Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 201
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007162

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Black adults have worse health outcomes compared to white adults in certain chronic diseases, including Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). It is unclear if, and to what degree, disadvantage by individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) may contribute to racial disparities in COPD outcomes. METHODS: Individual and neighborhood-scale sociodemographic characteristics were determined in 2649 current or former adult smokers, with and without COPD, at recruitment into the SPIROMICS study. We assessed whether racial differences in symptom, functional and imaging outcomes (St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire [SGRQ], COPD Assessment Test [CAT] score; modified Medical Research Council [mMRC] dyspnea scale; six-minute walk test distance [6MWD], CT scan metrics) and severe exacerbation risk were explained by individual or neighborhood SES. Using generalized linear mixed models regression, we compared respiratory outcomes by race, adjusting for confounders and individual-level and neighborhood-level descriptors of SES, both separately and sequentially. RESULTS: After adjusting for COPD risk factors, black participants had significantly worse respiratory symptoms and quality of life (mMRC, CAT and SGRQ), higher risk of severe exacerbations and higher percent emphysema, thicker airways (Pi10), and more air trapping on CT metrics compared to whites. Additionally, the association between black race and respiratory outcomes was attenuated but remained statistically significant after adjusting for individual-level SES, which explained up to 12% to 35% of racial disparities. Further adjustment showed that neighborhood-level SES explained another 26% to 54% of the racial disparities in respiratory outcomes. Even after accounting for both individual and neighborhood SES factors, black individuals continued to have increased severe exacerbation risk and persistently worse CT outcomes (emphysema, air trapping and airway wall thickness). CONCLUSIONS: Disadvantages by individual and neighborhood-level SES each partly explain disparities in respiratory outcomes between black individuals and whites. Strategies to narrow the gap in SES disadvantages may help to reduce race-related health disparities in COPD; however, further work is needed to identify additional risk factors contributing to persistent disparities.

2.
Eur Respir Rev ; 29(157)2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2. Consensus suggestions can standardise care, thereby improving outcomes and facilitating future research. METHODS: An International Task Force was composed and agreement regarding courses of action was measured using the Convergence of Opinion on Recommendations and Evidence (CORE) process. 70% agreement was necessary to make a consensus suggestion. RESULTS: The Task Force made consensus suggestions to treat patients with acute COVID-19 pneumonia with remdesivir and dexamethasone but suggested against hydroxychloroquine except in the context of a clinical trial; these are revisions of prior suggestions resulting from the interim publication of several randomised trials. It also suggested that COVID-19 patients with a venous thromboembolic event be treated with therapeutic anticoagulant therapy for 3 months. The Task Force was unable to reach sufficient agreement to yield consensus suggestions for the post-hospital care of COVID-19 survivors. The Task Force fell one vote shy of suggesting routine screening for depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. CONCLUSIONS: The Task Force addressed questions related to pharmacotherapy in patients with COVID-19 and the post-hospital care of survivors, yielding several consensus suggestions. Management options for which there is insufficient agreement to formulate a suggestion represent research priorities.


Assuntos
Comitês Consultivos/organização & administração , Betacoronavirus , Consenso , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Cooperação Internacional , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumologia/normas , Sociedades Médicas , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Pandemias , Estados Unidos
3.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075243

