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1.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(37): 20613-20627, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31528972

RESUMO

Atmospheric aerosol particles with a high viscosity may become inhomogeneously mixed during chemical processing. Models have predicted gradients in condensed phase reactant concentration throughout particles as the result of diffusion and chemical reaction limitations, termed chemical gradients. However, these have never been directly observed for atmospherically relevant particle diameters. We investigated the reaction between ozone and aerosol particles composed of xanthan gum and FeCl2 and observed the in situ chemical reaction that oxidized Fe2+ to Fe3+ using X-ray spectromicroscopy. Iron oxidation state of particles as small as 0.2 µm in diameter were imaged over time with a spatial resolution of tens of nanometers. We found that the loss off Fe2+ accelerated with increasing ozone concentration and relative humidity, RH. Concentric 2-D column integrated profiles of the Fe2+ fraction, α, out of the total iron were derived and demonstrated that particle surfaces became oxidized while particle cores remained unreacted at RH = 0-20%. At higher RH, chemical gradients evolved over time, extended deeper from the particle surface, and Fe2+ became more homogeneously distributed. We used the kinetic multi-layer model for aerosol surface and bulk chemistry (KM-SUB) to simulate ozone reaction constrained with our observations and inferred key parameters as a function of RH including Henry's Law constant for ozone, HO3, and diffusion coefficients for ozone and iron, DO3 and DFe, respectively. We found that HO3 is higher in our xanthan gum/FeCl2 particles than for water and increases when RH decreased from about 80% to dry conditions. This coincided with a decrease in both DO3 and DFe. In order to reproduce observed chemical gradients, our model predicted that ozone could not be present further than a few nanometers from a particle surface indicating near surface reactions were driving changes in iron oxidation state. However, the observed chemical gradients in α observed over hundreds of nanometers must have been the result of iron transport from the particle interior to the surface where ozone oxidation occurred. In the context of our results, we examine the applicability of the reacto-diffusive framework and discuss diffusion limitations for other reactive gas-aerosol systems of atmospheric importance.

2.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(15): 4484-4489, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295402

RESUMO

The diffusivity of molecules relevant to condensed-phase chemistry within viscous secondary organic aerosol (SOA) remains highly uncertain. Whereas there has been an effort to characterize water diffusivity as well as the diffusivity of larger compounds, data are lacking almost entirely for small molecules, such as carbon dioxide (CO2). Here we use photochemically generated CO2 in single particles of aqueous citric acid as a SOA proxy, levitated in an electrodynamic balance, to deduce CO2 diffusivity in the particle with unprecedented accuracy. For medium viscosities at intermediate relative humidities (∼25-40% RH), we find CO2 diffusivities DCO2 ≈ 10-14 m2 s-1, agreeing with the Stokes-Einstein relationship based on current viscosity data but 10 times lower than that for water. Conversely, under dry high-viscosity conditions, we find that DCO2 ≈ 10-16 m2 s-1, which is 10 times higher than for water. We infer that the chemical degradation of atmospheric SOA particles will likely not be limited by CO2 diffusivity.

3.
J Phys Chem A ; 121(48): 9284-9296, 2017 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29111734

RESUMO

Mixed organic/inorganic aerosols may undergo liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) when the relative humidity drops in the atmosphere. Phase-separated particles adopt different morphologies, which will have different consequences for atmospheric chemistry and climate. Recent laboratory studies on submicron particles led to speculation whether LLPS observed for larger drops might actually be suppressed in smaller droplets. Here, we report on micron-sized droplets of a ternary mixture of ammonium sulfate (AS), carminic acid, and water at different temperatures, which were exposed to typical atmospheric drying rates ranging from 0.34 to 5.0% RH min-1. Our results reveal that increasing the drying rate and lowering the temperature results in different morphologies after LLPS and may suppress the growth and coalescence of the inorganic-rich phase inclusions due to kinetic limitations in a viscous matrix. The coalescence time was used to estimate the viscosity of the organic-rich phase within a factor of 20, and based on the Stokes-Einstein relationship, we estimated AS diffusivity. Furthermore, we evaluated the initial growth of inclusions to quantitatively determine the AS diffusivity in the organic-rich phase, which is about 10-8 cm2 s-1 at room temperature. Extrapolation of diffusivity to lower temperatures using estimations for the diffusion activation energy leads us to conclude that the growth of the inorganic phase is not kinetically impeded for tropospheric submicron particles larger than 100 nm.

