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2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(18)2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Online information gathering can increase patients' engagement in decision-making. The quality of online resources available for monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) was evaluated. METHODS: 900 websites from Google, Bing, Yahoo, and 150 YouTube videos were assessed. RESULTS: The websites did not differ regarding their search rank or between the search engines. The median time since last update was 24 months. The 86 unique websites showed a medium to poor general quality (JAMA score 3/4, only 8.1% websites with a valid HON certificate). The patient- (user-) focused quality was poor (sum DISCERN score 27/80 points). The reading level was difficult (11th US school grade). The content level was very low (13/50 points). 12.8% of websites contained misleading/wrong facts. Websites provided by scientific/governmental organizations had a higher content level. For the 61 unique videos, the median time since upload was 34 months. The videos showed a medium general quality (HON Foundation score). The patient- (user-) focused quality was poor (sum DISCERN score 24 points). The content level was very low (6 points). CONCLUSION: MGUS-relevant online sources showed a low quality that was provided on a high reading level. Incorporation of quality indices and regular review of online content is warranted.

3.
Cancer Cell ; 39(10): 1388-1403.e10, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506739

RESUMO

Localized radiotherapy (RT) induces an immunogenic antitumor response that is in part counterbalanced by activation of immune evasive and tissue remodeling processes, e.g., via upregulation of programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß). We report that a bifunctional fusion protein that simultaneously inhibits TGF-ß and PD-L1, bintrafusp alfa (BA), effectively synergizes with radiotherapy, leading to superior survival in multiple therapy-resistant murine tumor models with poor immune infiltration. The BA + RT (BART) combination increases tumor-infiltrating leukocytes, reprograms the tumor microenvironment, and attenuates RT-induced fibrosis, leading to reconstitution of tumor immunity and regression of spontaneous lung metastases. Consistently, the beneficial effects of BART are in part reversed by depletion of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. Intriguingly, targeting of the TGF-ß trap to PD-L1+ endothelium and the M2/lipofibroblast-like cell compartment by BA attenuated late-stage RT-induced lung fibrosis. Together, the results suggest that the BART combination has the potential to eradicate therapy-resistant tumors while sparing normal tissue, further supporting its clinical translation.

4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(17)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) involves the progressive accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes. These include somatic oncogenic KRAS and EGFR mutations and inactivating TP53 tumour suppressor mutations, leading to activation of canonical NF-κB. However, the mechanism(s) by which canonical NF-κB contributes to NSCLC is still under investigation. METHODS: Human NSCLC cells were used to knock-down RelA/p65 (RelA/p65KD) and investigate its impact on cell growth, and its mechanism of action by employing RNA-seq analysis, qPCR, immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and functional assays. RESULTS: RelA/p65KD reduced the proliferation and tumour growth of human NSCLC cells grown in vivo as xenografts in immune-compromised mice. RNA-seq analysis identified canonical NF-κB targets mediating its tumour promoting function. RelA/p65KD resulted in the upregulation of the metastasis suppressor CD82/KAI1/TSPAN27 and downregulation of the proto-oncogene ROS1, and LGR6 involved in Wnt/ß-catenin signalling. Immunohistochemical and bioinformatics analysis of human NSCLC samples showed that CD82 loss correlated with malignancy. RelA/p65KD suppressed cell migration and epithelial-to-mesenchymal cell transition (EMT), mediated, in part, by CD82/KAI1, through integrin-mediated signalling involving the mitogenic ERK, Akt1 and Rac1 proteins. CONCLUSIONS: Canonical NF-κB signalling promotes NSCLC, in part, by downregulating the metastasis suppressor CD82/KAI1 which inhibits cell migration, EMT and tumour growth.