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Hypoxemia associated with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often resolves with time. Current guidelines recommend that patients recently discharged with supplemental home oxygen following hospitalization should not have renewal of the prescription without assessment for hypoxemia. Understanding patterns of home oxygen reassessment is an opportunity to improve quality and value in home oxygen prescribing and may provide future targets for de-implementation. OBJECTIVES: We sought to measure the frequency of home oxygen reassessment within 90 days of hospitalization for COPD and determine the potential population eligible for deimplementation. METHODS: Cohort study of patients ≥40 years hospitalized for COPD at 5 Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities who were prescribed home oxygen at discharge. Our primary outcome was the frequency of reassessment within 90 days by oxygen saturation (SpO2) measurement. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of patients potentially eligible for discontinuation (SpO2>88%) and patients in whom oxygen was discontinued. Our primary exposures were treatment with long-acting bronchodilators, prior history of COPD exacerbation, smoking status, and pulmonary hypertension. We used a mixed-effects Poisson model to measure the association between patient-level variables and our outcome, clustered by site. We also performed a positive deviant analysis using chart review to uncover system processes associated with high quality oxygen prescribing. RESULTS: 43.6% (287/659; range 24.8% - 78.5% by site) of the cohort had complete reassessment within 90 days. None of our patient-level exposures were associated with oxygen reassessment. Nearly half of those with complete reassessment were eligible for discontinuation based on Medicare guidelines (43.2%; N=124/287). When using the newest evidence available by LOTT, most of the cohort did not have resting hypoxemia (84.3%; 393/466) and would be eligible for discontinuation. The highest-performing VA facility had four care processes to support oxygen reassessment and discontinuation, versus 0-1 at all other sites. CONCLUSIONS: Fewer than half of patients prescribed home oxygen following a COPD exacerbation are reassessed within 90 days. New system processes supporting timely reassessment and discontinuation of unnecessary home oxygen therapy could improve the quality and value of care.

5.
J Biopharm Stat ; : 1-12, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941098

RESUMO

The Precision Interventions for Severe and/or Exacerbation-prone Asthma (PrecISE) study is an adaptive platform trial designed to investigate novel interventions to severe asthma. The study is conducted under a master protocol and utilizes a crossover design with each participant receiving up to five interventions and at least one placebo. Treatment assignments are based on the patients' biomarker profiles and precision health methods are incorporated into the interim and final analyses. We describe key elements of the PrecISE study including the multistage adaptive enrichment strategy, early stopping of an intervention for futility, power calculations, and the primary analysis strategy.

7.
Respir Care ; 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The primary goal of the study was to estimate the frequency with which respiratory therapists (RTs) evaluate the need for home oxygen in patients hospitalized for COPD exacerbations before discharge. METHODS: Online questionnaire distributed to RTs in the U.S. by the AARC. RTs were asked to indicate how frequently they evaluate the need for home oxygen on an ordinal scale: Never, Rarely/occasionally, Sometimes, Most of the time, Almost every time, or Every time. Consistent evaluation for home oxygen was defined as performing an evaluation for home oxygen therapy "almost every time" or "every time" (i.e., >75% of the time). Bivariate and multivariable analyses were assessed using Fisher's exact test and logistic regression models. RESULTS: Of 611 respondents, 490 were eligible for analysis. Fifty-eight percent of RTs reported consistently evaluating patients for home oxygen at rest, 43% with activity, and only 14% during sleep. Consistent evaluation for home oxygen at rest was significantly associated with greater years of practice (p=0.03; highest among RTs ≥30 years of practice, 40%), region of practice (p=0.001; highest in the Midwest, 44%) and greater familiarity with criteria for home oxygen (p<0.001; highest among RTs "very familiar", 58%). Practice in the Midwest and greater familiarity with criteria for home oxygen was associated with consistent evaluation for home oxygen with activity. Practice in the Midwest (vs. Northeast; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.56, p<0.001) and being "very familiar" with home oxygen criteria (vs. "not at all familiar"; aOR 5.66, p<0.001) were independently associated with a higher odds of evaluating for home oxygen at rest and with activity. Only 25% of RTs were involved in making decisions about home oxygen equipment. CONCLUSIONS: RTs do not consistently evaluate patients hospitalized for COPD exacerbations for home oxygen prior to discharge and only a minority are involved in selecting home oxygen equipment.

