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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: African descent minority groups experience disproportionately higher asthma morbidity compared to other racial groups suggesting that genetic variation from a common ancestry could influence exacerbation risk. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated clinical trial measures in the context of self-reported race and genetic ancestry to identify risk factors for asthma exacerbations. METHODS: 1,840 multi-ethnic individuals from 12 ACRN and AsthmaNet trials were analyzed for incident asthma exacerbations with Poisson regression models that included clinical measures, self-reported race (Black, non-Hispanic White, and other), and estimates of global genetic African ancestry in a subgroup (N=760). RESULTS: 24% of 1,840 individuals self-identified as Black. Blacks and Whites had common risk factors for exacerbations, including a history of ≥2 exacerbations in the previous year and FEV1%predicted, while chronic sinusitis, allergic rhinitis, and GERD were only associated with increased exacerbation risk in Blacks. In the combined, multi-ethnic cohort, neither race (p=0.30) nor percentage genetic African ancestry as a continuous variable associated with exacerbation risk (adjusted rate ratio [RR]=1.26, 95%CI=0.94-1.70, p=0.13; RR per one SD change [32% ancestry]=0.97, 95%CI=0.78-1.19, p=0.74). However, in 161 Blacks with genetic data, those with African ancestry greater than the median (≥82%) had a significantly greater risk of exacerbation (RR=3.06, 95%CI=1.09-8.6, p=0.03). CONCLUSION: Blacks have unique risk factors for asthma exacerbations, of which global African genetic ancestry had the strongest effect.

2.
N Engl J Med ; 381(13): 1227-1239, 2019 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Morbidity from asthma is disproportionately higher among black patients than among white patients, and black patients constitute the minority of participants in trials informing treatment. Data indicate that patients with inadequately controlled asthma benefit more from addition of a long-acting beta-agonist (LABA) than from increased glucocorticoids; however, these data may not be informative for treatment in black patients. METHODS: We conducted two prospective, randomized, double-blind trials: one involving children and the other involving adolescents and adults. In both trials, the patients had at least one grandparent who identified as black and had asthma that was inadequately controlled with low-dose inhaled glucocorticoids. We compared combinations of therapy, which included the addition of a LABA (salmeterol) to an inhaled glucocorticoid (fluticasone propionate), a step-up to double to quintuple the dose of fluticasone, or both. The treatments were compared with the use of a composite measure that evaluated asthma exacerbations, asthma-control days, and lung function; data were stratified according to genotypic African ancestry. RESULTS: When quintupling the dose of fluticasone (to 250 µg twice a day) was compared with adding salmeterol (50 µg twice a day) and doubling the fluticasone (to 100 µg twice a day), a superior response occurred in 46% of the children with quintupling the fluticasone and in 46% of the children with doubling the fluticasone and adding salmeterol (P = 0.99). In contrast, more adolescents and adults had a superior response to added salmeterol than to an increase in fluticasone (salmeterol-low-dose fluticasone vs. medium-dose fluticasone, 49% vs. 28% [P = 0.003]; salmeterol-medium-dose fluticasone vs. high-dose fluticasone, 49% vs. 31% [P = 0.02]). Neither the degree of African ancestry nor baseline biomarkers predicted a superior response to specific treatments. The increased dose of inhaled glucocorticoids was associated with a decrease in the ratio of urinary cortisol to creatinine in children younger than 8 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to black adolescents and adults, almost half the black children with poorly controlled asthma had a superior response to an increase in the dose of an inhaled glucocorticoid and almost half had a superior response to the addition of a LABA. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; BARD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01967173.).


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Afro-Americanos , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Fluticasona/administração & dosagem , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Xinafoato de Salmeterol/administração & dosagem , Administração por Inalação , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Cross-Over , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 14: 1299-1304, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417247

RESUMO

Randomized clinical trials are the preferred study design to address key research questions about the benefits or harms of interventions. However, randomized trials of oxygen therapy are difficult to conduct and have limitations. The purpose of this article is to offer our view on the potential use of patient registries in the field of home oxygen in COPD as an alternative to randomized trials by referring to the Swedish experience with a national registry for respiratory failure. Patient registries use observational study methods to collect uniform data (clinical and other) to evaluate specified outcomes for a population defined by a particular disease, condition, or exposure. As opposed to administrative databases, patient registries serve one or more predetermined scientific, clinical, or policy purposes. By systematically and prospectively compiling relevant data, patient registries may describe the natural history of a disease, determine effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, assess safety or harm, and measure quality of care. Registry-based randomized trials (ie, randomized trials within a clinical registry) combine the advantages of a prospective randomized trial with the strengths of a large-scale all-comers clinical registry. Challenges and issues in the design and implementation of patient registries include the representativeness of participants, data collection, quality assurance, ownership, and governance. Notwithstanding their limitations, patient registries represent valuable tools in the conduct of research in the area of home oxygen therapy.

4.
Eur Respir J ; 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439683

RESUMO

The characteristics that predict progression to overt COPD in smokers without spirometric airflow obstruction are not clearly defined.We conducted a post-hoc analysis of 849 current and former smokers (≥20 pack-years) with preserved spirometry from the SPIROMICS cohort who had baseline computed tomography (CT) scans of lungs and serial spirometry. We examined whether CT-derived lung volumes representing air trapping could predict adverse respiratory outcomes and more rapid decline in spirometry to overt COPD using mixed effect linear modelling.Among these subjects with normal forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity ratio (FEV1/FVC), CT-measured residual volume to total lung capacity ratio (RVCT/TLCCT) varied widely, from 21% to 59%. Over 2.5±0.7 years of follow-up, subjects with higher RVCT/TLCCT had a greater differential rate of decline in FEV1/FVC; those in the upper RVCT/TLCCT tertile had a 0.66% [95%CI=0.06%-1.27%] faster rate of decline per year compared to those in the lower tertile (p=0.015) regardless of demographics, baseline spirometry, respiratory symptoms score, smoking status (former versus current), or smoking burden (pack-years). Accordingly, subjects with higher RVCT/TLCCT were more likely to develop spirometric COPD (odds ratio=5.7 [95%CI=2.4-13.2] in upper versus lower RVCT/TLCCTtertile; p<0.001). Other CT indices of air trapping showed similar patterns of association with lung function decline; however, when all CT indices of air trapping, emphysema, and airway disease were included in the same model, only RVCT/TLCCT retained its significance.Increased air trapping based on radiographic lung volumes predicts accelerated spirometry decline and progression to COPD in smokers without obstruction.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11367, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388056

RESUMO

Metabolomics is an emerging science that can inform pathogenic mechanisms behind clinical phenotypes in COPD. We aimed to understand disturbances in the serum metabolome associated with respiratory outcomes in ever-smokers from the SPIROMICS cohort. We measured 27 serum metabolites, mostly amino acids, by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 157 white ever-smokers with and without COPD. We tested the association between log-transformed metabolite concentrations and one-year incidence of respiratory exacerbations after adjusting for age, sex, current smoking, body mass index, diabetes, inhaled or oral corticosteroid use, study site and clinical predictors of exacerbations, including FEV1% predicted and history of exacerbations. The mean age of participants was 53.7 years and 58% had COPD. Lower concentrations of serum amino acids were independently associated with 1-year incidence of respiratory exacerbations, including tryptophan (ß = -4.1, 95% CI [-7.0; -1.1], p = 0.007) and the branched-chain amino acids (leucine: ß = -6.0, 95% CI [-9.5; -2.4], p = 0.001; isoleucine: ß = -5.2, 95% CI [-8.6; -1.8], p = 0.003; valine: ß = -4.1, 95% CI [-6.9; -1.4], p = 0.003). Tryptophan concentration was inversely associated with the blood neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (p = 0.03) and the BODE index (p = 0.03). Reduced serum amino acid concentrations in ever-smokers with and without COPD are associated with an increased incidence of respiratory exacerbations.

6.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 16(9): 1143-1150, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162945

RESUMO

Rationale: Adults may exhibit characteristics of both asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a situation recently described as asthma-COPD overlap (ACO). There is a paucity of information about ACO in primary care.Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and describe characteristics of individuals with ACO in primary care practices among patients currently diagnosed with asthma, COPD, or both; and to compare the prevalence and characteristics of ACO among the three source populations.Methods: The Respiratory Effectiveness Group conducted a cross-sectional study of individuals ≥40 years old and with ≥2 outpatient primary care visits over a 2-year period in the UK Optimum Patient Care Research Database. Patients were classified into one of three source populations based on diagnostic codes: 1) COPD only, 2) both asthma and COPD, or 3) asthma only. ACO was defined as the presence of all of the following 1) age ≥40 years, 2) current or former smoking, 3) post-bronchodilator airflow limitation (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity <0.7), and 4) ≥12% and ≥200 ml reversibility in post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second.Results: Among 2,165 individuals (1,015 COPD only, 395 with both asthma and COPD, and 755 asthma only), the overall prevalence of ACO was 20% (95% confidence interval, 18-23%). Patients with ACO had a mean age of 70 years (standard deviation, 11 yr), 60% were men, 73% were former smokers (the rest were current smokers), and 66% were overweight or obese. Comorbid conditions were common in patients with ACO, including diabetes (53%), cardiovascular disease (36%), hypertension (30%), eczema (23%), and rhinitis (21%). The prevalence of ACO was higher in patients with a diagnosis of both asthma and COPD (32%) compared with a diagnosis of COPD only (20%; P < 0.001) or asthma only (14%; P < 0.001). Demographic and clinical characteristics of ACO varied across these three source populations.Conclusions: One in five individuals with a diagnosis of COPD, asthma, or both asthma and COPD in primary care settings have ACO based on the Respiratory Effectiveness Group ACO Working group criteria. The prevalence and characteristics of patients with ACO varies across the three source populations.

9.
N Engl J Med ; 380(21): 2009-2019, 2019 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In many patients with mild, persistent asthma, the percentage of eosinophils in sputum is less than 2% (low eosinophil level). The appropriate treatment for these patients is unknown. METHODS: In this 42-week, double-blind, crossover trial, we assigned 295 patients who were at least 12 years of age and who had mild, persistent asthma to receive mometasone (an inhaled glucocorticoid), tiotropium (a long-acting muscarinic antagonist), or placebo. The patients were categorized according to the sputum eosinophil level (<2% or ≥2%). The primary outcome was the response to mometasone as compared with placebo and to tiotropium as compared with placebo among patients with a low sputum eosinophil level who had a prespecified differential response to one of the trial agents. The response was determined according to a hierarchical composite outcome that incorporated treatment failure, asthma control days, and the forced expiratory volume in 1 second; a two-sided P value of less than 0.025 denoted statistical significance. A secondary outcome was a comparison of results in patients with a high sputum eosinophil level and those with a low level. RESULTS: A total of 73% of the patients had a low eosinophil level; of these patients, 59% had a differential response to a trial agent. However, there was no significant difference in the response to mometasone or tiotropium, as compared with placebo. Among the patients with a low eosinophil level who had a differential treatment response, 57% (95% confidence interval [CI], 48 to 66) had a better response to mometasone, and 43% (95% CI, 34 to 52) had a better response to placebo (P = 0.14). In contrast 60% (95% CI, 51 to 68) had a better response to tiotropium, whereas 40% (95% CI, 32 to 49) had a better response to placebo (P = 0.029). Among patients with a high eosinophil level, the response to mometasone was significantly better than the response to placebo (74% vs. 26%) but the response to tiotropium was not (57% vs. 43%). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients with mild, persistent asthma had a low sputum eosinophil level and had no significant difference in their response to either mometasone or tiotropium as compared with placebo. These data provide equipoise for a clinically directive trial to compare an inhaled glucocorticoid with other treatments in patients with a low eosinophil level. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; SIENA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02066298.).


Assuntos
Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Eosinófilos , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Furoato de Mometasona/uso terapêutico , Escarro/imunologia , Brometo de Tiotrópio/uso terapêutico , Administração por Inalação , Adolescente , Adulto , Asma/imunologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
10.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 200(6): 721-731, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925230

RESUMO

Rationale: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been associated with numerous genetic variants, yet the extent to which its genetic risk is mediated by variation in lung structure remains unknown.Objectives: To characterize associations between a genetic risk score (GRS) associated with COPD susceptibility and lung structure on computed tomography (CT).Methods: We analyzed data from MESA Lung (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Lung Study), a U.S. general population-based cohort, and SPIROMICS (Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study). A weighted GRS was calculated from 83 SNPs that were previously associated with lung function. Lung density, spatially matched airway dimensions, and airway counts were assessed on full-lung CT. Generalized linear models were adjusted for age, age squared, sex, height, principal components of genetic ancestry, smoking status, pack-years, CT model, milliamperes, and total lung volume.Measurements and Main Results: MESA Lung and SPIROMICS contributed 2,517 and 2,339 participants, respectively. Higher GRS was associated with lower lung function and increased COPD risk, as well as lower lung density, smaller airway lumens, and fewer small airways, without effect modification by smoking. Adjustment for CT lung structure, particularly small airway measures, attenuated associations between the GRS and FEV1/FVC by 100% and 60% in MESA and SPIROMICS, respectively. Lung structure (P < 0.0001), but not the GRS (P > 0.10), improved discrimination of moderate-to-severe COPD cases relative to clinical factors alone.Conclusions: A GRS associated with COPD susceptibility was associated with CT lung structure. Lung structure may be an important mediator of heritability and determinant of personalized COPD risk.

12.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 16(2): 161-170, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30707066

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of hospital readmissions in the United States. The quality of care delivered to patients with COPD is known to be lacking across the care continuum, and may contribute to high rates of readmission. As part of the response to these issues, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid instituted a penalty for 30-day readmissions as part of their Hospital Readmission Reduction Program in October 2014. At the time the penalty was instated, there was little published evidence on effective hospital-based programs to reduce readmissions after acute exacerbations of COPD. Even now, several years later, few published programs exist, and we continue to lack consistent approaches that lead to improved readmission rates. In addition, there was concern that the penalty would widen health disparities. Despite the dearth of published evidence to reduce readmissions beyond available COPD guidelines, many hospitals across the United States began to develop and implement programs, based on little evidence, due to the financial penalty. We, therefore, assembled a diverse group of clinicians, researchers, payers, and program leaders from across the country to present and discuss approaches that had the greatest potential for success. We drew on expertise from ongoing readmission reduction programs, implementation methodologies, and stakeholder perspectives to develop this Workshop Report on current best practices and models for addressing COPD hospital readmissions.

13.
Respir Med ; 149: 52-58, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803886

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Characteristics associated with adherence to long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) in COPD remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: To identify patient characteristics at the time of oxygen initiation associated with its adherence. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from 359 COPD participants assigned to oxygen in the Long-term Oxygen Treatment Trial. Participants were prescribed continuous (n = 214) or intermittent (n = 145) oxygen based on desaturation patterns at study entry. At the time of initial prescription, participants rated their perceived readiness, confidence, and importance to use oxygen on a 0-10 scale (0 = not at all, 10 = very much). During follow-up, they self-reported average hours per day of use (adherence). Adherence was averaged over short-term (0-30 days), medium-term (months 9-12), and long-term (month 13 to last follow-up) intervals. Multivariable logistic regression models explored characteristics associated with high adherence (≥16 h/day [continuous] or ≥8 h/day [intermittent]) during each time interval. RESULTS: Participant readiness, confidence, and importance at the time of oxygen initiation were associated with high short- and medium-term adherence. For each unit increase in baseline readiness, the odds of high short-term adherence increased by 21% (odds ratio [OR] 1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.40) and 94% (OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.45-2.59) in the continuous and intermittent groups, respectively. In both groups, high adherence in the medium-term was associated with high adherence in the long-term (continuous, OR 12.49, 95% CI 4.90-31.79; intermittent, OR 38.08, 95% CI 6.96-208.20). CONCLUSIONS: Readiness, confidence, and importance to use LTOT at initiation, and early high adherence, are significantly associated with long-term oxygen adherence.

14.
JAMA Intern Med ; 179(3): 333-339, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30688986

RESUMO

Importance: Although professional society guidelines discourage use of empirical antibiotics in the treatment of asthma exacerbation, high antibiotic prescribing rates have been recorded in the United States and elsewhere. Objective: To determine the association of antibiotic treatment with outcomes among patients hospitalized for asthma and treated with corticosteroids. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of data of 19 811 adults hospitalized for asthma exacerbation and treated with systemic corticosteroids in 542 US acute care hospitals from January 1, 2015, through December 31, 2016. Exposures: Early antibiotic treatment, defined as an treatment with an antibiotic initiated during the first 2 days of hospitalization and prescribed for a minimum of 2 days. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome measure was hospital length of stay. Other measures were treatment failure (initiation of mechanical ventilation, transfer to the intensive care unit after hospital day 2, in-hospital mortality, or readmission for asthma) within 30 days of discharge, hospital costs, and antibiotic-related diarrhea. Multivariable adjustment, propensity score matching, propensity weighting, and instrumental variable analysis were used to assess the association of antibiotic treatment with outcomes. Results: Of the 19 811 patients, the median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 46 (34-59) years, 14 389 (72.6%) were women, 8771 (44.3%) were white, and Medicare was the primary form of health insurance for 5120 (25.8%). Antibiotics were prescribed for 8788 patients (44.4%). Compared with patients not treated with antibiotics, treated patients were older (median [IQR] age, 48 [36-61] vs 45 [32-57] years), more likely to be white (48.6% vs 40.9%) and smokers (6.6% vs 5.3%), and had a higher number of comorbidities (eg, congestive heart failure, 6.2% vs 5.8%). Those treated with antibiotics had a significantly longer hospital stay (median [IQR], 4 [3-5] vs 3 [2-4] days) and a similar rate of treatment failure (5.4% vs 5.8%). In propensity score-matched analysis, receipt of antibiotics was associated with a 29% longer hospital stay (length of stay ratio, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.27-1.31) and higher cost of hospitalization (median [IQR] cost, $4776 [$3219-$7373] vs $3641 [$2346-$5942]) but with no difference in the risk of treatment failure (propensity score-matched OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.82-1.11). Multivariable adjustment, propensity score weighting, and instrumental variable analysis as well as several sensitivity analyses yielded similar results. Conclusions and Relevance: Antibiotic therapy may be associated with a longer hospital length of stay, higher hospital cost, and similar risk of treatment failure. These results highlight the need to reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing among patients hospitalized for asthma.

15.
Chest ; 155(5): 908-917, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30684474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic respiratory symptoms and exacerbation-like events are common among ever-smokers without airflow limitation on spirometry. The pathobiology of respiratory disease in this subgroup remains poorly defined, but may be due to underlying inflammation that overlaps with COPD or asthma. We hypothesized that symptoms, exacerbations, and functional measures of disease severity among smokers with preserved spirometry would be associated with markers of systemic inflammation, similar to what is reported in bone fide COPD, rather than elevated type 2 inflammation, which is often present in asthma. METHODS: We measured inflammatory markers associated with COPD (C-reactive protein [CRP], fibrinogen, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors [sTNFRSF1A and sTNFRSF1B], and blood/sputum neutrophils) and type 2 inflammation (IgE and blood/sputum eosinophils) in smokers with preserved spirometry (postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC ≥ 0.70) from the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures In COPD Study (SPIROMICS). We evaluated the relationship of these markers with respiratory symptom burden (dichotomized by a COPD assessment test score cutoff of 10, diagnosis of chronic bronchitis), exacerbations, 6-minute walk distance, and lung function on the basis of FEV1. RESULTS: CRP was associated with increased symptom burden (on the basis of COPD assessment test score and diagnosis of chronic bronchitis) and a greater number of exacerbations in the year before study enrollment. sTNFRSF1A was associated with symptom burden on the basis of COPD assessment test score. CRP and sTNFRSF1A levels negatively correlated with 6-minute walk distance. IgE and eosinophils were not associated with these outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Markers of inflammation including CRP and sTNFRSF1A are enriched among symptomatic smokers with preserved spirometry, suggesting an overlap with the underlying pathophysiology of COPD.

16.
Chest ; 155(3): 519-527, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aspirin use in COPD has been associated with reduced all-cause mortality in meta-regression analysis with few equivocal studies. However, the effect of aspirin on COPD morbidity is unknown. METHODS: Self-reported daily aspirin use was obtained at baseline from SPIROMICS participants with COPD (FEV1/FVC < 70%). Acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) were prospectively ascertained through quarterly structured telephone questionnaires up to 3 years and categorized as moderate (symptoms treated with antibiotics or oral corticosteroids) or severe (requiring ED visit or hospitalization). Aspirin users were matched one-to-one with nonusers, based on propensity score. The association of aspirin use with total, moderate, and severe AECOPD was investigated using zero-inflated negative binomial models. Linear or logistic regression was used to investigate the association with baseline respiratory symptoms, quality of life, and exercise tolerance. RESULTS: Among 1,698 participants, 45% reported daily aspirin use at baseline. Propensity score matching resulted in 503 participant pairs. Aspirin users had a lower incidence rate of total AECOPD (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.78; 95% CI, 0.65-0.94), with similar effect for moderate but not severe AECOPD (IRR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.63-1.18). Aspirin use was associated with lower total St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire score (ß, -2.2; 95% CI, -4.1 to -0.4), reduced odds of moderate-severe dyspnea (modified Medical Research Council questionnaire score ≥ 2; adjusted odds ratio, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.51-0.93), and COPD Assessment Test score (ß, -1.1; 95% CI, -1.9 to -0.2) but not 6-min walk distance (ß, 0.7 m; 95% CI, -14.3 to 15.6). CONCLUSIONS: Daily aspirin use is associated with reduced rate of COPD exacerbations, less dyspnea, and better quality of life. Randomized clinical trials of aspirin use in COPD are warranted to account for unmeasured and residual confounding. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01969344; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.

17.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 77: 98-103, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593883

RESUMO

Precision medicine is expected to impact the care of people with asthma, given its high disease prevalence, heterogeneity of pathophysiologic mechanisms, and consequent clinical phenotypes. A novel phenotype-stratified clinical trial conducted by the NHLBI AsthmaNet Consortium, titled Steroids in Eosinophil Negative Asthma (SIENA), was a randomized, multicenter, clinical trial that prospectively stratified individuals according to their baseline level of sputum inflammation during a screening period. Two phenotypic strata were assigned based on an a priori defined extent of sputum eosinophilia (Eos Low versus Eos High). This article describes: the scientific premise for the trial design, including assumptions used for power calculations; modifications to the analysis plan implemented after the trial started due to a higher than expected prevalence of one phenotypic stratum which impacted the ability to accrue sufficient subjects within the planned budget and study period; investigator alternatives to address the strata imbalance weighing scientific impact and study feasibility; and the final modified SIENA study design and analysis plan. SIENA was successfully completed in a manner that maintained meaningful outcomes. We conclude with recommendations for incorporation of pre-specified contingency plans into phenotype-directed protocols, to address the potential for differences in observed compared to estimated prevalence of different phenotypes in a study population. These approaches can be applied to precision medicine trials for the future.

18.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 15(12): 1369-1381, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499721

RESUMO

More than 1.5 million adults in the United States use supplemental oxygen for a variety of respiratory disorders to improve their quality of life and prolong survival. This document describes recommendations from a multidisciplinary workshop convened at the ATS International Conference in 2017 with the goal of optimizing home oxygen therapy for adults. Ideal supplemental oxygen therapy is patient-specific, provided by a qualified clinician, includes an individualized prescription and therapeutic education program, and offers oxygen systems that are safe, promote mobility, and treat hypoxemia. Recently, patients and clinicians report a growing number of problems with home oxygen in the United States. Oxygen users experience significant functional, mechanical, and financial problems and a lack of education related to their oxygen equipment-problems that impact their quality of life. Health care providers report a lack of readily accessible resources needed to prescribe oxygen systems correctly and efficiently. Patients with certain lung diseases are affected more than others because of physically unmanageable or inadequate portable systems. Analysis is needed to quantify the unintended impact that the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Competitive Bidding Program has had on patients receiving supplemental oxygen from durable medical equipment providers. Studies using effectiveness and implementation research designs are needed to develop and evaluate new models for patient education, identify effective ways for stakeholders to interface, determine the economic benefit of having respiratory therapists perform in-home education and follow-up testing, and collaborate with technology companies to improve portable oxygen devices. Generation of additional evidence of the benefit of supplemental oxygen across the spectrum of advanced lung diseases and the development of clinical practice guidelines should both be prioritized.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30395992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) adherence rates are suboptimal among adult African-Americans. Comprehensive studies characterizing the effectiveness and the methodological approaches to the development of interventions to improve ICS adherence in adult African-Americans have not been performed. OBJECTIVE: Conduct a systematic review of patient/family-level interventions to improve ICS adherence in adult African-Americans. METHODS: Searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and CINAHL from inception to August 2017 for English-language United States studies enrolling at least 30% African-Americans comparing patient/family-level ICS adherence interventions with any comparator. Two investigators independently selected, extracted data from, and rated risk-of-bias. We collected information on intervention characteristics, outcomes, and assessed whether studies were informed by behavior theory and/or stakeholder engagement. RESULTS: Among 1,661 abstracts identified, we reviewed 230 full-texts and identified 4 randomized controlled trials (RCT) and 1 quasi-experimental (pre-post design) study meeting criteria. Study participants (N range 17-333) varied in mean age (22-47 years), proportion African-Americans studied (71%-93%), and gender (69%-82% female). RCTs evaluated problem solving classes, self-efficacy training, technology-based motivational interviewing program and the use of patient advocates. The RCT testing self-efficacy training was the only intervention informed by both behavior theory and stakeholder engagement. All 4 RCTs compared interventions with active control and rated as medium risk-of-bias. No RCTs found a statistically significant improvement in adherence. CONCLUSION: Few studies assessing asthma adherence interventions focused on adult African-American populations. No RCTs demonstrated improved ICS adherence in participants. Future studies are needed that are informed by behavior change theory and stakeholder engagement.

20.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 26(12): 1938-1948, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30358166

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Asthmatic children who develop obesity through adolescence have poorer disease outcomes compared with those who do not. This study aimed to characterize the biology of childhood asthma complicated by adult obesity. METHODS: Gene expression networks are powerful statistical tools for characterizing human disease that leverage the putative coregulatory relationships of genes to infer relevant biological pathways. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis of gene expression data was performed in whole blood from 514 adult asthmatic subjects. Then, module preservation and association replication analyses were performed in 418 subjects from two independent asthma cohorts (one pediatric and one adult). RESULTS: A multivariate model was identified in which three gene coexpression network modules were associated with incident obesity in the discovery cohort (each P < 0.05). Two module memberships were enriched for genes in pathways related to platelets, integrins, extracellular matrix, smooth muscle, NF-κB signaling, and Hedgehog signaling. The network structures of each of the obesity modules were significantly preserved in both replication cohorts (permutation P = 9.999E-05). The corresponding module gene sets were significantly enriched for differential expression in subjects with obesity in both replication cohorts (each P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The gene coexpression network profiles thus implicate multiple interrelated pathways in the biology of an important endotype of asthma with obesity.

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