5.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(10): 876.e1-876.e11, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214737

RESUMO

In multiple myeloma, local radiation therapy (RT) of osseous lesions before peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) mobilization is assumed to impair the PBSC mobilization and collection. However, the results of previously published studies are inconsistent and do not evaluate detailed metrics of RT and PBSC outcome parameters. In total, 352 patients undergoing PBSC mobilizations and RT in first-line treatment were evaluated. Patients were grouped into RT (n = 283) and no RT (n = 69) before PBSC mobilization. Except for the International Staging System score, both groups were homogeneous regarding the first diagnosis characteristics, first-line treatments, and response parameters. RT metrics (RT yes versus no, volume of irradiated hematopoietic bone marrow [BM], biologically equivalent doses in 2 Gy fractions [EQD2]) were analyzed for the following PBSC outcome parameters: achievement of the PBSC collection goal, CD34+ cell collection yield, duration of the mobilization phase, and number of leukapheresis (LP) sessions to reach the collection goal. No statistically significant differences in the percentage of collection failures to reach at least 3 sufficient PBSC transplants were identified comparing patients with (n = 32 [11%]) and without RT (n = 4 [6%]) before PBSC mobilization (P = .265). However, patients with RT before PBSC mobilization showed a significant prolongation of the PBSC mobilization (median 1 day, P =.026) and required a higher number of LP sessions to reach the collection goal (median 1 LP, P < .001) compared with patients who received RT after PBSC mobilization. Moreover, patients with RT before PBSC mobilization reached a significantly lower CD34+ cell collection result (mean 8.94 versus 9.81 × 106/kg body weight [bw], P = .002). No correlation was identified between the overall CD34+ cell yield and the volume of irradiated hematopoietic BM or EQD2, respectively. In the RT before PBSC mobilization group, patients who required more than 1 LP session to reach the PBSC collection goal after RT had a significantly higher percentage of radiated hematopoietic BM compared to those who required only 1 LP session (mean 9.7% versus 7.2%, P = .002). Overall, our study indicates a negative impact of RT on PBSC mobilization and collection. Apart from emergency settings, it might be beneficial to postpone RT to a post-PBSC collection time point. © 2021 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo , Células-Tronco de Sangue Periférico , Mobilização de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Leucaférese , Mieloma Múltiplo/radioterapia , Transplante Autólogo
6.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(13)2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206844

RESUMO

The discrimination of malignant melanoma from benign nevi may be difficult in some cases. For this reason, immunohistological and molecular techniques are included in the differential diagnostic toolbox for these lesions. These methods are time consuming when applied subsequently and, in some cases, no definitive diagnosis can be made. We studied both lesions by imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) in a large cohort (n = 203) to determine a different proteomic profile between cutaneous melanomas and melanocytic nevi. Sample preparation and instrument setting were tested to obtain optimal results in term of data quality and reproducibility. A proteomic signature was found by linear discriminant analysis to discern malignant melanoma from benign nevus (n = 113) with an overall accuracy of >98%. The prediction model was tested in an independent set (n = 90) reaching an overall accuracy of 93% in classifying melanoma from nevi. Statistical analysis of the IMS data revealed mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) peaks which varied significantly (Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve > 0.7) between the two tissue types. To our knowledge, this is the largest IMS study of cutaneous melanoma and nevi performed up to now. Our findings clearly show that discrimination of melanocytic nevi from melanoma is possible by IMS.

7.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200965

RESUMO

Glycosylation is the most prevalent and varied form of post-translational protein modifications. Protein glycosylation regulates multiple cellular functions, including protein folding, cell adhesion, molecular trafficking and clearance, receptor activation, signal transduction, and endocytosis. In particular, membrane proteins are frequently highly glycosylated, which is both linked to physiological processes and of high relevance in various disease mechanisms. The cellular glycome is increasingly considered to be a therapeutic target. Here we describe a new strategy to compare membrane glycoproteomes, thereby identifying proteins with altered glycan structures and the respective glycosites. The workflow started with an optimized procedure for the digestion of membrane proteins followed by the lectin-based isolation of glycopeptides. Since alterations in the glycan part of a glycopeptide cause mass alterations, analytical size exclusion chromatography was applied to detect these mass shifts. N-glycosidase treatment combined with nanoUPLC-coupled mass spectrometry identified the altered glycoproteins and respective glycosites. The methodology was established using the colon cancer cell line CX1, which was treated with 2-deoxy-glucose-a modulator of N-glycosylation. The described methodology is not restricted to cell culture, as it can also be adapted to tissue samples or body fluids. Altogether, it is a useful module in various experimental settings that target glycan functions.


