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2.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 28(5): 2438-2446, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523364

RESUMO

AIMS: National studies have demonstrated disparities in the treatment and survival of pancreatic cancer patients based on socioeconomic status (SES). This study aimed to identify specific differences in perioperative management and outcomes based on patient SES and to study the role of a multidisciplinary clinic (MDC) in mitigating any variations. METHODS: The study analyzed patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in a large hospital system. The patients were categorized into groups of high and low SES and whether they were managed by the authors' pancreatic cancer MDC or not. The study compared differences in disease characteristics, receipt of multimodality therapy, perioperative outcomes, and recurrence-free and overall survival. RESULTS: Of the 162 low-SES patients and 119 high-SES patients, 54% were managed in the MDC. Outside the MDC, low-SES patients were less likely to receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy and had less minimally invasive surgery, a longer OR time, less enhanced recovery participation, and more major complications (p < 0.05). No SES disparities were observed among the MDC patients. Despite similar tumor characteristics, the low-SES patients had inferior median overall survival (21 vs 32 months; p = 0.005), but the MDC appeared to eliminate this disparity. Low SES correlated with inferior survival for the non-MDC patients (17 vs 32 months; p < 0.001), but not for the MDC patients (24 vs 25 months; p = 0.33). These findings persisted in the multivariable analysis. CONCLUSION: A pancreatic cancer MDC standardizes treatment decisions, eliminates disparities in surgical outcomes, and improves survival for low-SES patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/cirurgia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Pancreatectomia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Classe Social
3.
J Immunother ; 44(2): 49-62, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416261

RESUMO

Risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC) include proinflammatory diets, sedentary habits, and obesity, in addition to genetic syndromes that predispose individuals to this disease. Current treatment relies on surgical excision and cytotoxic chemotherapies. There has been a renewed interest in immunotherapy as a treatment option for CRC given the success in melanoma and microsatellite instable (MSI) CRC. Immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors only plays a role in the 4%-6% of patients with MSIhigh tumors and even within this subpopulation, response rates can vary from 30% to 50%. Most patients with CRC do not respond to this modality of treatment, even though colorectal tumors are frequently infiltrated with T cells. Tumor cells limit apoptosis and survive following intensive chemotherapy leading to drug resistance and induction of autophagy. Pharmacological or molecular inhibition of autophagy improves the efficacy of cytotoxic chemotherapy in murine models. The microbiome clearly plays an etiologic role, in some or most colon tumors, realized by elegant findings in murine models and now investigated in human clinical trials. Recent results have suggested that cancer vaccines may be beneficial, perhaps best as preventive strategies. The search for therapies that can be combined with current approaches to increase their efficacy, and new knowledge of the biology of CRC are pivotal to improve the care of patients suffering from this disease. Here, we review the basic immunobiology of CRC, current "state-of-the-art" immunotherapies and define those areas with greatest therapeutic promise for the future.

4.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs ; 27(11): 901-916, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30359534

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) represent a developing class of anticancer therapeutics which are designed to selectively deliver a cytotoxic payload to tumors, while limiting systemic toxicity to healthy tissues. There are several ADCs which are currently in various stages of clinical development for the treatment of gastrointestinal malignancies. AREAS COVERED: We discuss the biologic rationale and review the clinical experience with ADCs in the treatment of gastrointestinal malignancies, summarizing the pre-clinical and phase I/II clinical trial data that have been completed or are ongoing. EXPERT OPINION: While there have been significant advances in the development of ADCs since they were first introduced, several challenges remain. These challenges include (i) the selection of an ideal antigen target which is tumor specific and internalized upon binding, (ii) selection of an antibody which has high affinity for its antigen target and low immunogenicity, (iii) selection of a potent payload which is cytotoxic at sub-nanomolar concentrations, and (iv) optimal design of a linker to confer ADC stability with limited off-site toxicity. Efforts are ongoing to address these issues and innovate the ADC technology to improve the safety and efficacy of these agents.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoconjugados/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/imunologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoconjugados/efeitos adversos , Imunoconjugados/imunologia
5.
Cancer Res ; 78(18): 5398-5407, 2018 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30042150

RESUMO

MEK inhibition is of interest in cancer drug development, but clinical activity in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) has been limited. Preclinical studies demonstrated Wnt pathway overexpression in KRAS-mutant cell lines resistant to the MEK inhibitor, selumetinib. The combination of selumetinib and cyclosporin A, a noncanonical Wnt pathway modulator, demonstrated antitumor activity in mCRC patient-derived xenografts. To translate these results, we conducted a NCI Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program-approved multicenter phase I/IB trial (NCT02188264) of the combination of selumetinib and cyclosporin A. Patients with advanced solid malignancies were treated with the combination of oral selumetinib and cyclosporin A in the dose escalation phase, followed by an expansion cohort of irinotecan and oxaliplatin-refractory mCRC. The expansion cohort utilized a single-agent selumetinib "run-in" to evaluate FZD2 biomarker upregulation and KRAS-WT and KRAS-MT stratification to identify any potential predictors of efficacy. Twenty and 19 patients were enrolled in dose escalation and expansion phases, respectively. The most common adverse events and grade 3/4 toxicities were rash, hypertension, and edema. Three dose-limiting toxicities (grade 3 hypertension, rash, and increased creatinine) were reported. The MTD was selumetinib 75 mg twice daily and cyclosporin A 2 mg/kg twice daily on a 28-day cycle. KRAS stratification did not identify any differences in response between KRAS-WT and KRAS-MT cancers. Two partial responses, 18 stable disease, and 10 progressive disease responses were observed. Combination selumetinib and cyclosporin A is well tolerated, with evidence of activity in mCRC. Future strategies for concept development include identifying better predictors of efficacy and improved Wnt pathway modulation.Significance: These findings translate preclinical studies combining selumetinib and cyclosporin into a phase I first-in-human clinical trial of such a combination in patients with advanced solid malignancies. Cancer Res; 78(18); 5398-407. ©2018 AACR.


Assuntos
Benzimidazóis/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Ciclosporina/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Área Sob a Curva , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Genes ras , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Metástase Neoplásica , Transplante de Neoplasias , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais , Adulto Jovem
6.
Pharmacol Ther ; 185: 122-134, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29269044

RESUMO

The ability to produce monoclonal antibodies with defined and distinct specificities has resulted in a vast spectrum of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies including bispecific antibodies (BsAbs). Several types of BsAbs have been produced but the most well-known of these are trispecific antibodies (TrAbs or TrioMabs) and bispecific T cell engager antibodies (BiTE). TrAbs have two variable segments for antigen binding and an Fc component to recruit immune cells. Catumaxomab is a TrAb that has orphan drug status from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for EpCam positive gastric and ovarian tumors and was previously approved by the European Medicinal Agency (EMA) for the same indication. One arm of catumaxomab binds to EpCAM, the other binds to CD3 on T cells and the Fc portion recruits immune cells. Catumaxomab is no longer being produced by the manufacturer due to logistic considerations and hence not available in the European market. Blinatumomab is a BiTE that comprises of two variable segments only with one arm binding to CD19 and the other binding to CD3. Blinatumomab has been approved for relapsed or refractory B-cell precursor ALL in adults and children by the FDA. There are over 50 bispecific antibodies currently on clinical trials for various malignancies and the hope is that in the future many of these, with better understanding of principles and techniques of production, will provide treatment options for many different types of cancer.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Biespecíficos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Humanos
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