8.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 15: 1887-1898, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821092

RESUMO

Rationale: Some COPD patients develop extreme breathlessness, decreased exercise capacity and poor health status yet respiratory disability is poorly characterized as a distinct phenotype. Objective: To define respiratory disability in COPD based on available functional measures and to determine associations with risk for exacerbations and death. Methods: We analyzed baseline data from a multi-center observational study (SPIROMICS). This analysis includes 2332 participants (472 with severe COPD, 991 with mild/moderate COPD, 726 smokers without airflow obstruction and 143 non-smoking controls). Measurements: We defined respiratory disability by ≥4 of 7 criteria: mMRC dyspnea scale ≥3; Veterans Specific Activity Questionnaire <5; 6-minute walking distance <250 m; St George's Respiratory Questionnaire activity domain >60; COPD Assessment Test >20; fatigue (FACIT-F Trial Outcome Index) <50; SF-12 <20. Results: Using these criteria, respiratory disability was identified in 315 (13.5%) participants (52.1% female). Frequencies were severe COPD 34.5%; mild-moderate COPD 11.2%; smokers without obstruction 5.2% and never-smokers 2.1%. Compared with others, participants with disability had more emphysema (13.2 vs. 6.6%) and air-trapping (37.0 vs. 21.6%) on HRCT (P<0.0001). Using principal components analysis to derive a disability score, two factors explained 71% of variance, and a cut point -1.0 reliably identified disability. This disability score independently predicted future exacerbations (ß=0.34; CI 0.12, 0.64; P=0.003) and death (HR 2.97; CI 1.54, 5.75; P=0.001). Thus, participants with disability by this criterion had almost three times greater mortality compared to those without disability. Conclusion: Our novel SPIROMICS respiratory disability score in COPD was associated with worse airflow obstruction as well as airway wall thickening, lung parenchymal destruction and certain inflammatory biomarkers. The disability score also proved to be an independent predictor of future exacerbations and death. These findings validate disability as an important phenotype in the spectrum of COPD.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32440110

RESUMO

Rationale: Individual socioeconomic status has been shown to influence the outcomes of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, contextual factors may also play a role. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage measured by the area deprivation index (ADI) and COPD-related outcomes. Methods: Residential addresses of SubPopulations and InteRmediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS) subjects with COPD (FEV1/FVC <0.70) at baseline were geocoded and linked to their respective ADI national ranking score at the census block group level. The associations between the ADI and COPD-related outcomes were evaluated by examining the contrast between participants living in the most-disadvantaged (top quintile) to the least-disadvantaged (bottom quintile) neighborhood. Regression models included adjustment for individual-level demographics, socioeconomic variables (personal income, education), exposures (smoking status, packs per year, occupational exposures), clinical characteristics (FEV1% predicted, body mass index) and neighborhood rural status. Results: A total of 1800 participants were included in the analysis. Participants residing in the most-disadvantaged neighborhoods had 56% higher rate of COPD exacerbation (P<0.001), 98% higher rate of severe COPD exacerbation (P=0.001), a 1.6 point higher CAT score (P<0.001), 3.1 points higher SGRQ (P<0.001), and 24.6 meters less six-minute walk distance (P=0.008) compared with participants who resided in the least disadvantaged neighborhoods. Conclusion: Participants with COPD who reside in more-disadvantaged neighborhoods had worse COPD outcomes compared to those residing in less-disadvantaged neighborhoods. Neighborhood effects were independent of individual-level socioeconomic factors, suggesting that contextual factors could be used to inform intervention strategies targeting high-risk persons with COPD.