Assuntos
Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Glucose/metabolismo , Glicopeptídeos/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Humanos , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos
8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(10)2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067726

RESUMO

The diagnosis and the subtyping of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) are challenging and require expert knowledge, great experience, thorough morphological analysis, and often additional expensive immunohistological and molecular methods. As these requirements are not always available, supplemental methods supporting morphological-based decision making and potentially entity subtyping are required. Deep learning methods have been shown to classify histopathological images with high accuracy, but data on NHL subtyping are limited. After annotation of histopathological whole-slide images and image patch extraction, we trained and optimized an EfficientNet convolutional neuronal network algorithm on 84,139 image patches from 629 patients and evaluated its potential to classify tumor-free reference lymph nodes, nodal small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The optimized algorithm achieved an accuracy of 95.56% on an independent test set including 16,960 image patches from 125 patients after the application of quality controls. Automatic classification of NHL is possible with high accuracy using deep learning on histopathological images and routine diagnostic applications should be pursued.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065423

RESUMO

Identification of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and precursor lesions in histological tissue slides can be challenging and elaborate, especially due to tumor heterogeneity. Thus, supportive tools for the identification of anatomical and pathological tissue structures are desired. Deep learning methods recently emerged, which classify histological structures into image categories with high accuracy. However, to date, only a limited number of classes and patients have been included in histopathological studies. In this study, scanned histopathological tissue slides from tissue microarrays of PDAC patients (n = 201, image patches n = 81.165) were extracted and assigned to a training, validation, and test set. With these patches, we implemented a convolutional neuronal network, established quality control measures and a method to interpret the model, and implemented a workflow for whole tissue slides. An optimized EfficientNet algorithm achieved high accuracies that allowed automatically localizing and quantifying tissue categories including pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and PDAC in whole tissue slides. SmoothGrad heatmaps allowed explaining image classification results. This is the first study that utilizes deep learning for automatic identification of different anatomical tissue structures and diseases on histopathological images of pancreatic tissue specimens. The proposed approach is a valuable tool to support routine diagnostic review and pancreatic cancer research.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Ductos Pancreáticos/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aprendizado Profundo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Redes Neurais de Computação
10.
Transfus Med Hemother ; 48(2): 91-98, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976609

RESUMO

Introduction: Recently, we identified a huge discrepancy between the collection practice and the actual utilization of cryopreserved peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) for high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and autologous blood stem cell transplantation (ABSCT). Specifically, patients with Burkitt lymphoma, acute leukemia, and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) were frequently not referred for ABSCT after successful PBSC collection. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify variables that are associated with the non-utilization of PBSC grafts. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the collection, storage, and disposal of PBSC grafts in Burkitt lymphoma (n = 18), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, n = 22), MPN (n = 18), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML, n = 71) patients. Patients who underwent autologous PBSC collection at 2 collection and transplantation centers between 2001 and 2012 were included and followed up until 2016. Results: None of the Burkitt lymphoma patients were referred for ABSCT. Only in 1 (6%) patient, the graft was discarded after the patient's death. In all other patients (n = 17, 94%), the grafts were stored independently of the patient's status (death, n = 4, 22%; no follow-up, n = 6, 33%; no indication for ABSCT given, n = 7, 39%). In ALL patients, 4 (18%) patients underwent ABSCT after a median follow-up of 74 (1-182) months. In the remaining patients, PBSC grafts were either discarded (8 patients, 36%) or stored until the reference date (10 patients, 45%). Seven of 18 MPN patients (39%) underwent ABSCT. ABSCT was performed in 24 (34%) AML patients. In 20 (28%) patients who were not referred to ABSCT, an allogeneic transplantation (TPL) was performed. Fifteen (21%) patients received palliative care or deceased, and their grafts were discarded in all but 1 patient. Additional grafts were discarded in 21 (31%) patients and stored in 9 (13%) patients who underwent ABSCT or allogeneic TPL (n = 44). Conclusions: As the role and efficacy of autologous HDCT/ABSCT are not established in the analyzed entities, the indication for PBSC collection should be reanalyzed in regular intervals. Moreover, PBSC grafts from patients who have deceased, have insufficient grafts, or have already undergone an allogeneic TPL should be considered for disposal or (if applicable) for research use, to economize storage costs on a rational basis.

