Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 7 de 7
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0248145, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin B12 deficiency during pregnancy has been associated with adverse maternal and infant health outcomes. Few prospective studies have investigated vitamin B12 status early in pregnancy, and its links to infant vitamin B12 status, particularly in India where the burden of vitamin B12 deficiency is estimated to be the highest globally. The objective of this study was to examine the associations of maternal vitamin B12 biomarkers with neonatal vitamin B12 status. METHODS: Pregnant women (~12 weeks' gestation) were enrolled in a perinatal cohort study in Bangalore, India. Total vitamin B12, methylmalonic acid (MMA), and homocysteine concentrations were evaluated in maternal samples at enrollment and in neonates at birth using cord blood. Linear and binomial regression models were used to evaluate the associations of maternal vitamin B12 biomarkers with neonatal vitamin B12 status and perinatal outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 63.2% of women had vitamin B12 deficiency (<148 pmol/L), 87.2% had vitamin B12 insufficiency (<221 pmol/L), and 47.3% had impaired vitamin B12 status (vitamin B12<148 pmol/L and MMA>0.26µmol/L) at enrollment; 40.8% of neonates had vitamin B12 deficiency, 65.6% were insufficiency, and 38.1% had impaired vitamin B12 status at birth. Higher maternal vitamin B12 concentrations at enrollment were associated with increased neonatal vitamin B12 concentrations (ß(SE): 0.40 (0.05); p<0.0001) and lower risk of neonatal vitamin B12 deficiency (Risk Ratio [RR]: 0.53; 95% CI: [0.43, 0.65]; p<0.0001). Maternal vitamin B12 deficiency (RR: 1.97 [1.43, 2.71]; p<0.001), insufficiency (RR: 2.18 [1.23, 3.85]; p = 0.007), and impaired vitamin B12 status (RR: 1.49 [1.13, 1.97]; p = 0.005) predicted a two-fold increase in the risk of neonatal vitamin B12 deficiency at birth. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency was high early in pregnancy and predicted neonatal vitamin B12 status. Future research is needed to determine the role of vitamin B12 in the development of pregnancy and infant outcomes, and to inform screening and interventions to improve maternal and child health.

2.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e038305, 2020 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122315

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Women of reproductive age (WRA) are a high-risk population for anaemia and micronutrient deficiencies. Evidence supports the role of periconceptional nutrition in the development of adverse pregnancy complications. However, in India, there are limited population-based data to guide evidence-based recommendations and priority setting. The objective of this study is to conduct a population-based biomarker survey of anaemia and vitamin B12 and folate status in WRA as part of a periconceptional surveillance programme in Southern India. METHODS: WRA (15-40 years) who are not pregnant or lactating and reside within 50 km2 of our community research site in Southern India will be screened and invited to participate in the biomarker survey at our research facility at Arogyavaram Medical Centre. After informed consent/assent, structured interviews will be conducted by trained nurse enumerators to collect sociodemographic, dietary, anthropometry, health and reproductive history data. Venous blood samples will be collected at enrolment; whole blood will be analysed for haemoglobin. Plasma, serum and red blood cells (RBCs) will be processed and stored <-80°C until batch analysis. Vitamin B12 concentrations will be measured via chemiluminescence, and RBC and serum folate concentrations will be evaluated using the World Health Organisation (WHO)-recommended microbiological assay at our laboratory in Bangalore. A WHO surveillance system will also be established to determine the baseline prevalence of birth defects in this setting. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has obtained clearance from the Health Ministry Screening Committee of the Indian Council of Medical Research. The study protocol was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board at Cornell University and the Institutional Ethics Committees at Arogyavaram Medical Centre and St. John's Research Institute. Findings from this biomarker survey will establish the burden of anaemia and micronutrient deficiencies in WRA and directly inform a randomised trial for anaemia and birth defects prevention in Southern India. The results of this study will be disseminated at international research conferences and as published articles in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: Clinical trials registration number NCT04048330, NCT03853304 and Clinical Trials Registry of India (CTRI) registration number REF/2019/03/024479.