10.
Chest ; 2020 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the concordance of atopy with asthma COPD overlap. Among individuals with COPD, a better understanding of the phenotypes characterized by asthma overlap and atopy is needed to better target therapies. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the overlap between atopy and asthma status among individuals with COPD, and how are categories defined by the presence of atopy and asthma status associated with clinical and radiologic phenotypes and outcomes in the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD Study (COPDGene) and Subpopulation and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS)? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Four hundred three individuals with COPD from SPIROMICS and 696 individuals from COPDGene with data about specific IgEs to 10 common allergens and mixes (simultaneous assessment of combination of allergens in similar category) were included. Comparison groups were defined by atopic and asthma status (neither, atopy alone, atopic asthma, nonatopic asthma, with atopy defined as any positive specific IgE (≥0.35 KU/L) to any of the 10 allergens or mixes and asthma defined as self-report of doctor-diagnosed current asthma). Multivariable regression analyses (linear, logistic, and zero inflated negative binomial where appropriate) adjusted for age, sex, race, lung function, smoking status, pack-years smoked, and use of inhaled corticosteroids were used to determine characteristics of groups and relationship with outcomes (exacerbations, clinical outcomes, CT metrics) separately in COPDGene and SPIROMICS, and then adjusted results were combined using meta-analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of atopy was 35% and 36% in COPD subjects from SPIROMICS and COPDGene, respectively, and less than 50% overlap was seen between atopic status with asthma in both cohorts. In meta-analysis, individuals with nonatopic asthma had the most impaired symptom scores (effect size for St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score, 4.2; 95% CI, 0.4-7.9; effect size for COPD Assessment Test score, 2.8; 95% CI, 0.089-5.4), highest risk for exacerbations (incidence rate ratio, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.05-1.88) compared with the group without atopy or asthma. Those with atopy and atopic asthma were not at increased risk for adverse outcomes. INTERPRETATION: Asthma and atopy had incomplete overlap among former and current smokers with COPD in COPDGene and SPIROMICS. Nonatopic asthma was associated with adverse outcomes and exacerbation risk in COPD, whereas groups having atopy alone and atopic asthma had less risk.

11.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 201(9): e56-e69, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283960

RESUMO

Background: This document provides clinical recommendations for the pharmacologic treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It represents a collaborative effort on the part of a panel of expert COPD clinicians and researchers along with a team of methodologists under the guidance of the American Thoracic Society.Methods: Comprehensive evidence syntheses were performed on all relevant studies that addressed the clinical questions and critical patient-centered outcomes agreed upon by the panel of experts. The evidence was appraised, rated, and graded, and recommendations were formulated using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach.Results: After weighing the quality of evidence and balancing the desirable and undesirable effects, the guideline panel made the following recommendations: 1) a strong recommendation for the use of long-acting ß2-agonist (LABA)/long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) combination therapy over LABA or LAMA monotherapy in patients with COPD and dyspnea or exercise intolerance; 2) a conditional recommendation for the use of triple therapy with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS)/LABA/LAMA over dual therapy with LABA/LAMA in patients with COPD and dyspnea or exercise intolerance who have experienced one or more exacerbations in the past year; 3) a conditional recommendation for ICS withdrawal for patients with COPD receiving triple therapy (ICS/LABA/LAMA) if the patient has had no exacerbations in the past year; 4) no recommendation for or against ICS as an additive therapy to long-acting bronchodilators in patients with COPD and blood eosinophilia, except for those patients with a history of one or more exacerbations in the past year requiring antibiotics or oral steroids or hospitalization, for whom ICS is conditionally recommended as an additive therapy; 5) a conditional recommendation against the use of maintenance oral corticosteroids in patients with COPD and a history of severe and frequent exacerbations; and 6) a conditional recommendation for opioid-based therapy in patients with COPD who experience advanced refractory dyspnea despite otherwise optimal therapy.Conclusions: The task force made recommendations regarding the pharmacologic treatment of COPD based on currently available evidence. Additional research in populations that are underrepresented in clinical trials is needed, including studies in patients with COPD 80 years of age and older, those with multiple chronic health conditions, and those with a codiagnosis of COPD and asthma.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/normas , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/normas , Broncodilatadores/normas , Quimioterapia Combinada/normas , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/normas , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/uso terapêutico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Estados Unidos
12.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 16(5): 775-783, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043961