11.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 486, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Synaptophysin, chromogranin and CD56 are recommended markers to identify pulmonary tumors with neuroendocrine differentiation. Whether the expression of these markers in pulmonary adenocarcinoma and pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma is a prognostic factor has been a matter of debate. Therefore, we investigated retrospectively a large cohort to expand the data on the role of synaptophysin, chromogranin and CD56 in non-small cell lung cancer lacking morphological features of neuroendocrine differentiation. METHODS: A cohort of 627 pulmonary adenocarcinomas (ADC) and 543 squamous cell carcinomas (SqCC) lacking morphological features of neuroendocrine differentiation was assembled and a tissue microarray was constructed. All cases were stained with synaptophysin, chromogranin and CD56. Positivity was defined as > 1% positive tumor cells. Data was correlated with clinico-pathological features including overall and disease free survival. RESULTS: 110 (18%) ADC and 80 (15%) SqCC were positive for either synaptophysin, chromogranin, CD56 or a combination. The most commonly positive single marker was synaptophysin. The least common positive marker was chromogranin. A combination of ≤2 neuroendocrine markers was positive in 2-3% of ADC and 0-1% of SqCC. There was no significant difference in overall survival in tumors with positivity for neuroendocrine markers neither in ADC (univariate: P = 0.4; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.867; multivariate: P = 0.5; HR = 0.876) nor in SqCC (univariate: P = 0.1; HR = 0.694; multivariate: P = 0.1, HR = 0.697). Likewise, there was no significant difference in disease free survival. CONCLUSIONS: We report on a cohort of 1170 cases that synaptophysin, chromogranin and CD56 are commonly expressed in ADC and SqCC and that their expression has no impact on survival, supporting the current best practice guidelines.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/química , Antígeno CD56/análise , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/química , Cromograninas/análise , Neoplasias Pulmonares/química , Sinaptofisina/análise , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Diferenciação Celular , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise Serial de Tecidos
12.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 10(4): 1666-1678, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34012783

RESUMO

Background: Targeted genetic profiling of tissue samples is paramount to detect druggable genetic aberrations in patients with non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Accurate upfront estimation of tumor cell content (TCC) is a crucial pre-analytical step for reliable testing and to avoid false-negative results. As of now, TCC is usually estimated on hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) stained tissue sections by a pathologist, a methodology that may be prone to substantial intra- and interobserver variability. Here we the investigate suitability of digital pathology for TCC estimation in a clinical setting by evaluating the concordance between semi-automatic and conventional TCC quantification. Methods: TCC was analyzed in 120 H&E and thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) stained high-resolution images by 19 participants with different levels of pathological expertise as well as by applying two semi-automatic digital pathology image analysis tools (HALO and QuPath). Results: Agreement of TCC estimations [intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC)] between the two software tools (H&E: 0.87; TTF-1: 0.93) was higher compared to that between conventional observers (0.48; 0.47). Digital TCC estimations were in good agreement with the average of human TCC estimations (0.78; 0.96). Conventional TCC estimators tended to overestimate TCC, especially in H&E stainings, in tumors with solid patterns and in tumors with an actual TCC close to 50%. Conclusions: Our results determine factors that influence TCC estimation. Computer-assisted analysis can improve the accuracy of TCC estimates prior to molecular diagnostic workflows. In addition, we provide a free web application to support self-training and quality improvement initiatives at other institutions.

