates are associated with people who have chronic conditions like hypertension which management requires adherence to conventional treatment. Often however, the use of alternative medicines has been linked to negative health outcomes. The purpose of the study therefore was to evaluate the pattern, determinants and the association between CAM use and the adherence behaviour of hypertensive patients in Ghana. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using 400 hypertensive patients attending Korle-bu and Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospitals in Ghana from May to July, 2012. Information was gathered on the socio-demographic characteristics of patients, CAM use, and adherence using the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS). RESULTS: Out of the 400 study participants, 78 (19.5%) reported using CAM with the majority (65.38%) utilizing biological based therapies. About 70% of CAM users had not disclosed their CAM use to their healthcare professionals citing fear and the lack of inquiry by these health professionals as the main reasons for non-disclosure. Males were 2.86 more likely to use CAM than females [odds ratio (OR) = 2.86 (95% CI 1.48-5.52), p = 0.002]. Participants who could not afford their medications had 3.85 times likelihood of CAM use than those who could afford their medicines [OR = 3.85 (1.15-12.5), p = 0.029]. In addition, a significant relationship between CAM use and experiences of anti-hypertensive side effects was observed, X2 = 25.378, p < 0.0001. CAM users were 2.22 times more likely to be non-adherent than participants who did not use CAM [OR = 2.22 (0.70-7.14), p = 0.176]. CONCLUSION: Hypertensive patients in Ghana have shown utilization for CAM. It is important that healthcare providers understand the patterns and determinants of CAM use among their patients. Intervention programmes can then be incorporated to enhance the desired health outcomes of patients.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Terapias Complementares/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipertensão/terapia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Revelação , Características da Família , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fitoterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
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