3.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(8): e18580, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When we were unable to identify an electronic data capture (EDC) package that supported our requirements for clinical research in resource-limited regions, we set out to build our own reusable EDC framework. We needed to capture data when offline, synchronize data on demand, and enforce strict eligibility requirements and complex longitudinal protocols. Based on previous experience, the geographical areas in which we conduct our research often have unreliable, slow internet access that would make web-based EDC platforms impractical. We were unwilling to fall back on paper-based data capture as we wanted other benefits of EDC. Therefore, we decided to build our own reusable software platform. In this paper, we describe our customizable EDC framework and highlight how we have used it in our ongoing surveillance programs, clinic-based cross-sectional studies, and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in various settings in India and Ecuador. OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the creation of a mobile framework to support complex clinical research protocols in a variety of settings including clinical, surveillance, and RCTs. METHODS: We developed ConnEDCt, a mobile EDC framework for iOS devices and personal computers, using Claris FileMaker software for electronic data capture and data storage. RESULTS: ConnEDCt was tested in the field in our clinical, surveillance, and clinical trial research contexts in India and Ecuador and continuously refined for ease of use and optimization, including specific user roles; simultaneous synchronization across multiple locations; complex randomization schemes and informed consent processes; and collecting diverse types of data (laboratory, growth measurements, sociodemographic, health history, dietary recall and feeding practices, environmental exposures, and biological specimen collection). CONCLUSIONS: ConnEDCt is customizable, with regulatory-compliant security, data synchronization, and other useful features for data collection in a variety of settings and study designs. Furthermore, ConnEDCt is user friendly and lowers the risks for errors in data entry because of real time error checking and protocol enforcement.

4.
J Infect Dis ; 221(1): 91-101, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Micronutrients are known to modulate host immunity, and there is limited literature on this association in the context of dengue virus infection (DENV). METHODS: Using a nested case-control design in a surveillance program, we measured the following: anthropometry; nutritional biomarkers including serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, retinol-binding protein (RBP), 25-hydroxy vitamin D, folate, and vitamin B12; and a panel of immune response markers. We then compared these measures across 4 illness categories: healthy control, nonfebrile DENV, other febrile illness (OFI), and apparent DENV using multivariate polytomous logistic regression models. RESULTS: Among 142 participants, serum ferritin (ng/mL) was associated with apparent DENV compared to healthy controls (odds ratio [OR], 2.66; confidence interval [CI], 1.53-4.62; P = .001), and RBP concentrations (µmol/L) were associated with apparent DENV (OR, 0.03; CI, 0.00-0.30; P = .003) and OFI (OR, 0.02; CI, 0.00-0.24; P = .003). In a subset of 71 participants, interleukin-15 levels (median fluorescent intensity) were positively associated with apparent DENV (OR, 1.09; CI, 1.03-1.14; P = .001) and negatively associated with nonfebrile DENV (OR, 0.89; CI, 0.80-0.99; P = .03) compared to healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for the acute-phase response, serum ferritin and RBP concentrations were associated with apparent DENV and may represent biomarkers of clinical importance in the context of dengue illness.


Assuntos
Dengue/sangue , Dengue/imunologia , Interleucina-15/sangue , Vigilância da População , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Tamanho Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Equador , Feminino , Ferritinas/sangue , Febre/sangue , Febre/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes , Estado Nutricional , Orosomucoide/metabolismo , Proteínas Plasmáticas de Ligação ao Retinol/metabolismo , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto Jovem
5.
Malar J ; 16(1): 479, 2017 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29166907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quantifying mosquito biting rates for specific locations enables estimation of mosquito-borne disease risk, and can inform intervention efforts. Measuring biting itself is fraught with ethical concerns, so the landing rate of mosquitoes on humans is often used as a proxy measure. Southern coastal Ecuador was historically endemic for malaria (Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax), although successful control efforts in the 2000s eliminated autochthonous transmission (since 2011). This study presents an analysis of data collected during the elimination period. METHODS: Human landing catch (HLC) data for three mosquito taxa: two malaria vectors, Anopheles albimanus and Anopheles punctimacula, and grouped Culex spp. were examined for this study. These data were collected by the National Vector Control Service of the Ministry of Health over a 5-year time span (2007-2012) in five cities in southern coastal Ecuador, at multiple households, in all months of the year, during dusk-dawn (18:00-6:00) hours, often at both indoor and outdoor locations. Hurdle models were used to determine if biting activity was fundamentally different for the three taxa, and to identify spatial and temporal factors influencing bite rate. Due to the many different approaches to studying and quantifying bite rates in the literature, a glossary of terms was created, to facilitate comparative studies in the future. RESULTS: Biting trends varied significantly with species and time. All taxa exhibited exophagic feeding behavior, and outdoor locations increased both the odds and incidence of bites across taxa. Anopheles albimanus was most frequently observed biting, with an average of 4.7 bites/h. The highest and lowest respective months for significant biting activity were March and July for An. albimanus, July and August for An. punctimacula, and February and July for Culex spp. CONCLUSIONS: Fine-scale differences in endophagy and exophagy, and temporal differences among months and hours exist in biting patterns among mosquito taxa in southern coastal Ecuador. This analysis provides detailed information for targeting vector control activities, and household level vector prevention strategies. These data were collected as part of routine vector surveillance conducted by the Ministry of Health, and such data have not been collected since. Reinstating such surveillance measures would provide important information to aid in preventing malaria re-emergence.


Assuntos
Anopheles/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano , Culex/fisiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Animais , Equador/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/etiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Estações do Ano , Especificidade da Espécie , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Nutrients ; 8(12)2016 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27941597

RESUMO

Maternal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status and its association with pregnancy outcomes in malaria holoendemic regions of sub-Saharan Africa is poorly defined. We examined this association and any potential interaction with malaria and helminth infections in an ongoing pregnancy cohort study in Kenya. The association of maternal plasma 25(OH)D status with pregnancy outcomes and infant anthropometric measurements at birth was determined in a subset of women (n = 63). Binomial and linear regression analyses were used to examine associations between maternal plasma 25(OH)D and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Fifty-one percent of the women had insufficient (<75 nmol/L) and 21% had deficient (<50 nmol/L) plasma 25(OH)D concentration at enrollment. At birth, 74.4% of the infants had insufficient and 30% had deficient plasma 25(OH)D concentrations, measured in cord blood. Multivariate analysis controlling for maternal age and body mass index (BMI) at enrollment and gestational age at delivery found that deficient plasma 25(OH)D levels were associated with a four-fold higher risk of stunting in neonates (p = 0.04). These findings add to the existing literature about vitamin D and its association with linear growth in resource-limited settings, though randomized clinical trials are needed to establish causation.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitamina D , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Transtornos do Crescimento , Helmintíase/complicações , Helmintíase/diagnóstico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Quênia/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Malária/complicações , Malária/diagnóstico , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Gravidez , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto Jovem
7.
Malar J ; 15(1): 573, 2016 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27894320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, malaria (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum) has been successfully controlled in the Ecuador-Peru coastal border region. The aim of this study was to document this control effort and to identify the best practices and lessons learned that are applicable to malaria control and to other vector-borne diseases. A proximal outcome evaluation was conducted of the robust elimination programme in El Oro Province, Ecuador, and the Tumbes Region, Peru. Data collection efforts included a series of workshops with local public health experts who played central roles in the elimination effort, review of epidemiological records from Ministries of Health, and a review of national policy documents. Key programmatic and external factors are identified that determined the success of this eradication effort. CASE DESCRIPTION: From the mid 1980s until the early 2000s, the region experienced a surge in malaria transmission, which experts attributed to a combination of ineffective anti-malarial treatment, social-ecological factors (e.g., El Niño, increasing rice farming, construction of a reservoir), and political factors (e.g., reduction in resources and changes in management). In response to the malaria crisis, local public health practitioners from El Oro and Tumbes joined together in the mid-1990s to forge an unofficial binational collaboration for malaria control. Over the next 20 years, they effectively eradicated malaria in the region, by strengthening surveillance and treatment strategies, sharing of resources, operational research to inform policy, and novel interventions. DISCUSSION AND EVALUATION: The binational collaboration at the operational level was the fundamental component of the successful malaria elimination programme. This unique relationship created a trusting, open environment that allowed for flexibility, rapid response, innovation and resilience in times of crisis, and ultimately a sustainable control programme. Strong community involvement, an extensive microscopy network and ongoing epidemiologic investigations at the local level were also identified as crucial programmatic strategies. CONCLUSION: The results of this study provide key principles of a successful malaria elimination programme that can inform the next generation of public health professionals in the region, and serve as a guide to ongoing and future control efforts of other emerging vector borne diseases globally.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Erradicação de Doenças , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Equador/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Cooperação Internacional , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...