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine whether a wearable sleep-tracker improves perceived sleep quality in healthy participants and to test whether wearables reliably measure sleep quantity and quality compared with polysomnography. METHODS: This study included a single-center randomized crossover trial of community-based participants without medical conditions or sleep disorders. A wearable device (WHOOP, Inc.) was used that provided feedback regarding sleep information to the participant for 1 week and maintained sleep logs versus 1 week of maintained sleep logs alone. Self-reported daily sleep behaviors were documented in sleep logs. Polysomnography was performed on 1 night when wearing the wearable. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System sleep disturbance sleep scale was measured at baseline, day 7 and day 14 of study participation. RESULTS: In 32 participants (21 women; 23.8 ± 5 years), wearables improved nighttime sleep quality (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System sleep disturbance: B = -1.69; 95% confidence interval, -3.11 to -0.27; P = .021) after adjusting for age, sex, baseline, and order effect. There was a small increase in self-reported daytime naps when wearing the device (B = 3.2; SE, 1.4; P = .023), but total daily sleep remained unchanged (P = .43). The wearable had low bias (13.8 minutes) and precision (17.8 minutes) errors for measuring sleep duration and measured dream sleep and slow wave sleep accurately (intraclass coefficient, 0.74 ± 0.28 and 0.85 ± 0.15, respectively). Bias and precision error for heart rate (bias, -0.17%; precision, 1.5%) and respiratory rate (bias, 1.8%; precision, 6.7%) were very low compared with that measured by electrocardiogram and inductance plethysmography during polysomnography. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy people, wearables can improve sleep quality and accurately measure sleep and cardiorespiratory variables. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; Name: Assessment of Sleep by WHOOP in Ambulatory Subjects; Identifier: NCT03692195.

13.
JCI Insight ; 5(3)2020 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895696

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDMitochondrial dysfunction, a proposed mechanism of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) pathogenesis, is associated with the leakage of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which may be detected extracellularly in various bodily fluids. Despite evidence for the increased prevalence of chronic kidney disease in COPD subjects and for mitochondrial dysfunction in the kidneys of murine COPD models, whether urine mtDNA (u-mtDNA) associates with measures of disease severity in COPD is unknown.METHODSCell-free u-mtDNA, defined as copy number of mitochondrially encoded NADH dehydrogenase-1 (MTND1) gene, was measured by quantitative PCR and normalized to urine creatinine in cell-free urine samples from participants in the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS) cohort. Urine albumin/creatinine ratios (UACR) were measured in the same samples. Associations between u-mtDNA, UACR, and clinical disease parameters - including FEV1 % predicted, clinical measures of exercise tolerance, respiratory symptom burden, and chest CT measures of lung structure - were examined.RESULTSU-mtDNA and UACR levels were measured in never smokers (n = 64), smokers without airflow obstruction (n = 109), participants with mild/moderate COPD (n = 142), and participants with severe COPD (n = 168). U-mtDNA was associated with increased respiratory symptom burden, especially among smokers without COPD. Significant sex differences in u-mtDNA levels were observed, with females having higher u-mtDNA levels across all study subgroups. U-mtDNA associated with worse spirometry and CT emphysema in males only and with worse respiratory symptoms in females only. Similar associations were not found with UACR.CONCLUSIONU-mtDNA levels may help to identify distinct clinical phenotypes and underlying pathobiological differences in males versus females with COPD.TRIAL REGISTRATIONThis study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT01969344).FUNDINGUS NIH, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, supplemented by contributions made through the Foundation for the NIH and the COPD Foundation from AstraZeneca/MedImmune, Bayer, Bellerophon Therapeutics, Boehringer-Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals Inc., Chiesi Farmaceutici S.p.A., Forest Research Institute Inc., GlaxoSmithKline, Grifols Therapeutics Inc., Ikaria Inc., Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, Nycomed GmbH, ProterixBio, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Inc., Sanofi, Sunovion, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company, and Theravance Biopharma and Mylan.