13.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(9)2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922610

RESUMO

The programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) plays a crucial role in immunomodulatory treatment concepts for end-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To date, its prognostic significance in patients with curative surgical treatment but regional nodal metastases, reflecting tumor spread beyond the primary site, is unclear. We evaluated the prognostic impact of PD-L1 expression in a surgical cohort of 277 consecutive patients with pN1 NSCLC on a tissue microarray. Patients with PD-L1 staining (clone SP263) on >1% of tumor cells were defined as PD-L1 positive. Tumor-specific survival (TSS) of the entire cohort was 64% at five years. Low tumor stage (p < 0.0001) and adjuvant therapy (p = 0.036) were identified as independent positive prognostic factors in multivariate analysis for TSS. PD-L1 negative patients had a significantly better survival following adjuvant chemotherapy than PD-L1 positive patients. The benefit of adjuvant therapy diminished in patients with PD-L1 expression in more than 10% of tumor cells. Stratification towards histologic subtype identified PD-L1 as a significant positive predictive factor for TSS after adjuvant therapy in patients with adenocarcinoma, but not squamous cell carcinoma. Routine PD-L1 assessment in curative intent treatment may help to identify patients with a better prognosis. Further research is needed to elucidate the predictive value of PD-L1 in an adjuvant setting.

14.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(5)2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806447

RESUMO

Intra-tumor heterogeneity of tumor-initiating cell (TIC) activity drives colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and therapy resistance. Here, we used single-cell RNA-sequencing of patient-derived CRC models to decipher distinct cell subpopulations based on their transcriptional profiles. Cell type-specific expression modules of stem-like, transit amplifying-like, and differentiated CRC cells resemble differentiation states of normal intestinal epithelial cells. Strikingly, identified subpopulations differ in proliferative activity and metabolic state. In summary, we here show at single-cell resolution that transcriptional heterogeneity identifies functional states during TIC differentiation. Furthermore, identified expression signatures are linked to patient prognosis. Targeting transcriptional states associated to cancer cell differentiation might unravel novel vulnerabilities in human CRC.

15.
Leukemia ; 35(9): 2602-2615, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597728

RESUMO

Elimination of suppressive T cells may enable and enhance cancer immunotherapy. Here, we demonstrate that the cell membrane protein SLAMF7 was highly expressed on immunosuppressive CD8+CD28-CD57+ Tregs in multiple myeloma (MM). SLAMF7 expression associated with T cell exhaustion surface markers and exhaustion-related transcription factor signatures. T cells from patients with a high frequency of SLAMF7+CD8+ T cells exhibited decreased immunoreactivity towards the MART-1aa26-35*A27L antigen. A monoclonal anti-SLAMF7 antibody (elotuzumab) specifically depleted SLAMF7+CD8+ T cells in vitro and in vivo via macrophage-mediated antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP). Anti-SLAMF7 treatment of MM patients depleted suppressive T cells in peripheral blood. These data highlight SLAMF7 as a marker for suppressive CD8+ Treg and suggest that anti-SLAMF7 antibodies can be used to boost anti-tumoral immune responses in cancer patients.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Depleção Linfocítica/métodos , Mieloma Múltiplo/imunologia , Família de Moléculas de Sinalização da Ativação Linfocitária/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Prognóstico , Família de Moléculas de Sinalização da Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
16.
J Thorac Oncol ; 16(6): 1003-1016, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609752

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In-depth genomic characterization of thymic epithelial tumors (TETs), comprising thymomas and thymic carcinomas (TCs), failed to identify targetable mutations and suggested unique biology of TETs, including KIT expression in most TCs. Recently, tuft cell-like medullary thymic epithelial cells were identified in the murine thymus, and our reanalysis of the published gene expression data revealed that these cells express KIT. In addition, recently, a minor subset of SCLCs with tuft cell-like features was described. METHODS: We interrogated mRNA expression data from our tumor cohorts (N = 60) and publicly available, independent data sets from TETs and NSCLC (N = 1199) for expression of tuft cell genes and KIT. Expression of KIT and of POU2F3 protein, the master regulator of tuft cells, was analyzed in cancer tissue (N = 344) by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Normal human thymic tuft cells and most TCs coexpressed KIT and known tuft cell genes, particularly POU2F3 and GFI1B. Unexpectedly, small subsets of tuft cell-like tumors coexpressing POU2F3, GFI1B, and KIT were also identified among pulmonary squamous cell carcinomas, adenocarcinomas, and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and clustered together in each histologic cohort. In addition to the tuft cell-like signature, both thymic and lung tuft cell-like carcinomas had distinct genetic, pathologic, and clinical features in each cohort. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that the tuft cell-like phenotype defines novel subsets of thymic and pulmonary carcinoma. Its high prevalence in thymic squamous cell carcinomas that have no known toxic or viral etiologies suggests a new mechanism of carcinogenesis that may lead to specific drug susceptibilities.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão , Timoma , Neoplasias do Timo , Animais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Camundongos , Timoma/genética , Neoplasias do Timo/genética
17.
Lung Cancer ; 153: 150-157, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529989

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A phase II trial investigating the therapeutic effect of neoadjuvant programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) inhibitor pembrolizumab (MK-3475, KEYTRUDA®) administered prior to surgery for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been conducted (NCT03197467). We report the first clinical results of a planned interim safety analysis after 15 patients were enrolled. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with resectable NSCLC stage II/IIIA were included. Two cycles of pembrolizumab (200 mg intravenously once every 3 weeks) were administered prior to surgery. The primary objectives were to assess the feasibility and safety of neoadjuvant pembrolizumab therapy and to evaluate antitumor activity. We analyzed the clinical parameters as well as pathological and radiological tumor response data. RESULTS: The NSCLC histology was adenocarcinoma for 13 patients and squamous cell carcinoma for 2 patients. All patients but two underwent 2 cycles of pembrolizumab prior to surgery. Four patients (27 %) presented a major pathologic response. Significant tumor target response in positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT) was detected in all 4 pathologic responders. Nevertheless, the PET findings mismatched the tumor load in some patients. A PD-L1 expression ≥10 % in the pretreatment biopsy was associated with at least major pathologic response. Five patients (33 %) presented grade 2-3 treatment related adverse events (TRAE), the overall postoperative morbidity was 7 % and 30-day mortality was 0 %. CONCLUSION: Neoadjuvant pembrolizumab is a feasible therapy in surgical lung cancer patients. It was associated with tolerable toxicity and did not compromise tumor resection.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada
18.
Trials ; 21(1): 828, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023671