4.
J Phys Chem A ; 121(42): 8176-8184, 2017 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28972372

RESUMO

Morphology-dependent resonances (MDRs) can serve as a sensitive probe of the size and composition of microspheres. While the utilization of MDRs to characterize homogeneous spheres is now routine, analysis of spherical particles with more complicated refractive index profiles can be extremely difficult and time consuming. In ultraviscous and glassy aerosol particles, the concentration profile of water during sorption often contains a sharp front that propagates from the particle surface to the particle center over time. Here we show that the MDR positions associated with this type of concentration profile closely match those of a spherical core-shell profile. Due to the similarities, a core-shell model can be used to simplify the analysis of MDR positions that are observed during water uptake by high-viscosity aerosol particles. We examined the applicability and limitations of this core-shell model in the tracking of water sorption by single particles. Overall, the core-shell model allows for the radial position of a sharp diffusion front to be readily found using MDR positions observed during water sorption, making the analysis of light-scattering measurements much faster and less error prone than previously used fitting schemes. Additionally, methods for calculating MDRs in spherical core-shell particles are also discussed.

5.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(18): 12662-74, 2016 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27095585

RESUMO

Heterogeneous and multiphase reactions of ozone are important pathways for chemical ageing of atmospheric organic aerosols. To demonstrate and quantify how moisture-induced phase changes can affect the gas uptake and chemical transformation of organic matter, we apply a kinetic multi-layer model to a comprehensive experimental data set of ozone uptake by shikimic acid. The bulk diffusion coefficients were determined to be 10(-12) cm(2) s(-1) for ozone and 10(-20) cm(2) s(-1) for shikimic acid under dry conditions, increasing by several orders of magnitude with increasing relative humidity (RH) due to phase changes from amorphous solid over semisolid to liquid. Consequently, the reactive uptake of ozone progresses through different kinetic regimes characterised by specific limiting processes and parameters. At high RH, ozone uptake is driven by reaction throughout the particle bulk; at low RH it is restricted to reaction near the particle surface and kinetically limited by slow diffusion and replenishment of unreacted organic molecules. Our results suggest that the chemical reaction mechanism involves long-lived reactive oxygen intermediates, likely primary ozonides or O atoms, which may provide a pathway for self-reaction and catalytic destruction of ozone at the surface. Slow diffusion and ozone destruction can effectively shield reactive organic molecules in the particle bulk from degradation. We discuss the potential non-orthogonality of kinetic parameters, and show how this problem can be solved by using comprehensive experimental data sets to constrain the kinetic model, providing mechanistic insights into the coupling of transport, phase changes, and chemical reactions of multiple species in complex systems.

6.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 17(46): 31101-9, 2015 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26536455

RESUMO

Ageing of particulate organic matter affects the composition and properties of atmospheric aerosol particles. Driven by temperature and humidity, the organic fraction can vary its physical state between liquid and amorphous solid, or rarely even crystalline. These transitions can influence the reaction kinetics due to limitations of mass transport in such (semi-) solid states, which in turn may influence the chemical ageing of particles containing such compounds. We have used coated wall flow tube experiments to investigate the reaction kinetics of the ozonolysis of shikimic acid, which serves as a proxy for oxygenated, water-soluble organic matter and can form a glass at room temperature. Particular attention was paid to how the presence of water influences the reaction, since it acts a plasticiser and thereby induces changes in the physical state. We analysed the results by means of a traditional resistor model, which assumes steady-state conditions. The ozonolysis rate of shikimic acid is strongly increased in the presence of water, a fact we attribute to the increased transport of O3 and shikimic acid through the condensed phase at lower viscosities. The analysis using the resistor model suggests that the system undergoes both surface and bulk reaction. The second-order rate coefficient of the bulk reaction is 3.7 (+1.5/-3.2) × 10(3) L mol(-1) s(-1). At low humidity and long timescales, the resistor model fails to describe the measurements appropriately. The persistent O3 uptake at very low humidity suggests contribution of a self-reaction of O3 on the surface.