14.
Chest ; 157(4): 856-865, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-vitamin D) and COPD outcomes remains unclear. Using the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS), we determined associations among baseline 25-OH-vitamin D and cross-sectional and longitudinal lung function and COPD exacerbations. METHODS: Serum 25-OH-vitamin D level was measured in stored samples from 1,609 SPIROMICS participants with COPD. 25-OH-vitamin D levels were modeled continuously and dichotomized as deficient (< 20 ng/mL) vs not deficient (≥ 20 ng/mL). Outcomes of interest included % predicted FEV1 (current and 1-year longitudinal decline) and COPD exacerbations (separately any and severe, occurring in prior year and first year of follow-up). RESULTS: Vitamin D deficiency was present in 21% of the cohort and was more prevalent in the younger, active smokers, and blacks. Vitamin D deficiency was independently associated with lower % predicted FEV1 (by 4.11%) at enrollment (95% CI, -6.90% to -1.34% predicted FEV1; P = .004), 1.27% predicted greater rate of FEV1 decline after 1 year (95% CI, -2.32% to -0.22% predicted/y; P = .02), and higher odds of any COPD exacerbation in the prior year (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.00-1.74; P = .049). Each 10-ng/mL decrease in 25-OH-vitamin D was associated with lower baseline lung function (-1.04% predicted; 95% CI, -1.96% to -0.12% predicted; P = .03) and increased odds of any exacerbation in the year before enrollment (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.01-1.22; P = .04). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with worse cross-sectional and longitudinal lung function and increased odds of prior COPD exacerbations. These findings identify 25-OH-vitamin D levels as a potentially useful marker of adverse COPD-related outcomes.

15.
JAMA Intern Med ; 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816012

RESUMO

Importance: Few studies have investigated the association of long-term ambient ozone exposures with respiratory morbidity among individuals with a heavy smoking history. Objective: To investigate the association of historical ozone exposure with risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), computed tomography (CT) scan measures of respiratory disease, patient-reported outcomes, disease severity, and exacerbations in smokers with or at risk for COPD. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter cross-sectional study, conducted from November 1, 2010, to July 31, 2018, obtained data from the Air Pollution Study, an ancillary study of SPIROMICS (Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study). Data analyzed were from participants enrolled at 7 (New York City, New York; Baltimore, Maryland; Los Angeles, California; Ann Arbor, Michigan; San Francisco, California; Salt Lake City, Utah; and Winston-Salem, North Carolina) of the 12 SPIROMICS clinical sites. Included participants had historical ozone exposure data (n = 1874), were either current or former smokers (≥20 pack-years), were with or without COPD, and were aged 40 to 80 years at baseline. Healthy persons with a smoking history of 1 or more pack-years were excluded from the present analysis. Exposures: The 10-year mean historical ambient ozone concentration at participants' residences estimated by cohort-specific spatiotemporal modeling. Main Outcomes and Measures: Spirometry-confirmed COPD, chronic bronchitis diagnosis, CT scan measures (emphysema, air trapping, and airway wall thickness), 6-minute walk test, modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) Dyspnea Scale, COPD Assessment Test (CAT), St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration (FEV1) % predicted, and self-report of exacerbations in the 12 months before SPIROMICS enrollment, adjusted for demographics, smoking, and job exposure. Results: A total of 1874 SPIROMICS participants were analyzed (mean [SD] age, 64.5 [8.8] years; 1479 [78.9%] white; and 1013 [54.1%] male). In adjusted analysis, a 5-ppb (parts per billion) increase in ozone concentration was associated with a greater percentage of emphysema (ß = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.25-1.64; P = .007) and percentage of air trapping (ß = 1.60; 95% CI, 0.16-3.04; P = .03); worse scores for the mMRC Dyspnea Scale (ß = 0.10; 95% CI, 0.03-0.17; P = .008), CAT (ß = 0.65; 95% CI, 0.05-1.26; P = .04), and SGRQ (ß = 1.47; 95% CI, 0.01-2.93; P = .048); lower FEV1% predicted value (ß = -2.50; 95% CI, -4.42 to -0.59; P = .01); and higher odds of any exacerbation (odds ratio [OR], 1.37; 95% CI, 1.12-1.66; P = .002) and severe exacerbation (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.07-1.76; P = .01). No association was found between historical ozone exposure and chronic bronchitis, COPD, airway wall thickness, or 6-minute walk test result. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that long-term historical ozone exposure was associated with reduced lung function, greater emphysema and air trapping on CT scan, worse patient-reported outcomes, and increased respiratory exacerbations for individuals with a history of heavy smoking. The association between ozone exposure and adverse respiratory outcomes suggests the need for continued reevaluation of ambient pollution standards that are designed to protect the most vulnerable members of the US population.