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Primary objectives • To assess the time from randomisation until an improvement within 84 days defined as two points on a seven point ordinal scale or live discharge from the hospital in high-risk patients (group 1 to group 4) with SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring hospital admission by infusion of plasma from subjects after convalescence of SARS-CoV-2 infection or standard of care. Secondary objectives • To assess overall survival, and the overall survival rate at 28 56 and 84 days. • To assess SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance and load as well as antibody titres. • To assess the percentage of patients that required mechanical ventilation. • To assess time from randomisation until discharge. TRIAL DESIGN: Randomised, open-label, multicenter phase II trial, designed to assess the clinical outcome of SARS-CoV-2 disease in high-risk patients (group 1 to group 4) following treatment with anti-SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma or standard of care. PARTICIPANTS: High-risk patients >18 years of age hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection in 10-15 university medical centres will be included. High-risk is defined as SARS-CoV-2 positive infection with Oxygen saturation at ≤ 94% at ambient air with additional risk features as categorised in 4 groups: • Group 1, pre-existing or concurrent hematological malignancy and/or active cancer therapy (incl. chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery) within the last 24 months or less. • Group 2, chronic immunosuppression not meeting the criteria of group 1. • Group 3, age ≥ 50 - 75 years meeting neither the criteria of group 1 nor group 2 and at least one of these criteria: Lymphopenia < 0.8 x G/l and/or D-dimer > 1µg/mL. • Group 4, age ≥ 75 years meeting neither the criteria of group 1 nor group 2. Observation time for all patients is expected to be at least 3 months after entry into the study. Patients receive convalescent plasma for two days (day 1 and day 2) or standard of care. For patients in the standard arm, cross over is allowed from day 10 in case of not improving or worsening clinical condition. Nose/throat swabs for determination of viral load are collected at day 0 and day 1 (before first CP administration) and subsequently at day 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 28 or until discharge. Serum for SARS-Cov-2 diagnostic is collected at baseline and subsequently at day 3, 7, 14 and once during the follow-up period (between day 35 and day 84). There is a regular follow-up of 3 months. All discharged patients are followed by regular phone calls. All visits, time points and study assessments are summarized in the Trial Schedule (see full protocol Table 1). All participating trial sites will be supplied with study specific visit worksheets that list all assessments and procedures to be completed at each visit. All findings including clinical and laboratory data are documented by the investigator or an authorized member of the study team in the patient's medical record and in the electronic case report forms (eCRFs). INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: This trial will analyze the effects of convalescent plasma from recovered subjects with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in high-risk patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients at high risk for a poor outcome due to underlying disease, age or condition as listed above are eligible for enrollment. In addition, eligible patients have a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and O2 saturation ≤ 94% while breathing ambient air. Patients are randomised to receive (experimental arm) or not receive (standard arm) convalescent plasma in two bags (238 - 337 ml plasma each) from different donors (day 1, day 2). A cross over from the standard arm into the experimental arm is possible after day 10 in case of not improving or worsening clinical condition. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary endpoints: The main purpose of the study is to assess the time from randomisation until an improvement within 84 days defined as two points on a seven-point ordinal scale or live discharge from the hospital in high-risk patients (group 1 to group 4) with SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring hospital admission by infusion of plasma from subjects after convalescence of a SARS-CoV-2 infection or standard of care. Secondary endpoints: • Overall survival, defined as the time from randomisation until death from any cause 28-day, 56-day and 84-day overall survival rates. • SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance and load as well as antibody titres. • Requirement mechanical ventilation at any time during hospital stay (yes/no). • Time until discharge from randomisation. • Viral load, changes in antibody titers and cytokine profiles are analysed in an exploratory manner using paired non-parametric tests (before - after treatment). RANDOMISATION: Upon confirmation of eligibility (patients must meet all inclusion criteria and must not meet exclusion criteria described in section 5.3 and 5.4 of the full protocol), the clinical site must contact a centralized internet randomization system ( https://randomizer.at/ ). Patients are randomized using block randomisation to one of the two arms, experimental arm or standard arm, in a 1:1 ratio considering a stratification according to the 4 risk groups (see Participants). BLINDING (MASKING): The study is open-label, no blinding will be performed. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): A total number of 174 patients is required for the entire trial, n=87 per group. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 1.2 dated 09/07/2020. A recruitment period of approximately 9 months and an overall study duration of approximately 12 months is anticipated. Recruitment of patients starts in the third quarter of 2020. The study duration of an individual patient is planned to be 3 months. After finishing all study-relevant procedures, therapy, and follow-up period, the patient is followed in terms of routine care and treated if necessary. Total trial duration: 18 months Duration of the clinical phase: 12 months First patient first visit (FPFV): 3rd Quarter 2020 Last patient first visit (LPFV): 2nd Quarter 2021 Last patient last visit (LPLV): 3rd Quarter 2021 Trial Report completed: 4th Quarter 2021 TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT Number: 2020-001632-10, https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/trial/2020-001632-10/DE , registered on 04/04/2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2). The eCRF is attached (Additional file 3).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Plasma/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19 , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Convalescença , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização Passiva/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Risco Ajustado , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
19.
J Cancer ; 11(20): 6081-6089, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32922548

RESUMO

Background: While subtyping of the majority of malignant chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (cRCC) and benign renal oncocytoma (rO) is possible on morphology alone, additional histochemical, immunohistochemical or molecular investigations are required in a subset of cases. As currently used histochemical and immunohistological stains as well as genetic aberrations show considerable overlap in both tumors, additional techniques are required for differential diagnostics. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) combining the detection of multiple peptides with information about their localization in tissue may be a suitable technology to overcome this diagnostic challenge. Patients and Methods: Formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens from cRCC (n=71) and rO (n=64) were analyzed by MSI. Data were classified by linear discriminant analysis (LDA), classification and regression trees (CART), k-nearest neighbors (KNN), support vector machine (SVM), and random forest (RF) algorithm with internal cross validation and visualized by t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE). Most important variables for classification were identified and the classification algorithm was optimized. Results: Applying different machine learning algorithms on all m/z peaks, classification accuracy between cRCC and rO was 85%, 82%, 84%, 77% and 64% for RF, SVM, KNN, CART and LDA. Under the assumption that a reduction of m/z peaks would lead to improved classification accuracy, m/z peaks were ranked based on their variable importance. Reduction to six most important m/z peaks resulted in improved accuracy of 89%, 85%, 85% and 85% for RF, SVM, KNN, and LDA and remained at the level of 77% for CART. t-SNE showed clear separation of cRCC and rO after algorithm improvement. Conclusion: In summary, we acquired MSI data on FFPE tissue specimens of cRCC and rO, performed classification and detected most relevant biomarkers for the differential diagnosis of both diseases. MSI data might be a useful adjunct method in the differential diagnosis of cRCC and rO.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923902

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Conversion of tumor subtype frequently occurs in the course of metastatic breast cancer but is a poorly understood phenomenon. This study aims to compare molecular subtypes with subsequent lung or pleural metastasis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a cohort of 57 patients with breast cancer and lung or pleural metastasis (BCLPM), we investigated paired primary and metastatic tissues for differential gene expression of 269 breast cancer genes. The PAM50 classifier was applied to identify intrinsic subtypes, and differential gene expression and cluster analysis were used to further characterize subtypes and tumors with subtype conversion. RESULTS: In primary breast cancer, the most frequent molecular subtype was luminal A (lumA; 49.1%); it was luminal B (lumB) in BCLPM (38.6%). Subtype conversion occurred predominantly in lumA breast cancers compared with other molecular subtypes (57.1% v 27.6%). In lumA cancers, 62 genes were identified with differential expression in metastatic versus primary disease, compared with only 10 differentially expressed genes in lumB, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-enriched, and basal subtypes combined. Gene expression changes in lumA cancers affected not only the repression of the estrogen receptor pathway and cell cycle-related genes but also the WNT pathway, proteinases (MME, MMP11), and motility-associated cytoskeletal proteins (CK5, CK14, CK17). Subtype-switched lumA cancers were further characterized by cell proliferation and cell cycle checkpoint gene upregulation and dysregulation of the p53 pathway. This involved 83 notable gene expression changes. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that gene expression changes and subsequent subtype conversion occur on a large scale in metastatic luminal A-type breast cancer compared with other molecular subtypes. This underlines the significance of molecular changes in metastatic disease, especially in tumors of initially low aggressive potential.

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