8.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 16(31): 16677-83, 2014 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24998384

RESUMO

The time-dependent growth and shrinkage of aqueous aerosol particles trapped in an electrodynamic balance exposed to changes in relative humidity (RH) depend on the translational diffusion coefficient of water (DH2O). Resonances in the Mie scattering patterns of the illuminated micrometre-sized droplets are used to follow the compositional evolution through stepwise changes in RH. Under conditions where the diffusion of water molecules becomes sufficiently slow, e.g. in the highly viscous or even glassy regime, the concentration and temperature dependent values of DH2O can be determined iteratively by comparing the observed shifts in the Mie resonant wavelengths with predicted shifts from a diffusion model of a multi-layered sphere. It is shown that condensation and evaporation of water vapour from or to highly viscous or glassy droplets follow different kinetic regimes, a result that is consistent with previous studies of adsorption and desorption on glassy surfaces.

10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 111(26): 266102, 2013 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24483806

RESUMO

Grazing-incidence Rutherford backscattering and angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectrometry are used to determine the ion-concentration profiles near the surface of a solution consisting of a salt (TEABr) in a weakly polar organic liquid (polyethylene glycol) with atomic-layer depth resolution. The predictions of a model, in which ions in solution are repelled from the surface due to a screened Coulomb interaction with their image charge, are in good agreement with measured ion profiles. This contrasts with the behavior of salts in aqueous and highly polar organic solutions.

11.
Faraday Discuss ; 165: 289-316, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24601008

RESUMO

Despite major progress in the understanding of properties of tropospheric aerosol particles, it remains challenging to understand their physical state and morphology. To obtain more detailed knowledge of the phases, phase transitions and morphologies of internally mixed organic/inorganic aerosol particles, we evaluated liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS), deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) and efflorescence relative humidity (ERH) of 33 organic/ammonium sulfate (AS)/H2O systems from our own and literature data. The organic fraction consists of single compounds or mixtures with up to ten aliphatic and/or aromatic components with carboxylic acid, hydroxyl, carbonyl, ether, and ester functionalities, covering O : C ratios between 0.29 and 1.33. Thirteen out of these 33 systems did not show LLPS for any of the studied organic-to-inorganic mixing ratios, sixteen underwent LLPS showing core-shell morphology, and four showed both core-shell and partially engulfed configurations depending on the organic-to-inorganic ratio and RH. In all cases the organic fractions of the systems with partially engulfed configurations consisted of dicarboxylic acids. AS in mixed organic/AS/H2O particles deliquesced between 70 and 84% RH. AS effloresced below 58% RH or remained in a one-liquid-phase state. AS in droplets with LLPS always showed efflorescence with ERH between 30 and 50% RH, providing clear evidence that the presence of LLPS facilitates AS efflorescence. Spreading coefficients of the organic-rich phase on the AS-rich phase for systems containing polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG-400) and a mixture of dicarboxylic acids are in agreement with the optically observed morphologies of droplets deposited on the hydrophobic substrate. Analysis of high resolution elastic Mie resonance spectra allowed the detection of LLPS for single levitated droplets consisting of PEG-400/AS/ H2O, whereas LLPS was difficult to detect in (2-methylglutaric acid + 3-methylglutaric acid + 2,2-dimethylsuccinic acid)/AS/H2O. Measured Mie spectra of PEG-400/AS/H2O at 93.5% and at 80.9% RH agreed with computed Mie spectra for a homogeneous and a core-shell configuration, respectively, confirming the results obtained from droplets deposited on a hydrophobic substrate. Based on the presented evidence, we therefore consider the core-shell morphology to be the prevalent configuration of liquid-liquid-phase-separated tropospheric organic/AS/H2O particles.

12.
J Phys Chem A ; 116(40): 9954-68, 2012 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22974307

RESUMO

Atmospheric aerosol particles can exhibit liquid solution concentrations supersaturated with respect to the dissolved organic and inorganic species and supercooled with respect to ice. In this study, thermodynamic and optical properties of sub- and supersaturated aqueous solutions of atmospheric interest are presented. The density, refractive index, water activity, ice melting temperatures, and homogeneous ice freezing temperatures of binary aqueous solutions containing L(+)-tartaric acid, tannic acid, and levoglucosan and ternary aqueous solutions containing levoglucosan and one of the salts NH(4)HSO(4), (NH(4))(2)SO(4), and NH(4)NO(3) have been measured in the supersaturated concentration range for the first time. In addition, the density and refractive index of binary aqueous citric acid and raffinose solutions and the glass transition temperatures of binary aqueous L(+)-tartaric acid and levoglucosan solutions have been measured. The data presented here are derived from experiments on single levitated microdroplets and bulk solutions and should find application in thermodynamic and atmospheric aerosol models as well as in food science applications.


Assuntos
Atmosfera/química , Termodinâmica , Aerossóis/química , Sulfato de Amônio/química , Glucose/análogos & derivados , Glucose/química , Nitratos/química , Fenômenos Ópticos , Material Particulado , Taninos/química , Tartaratos/química , Água/química
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 109(29): 11613-8, 2012 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22753520

RESUMO

Atmospheric models generally assume that aerosol particles are in equilibrium with the surrounding gas phase. However, recent observations that secondary organic aerosols can exist in a glassy state have highlighted the need to more fully understand the kinetic limitations that may control water partitioning in ambient particles. Here, we explore the influence of slow water diffusion in the condensed aerosol phase on the rates of both condensation and evaporation, demonstrating that significant inhibition in mass transfer occurs for ultraviscous aerosol, not just for glassy aerosol. Using coarse mode (3-4 um radius) ternary sucrose/sodium chloride/aqueous droplets as a proxy for multicomponent ambient aerosol, we demonstrate that the timescale for particle equilibration correlates with bulk viscosity and can be ≫10(3) s. Extrapolation of these timescales to particle sizes in the accumulation mode (e.g., approximately 100 nm) by applying the Stokes-Einstein equation suggests that the kinetic limitations imposed on mass transfer of water by slow bulk phase diffusion must be more fully investigated for atmospheric aerosol. Measurements have been made on particles covering a range in dynamic viscosity from < 0.1 to > 10(13) Pa s. We also retrieve the radial inhomogeneities apparent in particle composition during condensation and evaporation and contrast the dynamics of slow dissolution of a viscous core into a labile shell during condensation with the slow percolation of water during evaporation through a more homogeneous viscous particle bulk.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Atmosfera , Modelos Químicos , Transição de Fase , Água/química , Cinética , Tamanho da Partícula , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Análise Espectral Raman , Sacarose/química , Viscosidade
14.
Chem Soc Rev ; 41(19): 6631-62, 2012 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22739756

RESUMO

The complex interplay of processes that govern the size, composition, phase and morphology of aerosol particles in the atmosphere is challenging to understand and model. Measurements on single aerosol particles (2 to 100 µm in diameter) held in electrodynamic, optical and acoustic traps or deposited on a surface can allow the individual processes to be studied in isolation under controlled laboratory conditions. In particular, measurements can now be made of particle size with unprecedented accuracy (sub-nanometre) and over a wide range of timescales (spanning from milliseconds to many days). The physical state of a particle can be unambiguously identified and its composition and phase can be resolved with a high degree of spatial resolution. In this review, we describe the advances made in our understanding of aerosol properties and processes from measurements made of phase behaviour, hygroscopic growth, morphology, vapour pressure and the kinetics of water transport for single particles. We also show that studies of the oxidative aging of single particles, although limited in number, can allow the interplay of these properties to be investigated. We conclude by considering the contributions that single particle measurements can continue to make to our understanding of the properties and processes occurring in atmospheric aerosol.

15.
J Chem Phys ; 136(7): 074515, 2012 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22360256

RESUMO

Glass transition temperatures T(g) are investigated in aqueous binary and multi-component solutions consisting of citric acid, calcium nitrate (Ca(NO(3))(2)), malonic acid, raffinose, and ammonium bisulfate (NH(4)HSO(4)) using a differential scanning calorimeter. Based on measured glass transition temperatures of binary aqueous mixtures and fitted binary coefficients, the T(g) of multi-component systems can be predicted using mixing rules. However, the experimentally observed T(g) in multi-component solutions show considerable deviations from two theoretical approaches considered. The deviations from these predictions are explained in terms of the molar excess mixing entropy difference between the supercooled liquid and glassy state at T(g). The multi-component mixtures involve contributions to these excess mixing entropies that the mixing rules do not take into account.

16.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 13(8): 3514-26, 2011 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21229162

RESUMO

We present measurements of water uptake and release by single micrometre-sized aqueous sucrose particles. The experiments were performed in an electrodynamic balance where the particles can be stored contact-free in a temperature and humidity controlled chamber for several days. Aqueous sucrose particles react to a change in ambient humidity by absorbing/desorbing water from the gas phase. This water absorption (desorption) results in an increasing (decreasing) droplet size and a decreasing (increasing) solute concentration. Optical techniques were employed to follow minute changes of the droplet's size, with a sensitivity of 0.2 nm, as a result of changes in temperature or humidity. We exposed several particles either to humidity cycles (between ∼2% and 90%) at 291 K or to constant relative humidity and temperature conditions over long periods of time (up to several days) at temperatures ranging from 203 to 291 K. In doing so, a retarded water uptake and release at low relative humidities and/or low temperatures was observed. Under the conditions studied here, the kinetics of this water absorption/desorption process is controlled entirely by liquid-phase diffusion of water molecules. Hence, it is possible to derive the translational diffusion coefficient of water molecules, D(H(2)O,) from these data by simulating the growth or shrinkage of a particle with a liquid-phase diffusion model. Values for D(H(2)O)-values as low as 10(-24) m(2) s(-1) are determined using data at temperatures down to 203 K deep in the glassy state. From the experiment and modelling we can infer strong concentration gradients within a single particle including a glassy skin in the outer shells of the particle. Such glassy skins practically isolate the liquid core of a particle from the surrounding gas phase, resulting in extremely long equilibration times for such particles, caused by the strongly non-linear relationship between concentration and D(H(2)O). We present a new parameterization of D(H(2)O) that facilitates describing the stability of aqueous food and pharmaceutical formulations in the glassy state, the processing of amorphous aerosol particles in spray-drying technology, and the suppression of heterogeneous chemical reactions in glassy atmospheric aerosol particles.


Assuntos
Sacarose/química , Água/química , Difusão , Umidade , Modelos Teóricos , Transição de Fase , Temperatura
17.
J Phys Chem A ; 114(35): 9486-95, 2010 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20712361

RESUMO

Using optical microscopy, we investigated the efflorescence of ammonium sulfate (AS) in aqueous AS and in aqueous 1:1 and 8:1 (by dry weight) poly(ethylene glycol)-400 (PEG-400)/AS particles deposited on a hydrophobically coated slide. Aqueous PEG-400/AS particles exposed to decreasing relative humidity (RH) exhibit a liquid-liquid phase separation below approximately 90% RH with the PEG-400-rich phase surrounding the aqueous AS inner phase. Pure aqueous AS particles effloresced in the RH range from 36.3% to 43.7%, in agreement with literature data (31-48% RH). In contrast, aqueous 1:1 (by dry weight) PEG-400/AS particles with diameters of the AS phase from 7.2 to 19.2 mum effloresced between 26.8% and 33.9% RH and aqueous 8:1 (by dry weight) PEG-400/AS particles with diameters of the AS phase from 1.8 to 7.3 mum between 24.3% and 29.3% RH. Such low efflorescence relative humidity (ERH) values have never been reached before for AS particles of this size range. We show that these unprecedented low ERHs of AS in PEG-400/AS particles could not possibly be explained by the presence of low amounts of PEG-400 in the aqueous AS phase, by a potential inhibition of water evaporation via anomalously slow diffusion through the PEG coating, or by different time scales between various experimental techniques. High-speed photography of the efflorescence process allowed the development of the AS crystallization fronts within the particles to be monitored with millisecond time resolution. The nucleation sites were inferred from the initial crystal growth sites. Analysis of the probability distribution of initial sites of 31 and 19 efflorescence events for pure AS and 1:1 (by dry weight) PEG-400/AS particles, respectively, showed that the particle volume can be excluded as the preferred nucleation site in the case of pure AS particles. For aqueous 1:1 (by dry weight) PEG-400/AS particles preferential AS nucleation in the PEG phase and at the PEG/AS/substrate contact line can be excluded. On the basis of this probability analysis of efflorescence events together with the AS ERH values of pure aqueous AS and aqueous PEG-400/AS particles aforementioned, we suggest that in pure aqueous AS particles nucleation starts at the surface of the particles and attribute the lower ERH values observed for aqueous PEG-400/AS particles to the suppression of the surface-induced nucleation process. Our results suggest that surface-induced nucleation is likely to also occur during the efflorescence of atmospheric AS aerosol particles, possibly constituting the dominating nucleation pathway.


Assuntos
Sulfato de Amônio/química , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Umidade , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície , Água/química
18.
J Phys Chem A ; 113(41): 10966-78, 2009 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19775109

RESUMO

Currently, the physical state of mixed organic/inorganic aerosol particles is not well characterized, largely because of the still unclear chemical composition of the organic fraction and of its properties with respect to mixing with the inorganic fraction. To obtain insight in the possible phases and phase transitions of such aerosol particles, we investigated the ternary poly(ethylene glycol)-400/ammonium sulfate/water system as a representative model system with partially immiscible constituents. For this purpose, we used optical microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy on micrometer-sized particles deposited on a hydrophobically coated substrate. The particles show liquid-liquid phase separations both upon decreasing (approximately 90-85%) and increasing (during ammonium sulfate deliquescence) relative humidities. In dependence upon the organic-to-inorganic ratio, OIR (i.e., poly(ethylene glycol)-400 to ammonium sulfate dry mass), phase separation is observed to occur by fundamentally different mechanisms, namely, nucleation-and-growth (OIR = 8:1 to 2:1), spinodal decomposition (OIR = 1.5:1 to 1:1.5) and growth of a second phase at the surface of the particle (OIR = 1:2 to 1:8). For each of these mechanisms, after completion of the phase separation, the resulting morphology of the particles is an aqueous ammonium sulfate inner phase surrounded by a mainly poly(ethylene glycol)-400 containing outer phase. We depict the various physical states of the ternary system in the relative humidity/composition phase diagram, constructed from bulk data and single particle measurements. Given the complex chemical composition of the organic fraction in tropospheric aerosols, it is expected that repulsive forces between the organic and inorganic aerosol constituents exist and that liquid-liquid phase separations commonly occur. The presence of liquid-liquid phase separations may change the partitioning of semivolatile species between the gas and the condensed phase, whereas the predominantly organic shell is likely to influence heterogeneous chemical reactions, such as N(2)O(5) hydrolysis.

19.
Opt Express ; 17(6): 4659-69, 2009 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19293895

RESUMO

We describe how a time series of optical resonance spectra of an evaporating, non-spherical, irregular aerosol particle levitated in an electrodynamic balance exhibits patterns which are related to its evaporation kinetics. Simulated spectra of an evaporating, model aerosol particle show comparable features. If these patterns are used to deduce the particle size change with time, the resulting vapor pressures and enthalpies of vaporization compare favorably with literature data for both crystalline ammonium nitrate and succinic acid particles.

20.
Appl Opt ; 46(23): 5835-9, 2007 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17694132

RESUMO

We propose and evaluate an improvement of the inverted bubble method, originally proposed by McLachlan and Cox [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 46, 80 (1975)], a technique for measuring small contact angles at crystal-solution-vapor interfaces on a gas bubble under a solid immersed in a test solution. A simple experimental setup is used to evaluate the proposed method. We conclude that the method is suitable for measuring small contact angles with a minimum detectable angle of about 3 degrees . Improvements in instrument design are proposed to lower the detection limit to 0.5 degrees or below.

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