16.
Respir Care ; 64(12): 1574-1585, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767685

RESUMO

Just over 100 years ago, John Scott Haldane published a seminal report about the therapeutic potential of supplemental oxygen to treat hypoxemia. In the 1980s, a pair of clinical trials confirmed the benefit of long-term oxygen therapy in improving survival in patients with COPD associated with severe resting hypoxemia. This review provides a summary of evidence supporting long-term and short-term oxygen therapy, as well as the various types of oxygen equipment commonly used in homes to deliver supplemental oxygen. Because the majority of orders for home oxygen occur at hospital discharge following acute illness, a typical conversation between a patient and their pulmonologist following a COPD exacerbation is presented. The SHERLOCK Consortium, a multi-stakeholder group established following the publication of the COPD National Action Plan in 2017 is also detailed. Interim results of the SHERLOCK Consortium, which suggest a chain of care involving 9 steps to ensure that patients are successfully initiated on home oxygen therapy during transitions from hospital to home, are presented. Recommendations to support evidence-based policies in this high-risk population are provided.

17.
Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis ; 6(4)2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647855

RESUMO

Background: Low physical activity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. To inform the design of a home-based physical activity promotion program for patients with COPD recently discharged from a minority-serving hospital, we conducted a cohort study to evaluate objectively measured daily physical activity and patient-reported outcomes. Methods: This was a 12-week prospective cohort study of patients with a physician diagnosis of COPD recently hospitalized (≤ 12 weeks) for respiratory symptoms. Daily physical activity was recorded using wrist-based and "clip-on" pedometers, and analyzed as mean daily step counts averaged over 7 days. Results: Twenty-two patients were enrolled a median (interquartile range, [IQR]) of 14 (7 to 29) days after hospital discharge. The median daily step count (IQR) in the first week after enrollment (week 1) was 3710 (1565 to 5129) steps. The median within-person change in daily step count (IQR) from week 1 to week 12 was 314 (-30 to 858) steps (p=0.28). Within-person correlation of week-to-week daily step counts was high (r ≥ 0.75). Time from hospital discharge to enrollment was not correlated with mean daily step counts on week 1 (r= -0.13) and only weakly correlated with change in mean daily step counts from week 1 to week 12 (r=0.37). Conclusions: Daily physical activity was variable in this cohort of recently hospitalized patients with COPD, but with little within-person change over a 12-week period. These observations highlight the need for flexible physical activity promotion programs addressing the needs of a heterogeneous patient population.

18.
Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis ; 6(4)2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647858

RESUMO

The National Institutes of Health (NIH)-National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's (NHLBI) Division of Lung Diseases is celebrating its 50th anniversary. On this occasion, we are reviewing the major landmark clinical trials that were initiated by the NHLBI's Division of Lung Disease and that have had substantial impact on our understanding of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and how it is best treated. Although some of these trials did not show hypothesized treatment benefits for COPD, they have enabled clinicians to provide care for individuals with COPD relying on the most rigorous evidence. The 5 trials that are reviewed here are: the Intermittent Positive Pressure Breathing Trial, the Nocturnal Oxygen Treatment Trial, the Lung Health Study, the National Emphysema Treatment Trial, and the Long-term Oxygen Treatment Trial. These clinical trials have not only set the standards for COPD care but have served as models for the state-of-the-art conduct of clinical research in COPD.

19.
N Engl J Med ; 381(13): 1227-1239, 2019 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Morbidity from asthma is disproportionately higher among black patients than among white patients, and black patients constitute the minority of participants in trials informing treatment. Data indicate that patients with inadequately controlled asthma benefit more from addition of a long-acting beta-agonist (LABA) than from increased glucocorticoids; however, these data may not be informative for treatment in black patients. METHODS: We conducted two prospective, randomized, double-blind trials: one involving children and the other involving adolescents and adults. In both trials, the patients had at least one grandparent who identified as black and had asthma that was inadequately controlled with low-dose inhaled glucocorticoids. We compared combinations of therapy, which included the addition of a LABA (salmeterol) to an inhaled glucocorticoid (fluticasone propionate), a step-up to double to quintuple the dose of fluticasone, or both. The treatments were compared with the use of a composite measure that evaluated asthma exacerbations, asthma-control days, and lung function; data were stratified according to genotypic African ancestry. RESULTS: When quintupling the dose of fluticasone (to 250 µg twice a day) was compared with adding salmeterol (50 µg twice a day) and doubling the fluticasone (to 100 µg twice a day), a superior response occurred in 46% of the children with quintupling the fluticasone and in 46% of the children with doubling the fluticasone and adding salmeterol (P = 0.99). In contrast, more adolescents and adults had a superior response to added salmeterol than to an increase in fluticasone (salmeterol-low-dose fluticasone vs. medium-dose fluticasone, 49% vs. 28% [P = 0.003]; salmeterol-medium-dose fluticasone vs. high-dose fluticasone, 49% vs. 31% [P = 0.02]). Neither the degree of African ancestry nor baseline biomarkers predicted a superior response to specific treatments. The increased dose of inhaled glucocorticoids was associated with a decrease in the ratio of urinary cortisol to creatinine in children younger than 8 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to black adolescents and adults, almost half the black children with poorly controlled asthma had a superior response to an increase in the dose of an inhaled glucocorticoid and almost half had a superior response to the addition of a LABA. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; BARD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01967173.).


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Afro-Americanos , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Fluticasona/administração & dosagem , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Xinafoato de Salmeterol/administração & dosagem , Administração por Inalação , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Cross-Over , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(6): 1524-1533, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Minority groups of African descent experience disproportionately greater asthma morbidity compared with other racial groups, suggesting that genetic variation from a common ancestry could influence exacerbation risk. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated clinical trial measures in the context of self-reported race and genetic ancestry to identify risk factors for asthma exacerbations. METHODS: One thousand eight hundred forty multiethnic subjects from 12 Asthma Clinical Research Network and AsthmaNet trials were analyzed for incident asthma exacerbations with Poisson regression models that included clinical measures, self-reported race (black, non-Hispanic white, and other), and estimates of global genetic African ancestry in a subgroup (n = 760). RESULTS: Twenty-four percent of 1840 subjects self-identified as black. Black and white subjects had common risk factors for exacerbations, including a history of 2 or more exacerbations in the previous year and FEV1 percent predicted values, whereas chronic sinusitis, allergic rhinitis, and gastroesophageal reflux disease were only associated with increased exacerbation risk in black subjects. In the combined multiethnic cohort, neither race (P = .30) nor percentage of genetic African ancestry as a continuous variable associated with exacerbation risk (adjusted rate ratio [RR], 1.26 [95% CI, 0.94-1.70; P = .13]; RR per 1-SD change [32% ancestry], 0.97 [95% CI, 0.78-1.19; P = .74]). However, in 161 black subjects with genetic data, those with African ancestry greater than the median (≥82%) had a significantly greater risk of exacerbation (RR, 3.06 [95% CI, 1.09-8.6; P = .03]). CONCLUSION: Black subjects have unique risk factors for asthma exacerbations, of which global African genetic ancestry had the strongest effect.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA