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1.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; : 20764021999695, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between migration and mental health is complex and involves factors at different levels, as the individual history of the migrant, the collective history of their home country, the host society's and their mutual past history. Even though the migratory scenario of France and Brazil has changed over the years, both countries currently host an important number of immigrants. AIM: The main objective of the present study was to describe and analyze the impacts of the migratory experience on mental health of migrants with different migration experiences and living in two countries: France and Brazil. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 participants, six in France and seven in Brazil. A thematic qualitative analysis of the data was performed using the ATLAS.TI software. Three themes were created based on the different times of the migration experience: before migration, during migration and after migration. All codes of these three bigger themes were organized in sub-themes for the samples in France and Brazil. RESULTS: Participants in France described an important exposure to traumatic events before and during migration. In Brazil, the migration experiences were multiple, in some cases presenting a traumatic history, but in most cases migration was seen as an opportunity to have access to better life conditions. In both countries, participants reported a great level of psychological distress associated to post-migratory difficulties (e.g. unemployment, learning a new language, or facing a new cultural environment). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that multidisciplinary interventions, with focus on skills development, such as language and work-related skills, and on access to basic needs may be essential for both voluntary and involuntary migrants. In addition to these interventions, some individuals may need specialized mental health intervention, focusing in past traumatic exposure and in the current acculturation process.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245261, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465121

RESUMO

We investigated what degree of risk of infection with COVID-19 is necessary so that people intend to stay home, even when doing so means losing their salary. We conducted an online survey across Brazil during the initial outbreak, in which 8,345 participants answered a questionnaire designed to identify the maximum tolerated risk (k') necessary for them to disregard social distancing recommendations and guarantee their salaries. Generalized linear mixed models, path analysis structural equation, and conditional interference classification tree were performed to further understand how sociodemographic factors impact k' and to establish a predictive model for the risk behavior of leaving home during the pandemic. We found that, on average, people tolerate 38% risk of infection to leave home and earn a full salary, but this number decreased to 13% when the individual risk perception of becoming ill from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 is considered. Furthermore, participants who have a medium-to-high household income and who are older than 35 years are more likely to be part of the risk-taking group who leave home regardless of the potential COVID-19 infection level; while participants over 45 years old and with good financial health are more likely to be part of the risk-averse group, who stay home at the expense of any salary offered. Our findings add to the political and public debate concerning lockdown strategies by showing that, contrary to supposition, people with low socioeconomic status are not more likely to ignore social distancing recommendations due to personal economic matters.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Assunção de Riscos , Trabalho/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Brasil , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quarentena/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Stress ; 23(5): 546-555, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701783

RESUMO

Youths who experience multiple forms of victimization are at a heightened risk for psychopathology across the lifespan. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a key target for the investigation of neurobiological changes induced by chronic stress and violence exposure. The measurement of hair cortisol concentration allows the investigation of long-term HPA activity and its association with victimization. The present study investigated the impact of exposure to polyvictimization in Latin-American children and adolescents on hair cortisol levels. We investigated association among cortisol, mental health problems and victimization. The study included 83 youths (mean age 10.84 years-old) from southern Brazil. We assessed self-reported victimization scores (Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire - JVQ-R2), mental health problems (Child Behavior Checklist - CBCL/6-18), and hair cortisol concentrations for the previous 30 days. The results showed an association between exposure to multiple forms of victimization and higher concentrations of hair cortisol; the results also showed that cortisol levels and mental health problems were associated with the severity of polyvictimization. These findings suggest that preadolescent victimization is associated with hyperactivation of HPA axis and with increased risk of mental health issues.

4.
Appl Neuropsychol Child ; 9(1): 1-12, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30295547

RESUMO

There is evidence of an association between childhood maltreatment and lifelong cognitive impairment. Few studies investigate cognitive functioning in maltreated children. The objective of this study was to investigate whether there are differences in executive processing between maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Additionally, clinical symptoms were compared between groups and possible associations between clinical symptoms, and deficits in executive functions were investigated. The sample consisted of 55 children (8-12 years), 30 with a history of maltreatment and 25 with no history of maltreatment. An interview was conducted with the child's legal guardian and instruments were administered: Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), and Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS). The following clinical instruments were administered to the children: JVQ, Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC), and Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Children underwent neuropsychological assessment. Data were analyzed by comparing the groups for clinical and cognitive variables. Differences were found between the groups in all executive functions. Most clinical symptomatology scales showed differences between the groups. Few associations were found between clinical and executive impairment profiles. Cognitive stimulation interventions, focused on inhibitory control, should be proposed in combination with psychotherapy.


Assuntos
Sintomas Comportamentais/fisiopatologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Inibição Psicológica , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 41(4): 409-414, Oct.-Dez. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1059176

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction Experiencing trauma may entail psychopathological consequences, but also changes considered to be positive (i.e., posttraumatic growth). For positive change to occur, an impact on the beliefs of individuals is required, which may be measured through the Core Beliefs Inventory (CBI). The objective of this study was to validate the Brazilian Portuguese version of the CBI. Methods A total of 248 university students (65.7% female) answered the following assessment instruments: sociodemographic data sheet, Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI), Posttraumatic Symptoms Checklist - Clinician Version (PCL-5) and the CBI. Psychometric properties of the CBI were assessed by conducting an exploratory factor analysis through a principal component analysis with varimax rotation. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α) and convergent validity (Pearson correlation between instruments) were also investigated. Results The total scale showed adequate internal consistency (α = 0.83). A single factor solution explained 42.63% of the variance of the CBI. Significant correlations were found between CBI and PTGI, and between CBI and PCL-5. Conclusion The psychometric properties indicated adequate internal consistency and construct validity of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the CBI.


Resumo Introdução Experimentar um trauma pode levar a consequências psicopatológicas, mas também a alterações consideradas positivas (ou seja, crescimento pós-traumático). Para que mudanças positivas ocorram é necessário um impacto nas crenças dos indivíduos, o que pode ser medido através do Core Beliefs Inventory (CBI). O objetivo deste estudo foi validar a versão em português do Brasil do CBI. Métodos Um total de 248 universitários (65,7% mulheres) responderam aos seguintes instrumentos de avaliação: ficha sociodemográfica, Inventário de Crescimento Pós-Traumático (Posttraumatic Growth Inventory - PTGI), Lista de Verificação de Sintomas Pós-Traumáticos - Versão Clínica (Posttraumatic Symptoms Checklist - Clinician Version - PCL-5) e CBI. As propriedades psicométricas do CBI foram avaliadas a partir de análise fatorial exploratória através de análise de componentes principais com rotação varimax. A consistência interna (α de Cronbach) e a validade convergente (correlação de Pearson entre os instrumentos) também foram investigadas. Resultados A escala total apresentou consistência interna adequada (α = 0,83). Uma solução de fator único explicou 42,63% da variação do CBI. Correlações significativas foram encontradas entre CBI e PTGI e entre CBI e PCL-5. Conclusão As propriedades psicométricas indicaram consistência interna adequada e validade de construto da versão em português do Brasil do CBI.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Testes Psicológicos , Crescimento Psicológico Pós-Traumático , Psicometria , Brasil , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 137(3): 270-277, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The most recent editions of diagnostic manuals have proposed important modifications in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) criteria. The International Trauma Questionnaire (ITQ) is the gold-standard measurement for assessing PTSD and complex PTSD in accordance with the model of the 11th International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to adapt the ITQ for the Brazilian context. DESIGN AND SETTING: The translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the ITQ for use in Brazilian Portuguese was performed in trauma research facilities in Porto Alegre, Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte, Brazil. METHODS: The adaptation followed five steps: (1) translation; (2) committee synthesis; (3) experts' evaluation through the content validity index (CVI) and assessment of interrater agreement though kappa statistics; (4) comprehension test with clinical and community samples (n = 35); and (5) final back-translation and authors' evaluation. RESULTS: Two independent translations were conducted. While working on a synthesis of these translations, the committee proposed changes in six items to adapt idiomatic expressions or to achieve a more accurate technical fit. Both the expert judges' evaluation (CVI > 0.7; k > 0.55) and the pretest in the target population (mean comprehension > 3) indicated that the adapted items were adequate and comprehensible. The final back-translation was approved by the authors of the original instrument. CONCLUSION: ITQ in its Brazilian Portuguese version achieved satisfactory content validity, thus providing a tool for Brazilian research based on PTSD models of the ICD-11.


Assuntos
Dor nas Costas/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Características Culturais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Traduções
7.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(3): 270-277, May-June 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020954

RESUMO

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The most recent editions of diagnostic manuals have proposed important modifications in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) criteria. The International Trauma Questionnaire (ITQ) is the gold-standard measurement for assessing PTSD and complex PTSD in accordance with the model of the 11th International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to adapt the ITQ for the Brazilian context. DESIGN AND SETTING: The translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the ITQ for use in Brazilian Portuguese was performed in trauma research facilities in Porto Alegre, Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte, Brazil. METHODS: The adaptation followed five steps: (1) translation; (2) committee synthesis; (3) experts' evaluation through the content validity index (CVI) and assessment of interrater agreement though kappa statistics; (4) comprehension test with clinical and community samples (n = 35); and (5) final back-translation and authors' evaluation. RESULTS: Two independent translations were conducted. While working on a synthesis of these translations, the committee proposed changes in six items to adapt idiomatic expressions or to achieve a more accurate technical fit. Both the expert judges' evaluation (CVI > 0.7; k > 0.55) and the pretest in the target population (mean comprehension > 3) indicated that the adapted items were adequate and comprehensible. The final back-translation was approved by the authors of the original instrument. CONCLUSION: ITQ in its Brazilian Portuguese version achieved satisfactory content validity, thus providing a tool for Brazilian research based on PTSD models of the ICD-11.

8.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 41(4): 409-414, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967200

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Experiencing trauma may entail psychopathological consequences, but also changes considered to be positive (i.e., posttraumatic growth). For positive change to occur, an impact on the beliefs of individuals is required, which may be measured through the Core Beliefs Inventory (CBI). The objective of this study was to validate the Brazilian Portuguese version of the CBI. METHODS: A total of 248 university students (65.7% female) answered the following assessment instruments: sociodemographic data sheet, Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI), Posttraumatic Symptoms Checklist - Clinician Version (PCL-5) and the CBI. Psychometric properties of the CBI were assessed by conducting an exploratory factor analysis through a principal component analysis with varimax rotation. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α) and convergent validity (Pearson correlation between instruments) were also investigated. RESULTS: The total scale showed adequate internal consistency (α = 0.83). A single factor solution explained 42.63% of the variance of the CBI. Significant correlations were found between CBI and PTGI, and between CBI and PCL-5. CONCLUSION: The psychometric properties indicated adequate internal consistency and construct validity of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the CBI.


Assuntos
Crescimento Psicológico Pós-Traumático , Testes Psicológicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 40(4): 292-299, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30570101

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI). METHOD: A total of 300 university students were evaluated though instruments that investigated trauma history, depression and posttraumatic symptoms, and personality traits through the Big Five model. Pearson's correlation was used to assess internal consistency, inter-item reliability and construct validity. Principal component analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were performed to investigate the factor structure of the PTGI. RESULTS: Results confirmed the original five-factor structure. The results showed good internal consistency for the total scale (α = 0.91) and its subscales, ranging from α = 0.85 to α = 0.70. Also, evidence of construct and convergent validity was observed through correlations with posttraumatic and depression symptoms and personality measures. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary results suggest that the Brazilian PTGI is reliable and showed adequate evidence of validity.


Assuntos
Crescimento Psicológico Pós-Traumático , Testes Psicológicos , Brasil , Depressão/diagnóstico , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidade , Análise de Componente Principal , Psicometria , Autorrelato , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
10.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 40(4): 292-299, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-979435

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: To examine psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI). Method: A total of 300 university students were evaluated though instruments that investigated trauma history, depression and posttraumatic symptoms, and personality traits through the Big Five model. Pearson's correlation was used to assess internal consistency, inter-item reliability and construct validity. Principal component analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were performed to investigate the factor structure of the PTGI. Results: Results confirmed the original five-factor structure. The results showed good internal consistency for the total scale (α = 0.91) and its subscales, ranging from α = 0.85 to α = 0.70. Also, evidence of construct and convergent validity was observed through correlations with posttraumatic and depression symptoms and personality measures. Conclusions: These preliminary results suggest that the Brazilian PTGI is reliable and showed adequate evidence of validity.


Resumo Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo é examinar as propriedades psicométricas da versão brasileira do Inventário de Crescimento Pós-Traumático (Posttraumatic Growth Inventory - PTGI). Método: Foram avaliados 300 estudantes universitários através de instrumentos que investigaram histórico de trauma, sintomas pós-traumáticos e de depressão e traços de personalidade através do modelo Big Five. A correlação de Pearson foi utilizada para investigar consistência interna, confiabilidade entre itens e procedimentos de validade de construto. Análise de componentes principais e análise de fatores confirmatórios foram realizadas para investigar a estrutura fatorial do PTGI. Resultados: Os resultados confirmaram a estrutura original de cinco fatores. Os resultados mostraram boa consistência interna para a escala total (α = 0.91) e suas subescalas, variando de α = 0.85 a α = 0.70. Além disso, evidências de validade de construto e convergente foram observadas através de correlações com sintomas pós-traumáticos e de depressão e medidas de personalidade. Conclusões: Os resultados preliminares sugerem que o PTGI brasileiro é confiável e apresentou evidência de validade adequada.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Testes Psicológicos , Crescimento Psicológico Pós-Traumático , Personalidade , Psicometria , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Brasil , Análise Fatorial , Análise de Componente Principal , Depressão/diagnóstico , Autorrelato
11.
Trends Psychol ; 26(3): 1467-1482, jul.-set. 2018. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-963083

RESUMO

Resumo Este estudo avaliou a capacidade discriminante de indicadores psicológicos e comportamentais frequentemente associados ao abuso sexual infantil. A amostra foi constituída por 79 crianças, de ambos os sexos, sendo 63,3% do sexo feminino (n = 50), com idades entre oito e 12 anos (M = 9,92; DP = 1,45). Os participantes foram distribuídos em três grupos: Abuso sexual (n = 34), Maus-tratos sem histórico de abuso sexual (n = 14) e Sintomas clínicos sem histórico de maus-tratos (n = 31). Foram administrados instrumentos com os responsáveis e com as crianças. Para identificar os fatores que diferenciavam os grupos, foi realizada a Análise de regressão logística multinominal. A variável Preocupações sexuais foi significativa para diferenciar o grupo Abuso sexual dos outros dois grupos. O modelo apresentou capacidade preditiva geral de classificar corretamente 69,6% dos casos. Sugere-se que a investigação dessa variável seja incluída, entre outros indicadores, nos procedimentos periciais de crianças com suspeita de abuso sexual. Com base nos resultados obtidos, fica evidente que é necessário cautela no estabelecimento de associações causais entre manifestações comportamentais ou psicológicas e a hipótese de abuso sexual em crianças.


Resumen Este estudio evaluó la capacidad discriminante de indicadores psicológicos y conductuales frecuentemente asociados al abuso sexual infantil. La muestra fue constituida por 79 niños, de ambos sexos, siendo 63,3% do sexo femenino (n = 50), com edades entre ocho y 12 años (M = 9,92; DE = 1,45). Los participantes fueron distribuidos en tres grupos: Abuso sexual (n = 34), Malos tratos sin antecedentes de abuso sexual (n = 14) y Sintomas clínicos sin antecedentes de maltrato (n = 31). Se han administrados instrumentos con los responsables y los niños. Para identificar los factores que diferenciaban a los grupos, se realizó el Análisis de regresión logística multinominal. La variable Preocupaciones sexuales apareció como significativa para diferenciar el grupo Abuso sexual de los otros dos grupos. El modelo presentó la capacidad preditiva general de clasificar correctamente 69,6% de los casos. Se sugerie la inclusión de esta variable, entre otros indicadores, en la evaluación del abuso sexual infantil. En base a los resultados obtenidos, es evidente que es necesario cautela en el establecimiento de asociaciones causales entre manifestaciones comportamentales o psicológicas y la hipótesis de abuso sexual infantil.


Abstract This study evaluated the discriminative ability of behavioral and psychological indicators often associated with child sexual abuse. The sample consisted of 79 children of both genders, 63.3% being female (n = 50), aged between 8 and 12 years (M = 9.92, SD = 1.45). Participants were assigned to three groups: Sexual abuse (n = 34), Maltreatment with no history of sexual abuse (n = 14) and Clinical symptoms with no history of abuse or other traumatic events (n = 31). Assessment measures were administered with the legal guardians and with the children. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was conducted aiming to identify factors for differentiation of the groups. The TSCC Sexual concerns variable emerged as significant in differentiating the Sexual abuse group from both the Maltreatment and Clinical symptoms groups. The model showed overall predictive ability to accurately classify 69.6% of the cases. The investigation of this variable should be included, among other indicators, in forensic procedures for children with suspected sexual abuse. Based on the results, it becomes clear that caution is required in establishing causal relationships between behavioral or psychological manifestations and the hypothesis of child sexual abuse.

12.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 40(2): 160-169, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29995160

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ) was developed to measure nine cognitive strategies referring to what someone thinks after the experience of threatening or stressful events. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of the Brazilian version of the CERQ. METHODS: The adaptation process included translation, backtranslation, expert committee evaluation, and test on 30 participants from the target population. A sample of 445 university students completed the Portuguese version of the CERQ, a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Life Events Checklist (LEC-5), and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) on an on-line research platform. Validity was assessed through confirmatory factor analysis of two models - a nine-factor model and a second-order model. Internal consistency was assessed through Cronbach's alpha analysis and correlations with affective variables measured by the PANAS. RESULTS: The analyses showed that the nine-factor model of the CERQ has good factorial validity and high reliability, with Cronbach's alpha values ranging between 0.71 and 0.88. The second-order model did not have a good fit to the data. CONCLUSION: The results obtained in this study are similar to the ones found previously, indicating that the Brazilian version of the CERQ is a valid and reliable tool for assessing cognitive emotion regulation strategies, but that grouping them according to their adaptability is not recommended.


Assuntos
Inteligência Emocional , Testes Psicológicos , Autocontrole , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adaptação Psicológica , Cognição , Emoções , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pensamento , Tradução , Adulto Jovem
13.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 40(2): 160-169, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-963090

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: The Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ) was developed to measure nine cognitive strategies referring to what someone thinks after the experience of threatening or stressful events. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of the Brazilian version of the CERQ. Methods: The adaptation process included translation, backtranslation, expert committee evaluation, and test on 30 participants from the target population. A sample of 445 university students completed the Portuguese version of the CERQ, a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Life Events Checklist (LEC-5), and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) on an on-line research platform. Validity was assessed through confirmatory factor analysis of two models - a nine-factor model and a second-order model. Internal consistency was assessed through Cronbach's alpha analysis and correlations with affective variables measured by the PANAS. Results: The analyses showed that the nine-factor model of the CERQ has good factorial validity and high reliability, with Cronbach's alpha values ranging between 0.71 and 0.88. The second-order model did not have a good fit to the data. Conclusion: The results obtained in this study are similar to the ones found previously, indicating that the Brazilian version of the CERQ is a valid and reliable tool for assessing cognitive emotion regulation strategies, but that grouping them according to their adaptability is not recommended.


Resumo Introdução: O Questionário de Regulação Emocional Cognitiva (Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire [CERQ]) foi desenvolvido para medir nove estratégias cognitivas que se referem à forma como as pessoas pensam sobre a experiência de eventos ameaçadores ou estressantes. O objetivo principal deste estudo foi desenvolver e avaliar a validade da versão brasileira do CERQ. Métodos: O processo de adaptação incluiu tradução, retrotradução, avaliação de comitê de especialistas e teste em 30 participantes da população-alvo. Uma amostra de 445 universitários completou a versão em português do CERQ, um questionário sociodemográfico, a Lista de Verificação de Eventos de Vida (Life Events Checklist [LEC-5]) e a Escala de Afeto Positivo e Negativo (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule [PANAS]) em uma plataforma de pesquisa online. A validade do instrumento foi avaliada através da análise fatorial confirmatória de dois modelos: um modelo de nove fatores e um modelo de segunda ordem. A consistência interna foi avaliada por meio da análise de alfa de Cronbach e correlações com variáveis afetivas medidas pela PANAS. Resultados: As análises mostraram que o modelo de nove fatores do CERQ possui boa validade fatorial e alta confiabilidade, com valores de alfa de Cronbach variando entre 0,71 e 0,88. O modelo de segunda ordem não se ajustou bem aos dados. Conclusão: Os resultados obtidos neste estudo são semelhantes aos encontrados em estudos anteriores, indicando que o CERQ é uma ferramenta válida e confiável para avaliar as estratégias de regulação cognitiva das emoções, mas que agrupá-las de acordo com sua adaptabilidade não é recomendado.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Testes Psicológicos , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Inteligência Emocional , Autocontrole , Psicometria , Pensamento , Tradução , Adaptação Psicológica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise Fatorial , Cognição , Emoções
14.
Rev. Bras. Psicoter. (Online) ; 20(1): 81-94, 2018.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1051219

RESUMO

As técnicas de exposição foram as mais desenvolvidas no estudo do tratamento do Transtorno de Estresse Pós-Traumático nos últimos anos. Porém, exposições ao vivo e através da imaginação apresentam importantes limitações, como a impossibilidade de expor o indivíduo a determinados eventos, dificuldade de acesso emocional às memórias traumáticas e importantes taxas de desistência durante o tratamento. A Terapia de Exposição Virtual tem se mostrado eficaz no tratamento do Transtorno de Estresse Pós-Traumático, mas apresenta desafios para sua operacionalização. Esta revisão se propôs a avaliar as vantagens e desvantagens do uso da Terapia de Exposição Virtual para o Transtorno de Estresse Pós-Traumático. Foram encontradas vantagens em relação à motivação para o tratamento, capacidade de engajamento emocional e controle do terapeuta sobre os estímulos associados ao trauma.Os custos e a necessidade de especialistas em programação são desvantagens importantes. São encontradas também contra indicações médicas e psiquiátricas.Os avanços tecnológicos têm diminuído desvantagens facilitando o uso e a criação de novos cenários virtuais, porém,sem eliminá-las por completo. (AU)


Exposure procedures were the most developed techniques in the study of treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in recent years. Nonetheless, imaginary and in vivo exposures present important limitations, such as the impossibility of exposing individuals to certain type of events, the difficulty in accessing emotions related to the traumatic memories and elevated dropoutrates during treatment. The Virtual Exposure Therapy has proven to be effective in the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder treatment, however there are challenges to its implementation. This review aims at evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of the use of Virtual Exposure Therapy in the treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Results lead to conclusions that Virtual Exposure Therapy has advantagesregarding motivation fortreatment, emotional engagement, and therapist's control over the stimuli associated to the trauma. The costs and the need for programming experts are major disadvantages. There are also medical and psychiatric contraindications. Technological advances facilitate the use and creation of new virtual scenarios, reducing the disadvantages but without eliminating them. (AU)


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático
15.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 39(3): 188-195, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28977074

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe normative data for the Hayling Test and the Trail Making Test (TMT) in a sample of Brazilian adults, and to investigate the effects of age and education on test performance. METHOD: A total of 313 (TMT) and 364 (Hayling) individuals with age ranges of 19-39, 40-59, and 60-75 years, and with at least 5 years of formal education, participated in this study. The tests were administered as part of a large battery of a normative project. Individuals were evaluated individually in silent, ventilated rooms at a university clinic. Instrument protocols were scored by trained research assistants and double-checked to ensure data reliability. RESULTS: There were major effects of age on the TMT (Time B, Errors B, B-A) and on the Hayling Test (Errors B/15, B/45), and major effects of education on the TMT (Time B, Errors B, B-A) and on the Hayling Test (Time A, Errors B/15, B/45). Interaction effects were found in Time B and B-A for the Hayling Test and in Time A for the TMT. CONCLUSIONS: Age and education were critical for performance on both verbal and non-verbal executive functions.


Assuntos
Teste de Sequência Alfanumérica , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Brasil , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Adulto Jovem
16.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 39(3): 188-195, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-904582

RESUMO

Abstract Objectives To describe normative data for the Hayling Test and the Trail Making Test (TMT) in a sample of Brazilian adults, and to investigate the effects of age and education on test performance. Method A total of 313 (TMT) and 364 (Hayling) individuals with age ranges of 19-39, 40-59, and 60-75 years, and with at least 5 years of formal education, participated in this study. The tests were administered as part of a large battery of a normative project. Individuals were evaluated individually in silent, ventilated rooms at a university clinic. Instrument protocols were scored by trained research assistants and double-checked to ensure data reliability. Results There were major effects of age on the TMT (Time B, Errors B, B-A) and on the Hayling Test (Errors B/15, B/45), and major effects of education on the TMT (Time B, Errors B, B-A) and on the Hayling Test (Time A, Errors B/15, B/45). Interaction effects were found in Time B and B-A for the Hayling Test and in Time A for the TMT. Conclusions Age and education were critical for performance on both verbal and non-verbal executive functions.


Resumo Objetivos Descrever dados normativos do Teste Hayling e do Teste de Trilhas em uma amostra de adultos brasileiros e investigar os efeitos de idade e escolaridade no desempenho das tarefas. Método Participaram deste estudo um total de 313 (TMT) e 364 (Hayling) indivíduos com idades nos intervalos de 19-39, 40-59 e 60-75 anos e com pelo menos 5 anos de escolaridade formal. Os testes foram administrados como parte de uma bateria maior de um projeto de normatização. Os indivíduos foram avaliados individualmente em salas silenciosas e ventiladas em uma clínica universitária. As pontuações dos protocolos foram realizadas por assistentes de pesquisa treinados e foram checadas duplamente para garantir a fidedignidade dos dados. Resultados Foram encontrados efeitos principais de idade no TMT (Tempo B, Erros B e Tempo B-A) e no Teste Hayling (Erros B/15 e B/45), e efeitos principais de educação no TMT (Tempo B, Erros B e Tempo B-A) e no Teste Hayling (Tempo A, Erros B/15 e B/45). Foram encontrados efeitos de interação entre variáveis nos Tempos B e B-A do Teste Hayling e no Tempo A do TMT. Conclusões Idade e escolaridade foram fatores críticos para o desempenho em ambos os testes verbal e não-verbal de avaliação das funções executivas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Teste de Sequência Alfanumérica , Valores de Referência , Brasil , Fatores Etários , Escolaridade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 38(4): 207-215, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-846389

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: To describe the process of cross-cultural adaptation of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist 5 (PCL-5) and the Life Events Checklist 5 (LEC-5) for the Brazilian sociolinguistic context. Method: The adaptation process sought to establish conceptual, semantic, and operational equivalence between the original items of the questionnaire and their translated versions, following standardized protocols. Initially, two researchers translated the original version of the scale into Brazilian Portuguese. Next, a native English speaker performed the back-translation. Quantitative and qualitative criteria were used to evaluate the intelligibility of items. Five specialists compared the original and translated versions and assessed the degree of equivalence between them in terms of semantic, idiomatic, cultural and conceptual aspects. The degree of agreement between the specialists was measured using the content validity coefficient (CVC). Finally, 28 volunteers from the target population were interviewed in order to assess their level of comprehension of the items. Results: CVCs for items from both scales were satisfactory for all criteria. The mean comprehension scores were above the cutoff point established. Overall, the results showed that the adapted versions' items had adequate rates of equivalence in terms of concepts and semantics. Conclusions: The translation and adaptation processes were successful for both scales, resulting in versions that are not only equivalent to the originals, but are also intelligible for the population at large.


Resumo Objetivo: Descrever o processo de adaptação transcultural das escalas Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist 5 (PCL-5) e Life Events Checklist 5 (LEC-5) para o contexto sociolinguístico brasileiro. Método: A adaptação das escalas buscou estabelecer a equivalência conceitual, semântica e operacional entre os itens originais das escalas e suas versões traduzidas, por meio de um protocolo padronizado. Inicialmente, dois pesquisadores traduziram as versões originais para o português. Na sequência, um falante nativo de língua inglesa realizou a tradução reversa. A inteligibilidade dos itens foi analisada por meio de critérios quantitativos e qualitativos. Cinco especialistas compararam as versões originais e traduzidas e avaliaram o grau de equivalência entre elas nos quesitos semântico, idiomático, cultural e conceitual. O grau de concordância entre os especialistas foi medido pelo coeficiente de validade de conteúdo (CVC). Por fim, 28 voluntários da população-alvo foram entrevistados para verificar o nível de compreensão dos itens. Resultados: Os itens das duas escalas apresentaram CVCs satisfatórios em todos os quesitos. Os escores médios referentes ao grau de compreensão dos itens foram acima do ponto de corte estabelecido. No conjunto, os resultados indicaram índices adequados de equivalência conceitual e semântica para os itens das versões adaptadas. Conclusão: O processo de tradução e adaptação foi bem-sucedido para as duas escalas, resultando em versões não apenas equivalentes às originais, mas também compreensíveis para a população-alvo em geral.


Assuntos
Humanos , Testes Psicológicos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Lista de Checagem , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Semântica , Tradução , Brasil , Comparação Transcultural
18.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 38(3): 119-127, July-Sept. 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-796272

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a highly prevalent disorder with important social consequences. Several models have been developed with the aim of understanding the mechanisms underlying its symptoms. Intrusions are idiosyncratic symptoms that commonly take the form of involuntary recollection of images or flashbacks about the traumatic event. Objective: To review how memory is conceptualized in each of these models and the implications for clinical practice. Methods: A narrative review of the literature was conducted through analysis of the perspectives of memory in theoretical models of PTSD. Results: Two main perspectives were identified: 1) models in which specific mechanisms of memory for processing traumatic events are proposed, especially those based on clinical studies, and 2) models in which common mnemonic mechanisms are utilized to explain the phenomenon, primarily based on basic experimental research studies investigating memory. The different theories based on these approaches have led to distinct psychotherapy interventions. Conclusion: In order to clarify these discrepancies, future research should aim for the methodological rigor of experimental studies, while maintaining the ecological applicability of findings. Cognitive experimental psychopathology is therefore an area on which research funding should be focused. Such studies could elucidate the role of mnemonic aspects in PTSD and how they impact psychological treatments.


Resumo Introdução: O transtorno de estresse pós-traumático (TEPT) é altamente prevalente e traz consequências sociais importantes. Diversos modelos foram desenvolvidos com o objetivo de compreender os mecanismos subjacentes aos seus sintomas. Intrusões constituem sintomas idiossincráticos, que regularmente tomam a forma de lembranças involuntárias de imagens ou flashbacks do evento traumático. Objetivo: Revisar como a memória é definida conceitualmente nos modelos teóricos propostos e as implicações para a prática clínica. Métodos: Uma revisão narrativa da literatura foi conduzida através da análise das perspectivas de memória em modelos teóricos de TEPT. Resultados: Duas perspectivas principais foram identificadas: 1) modelos com a proposição de mecanismos de memória específicos ao processamento de eventos traumáticos, especialmente apoiados em estudos clínicos, e 2) modelos em que mecanismos mnemônicos comuns são utilizados para explicar o fenômeno, primariamente baseados em estudos experimentais de base investigando memória. As diferentes teorias baseadas nessas perspectivas levaram a distintas abordagens psicoterapêuticas. Conclusões: Para clarificar essas discrepâncias, sugere-se que pesquisas futuras busquem maior rigor metodológico de estudos experimentais, mantendo a aplicabilidade ecológica dos achados. A psicopatologia cognitiva experimental é uma área na qual devem ser focados os financiamentos de pesquisa. Tais estudos podem elucidar o papel de aspectos mnemônicos no TEPT e como impactam tratamentos psicológicos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Memória , Psicoterapia/métodos , Modelos Psicológicos
19.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 38(3): 119-127, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27355891

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a highly prevalent disorder with important social consequences. Several models have been developed with the aim of understanding the mechanisms underlying its symptoms. Intrusions are idiosyncratic symptoms that commonly take the form of involuntary recollection of images or flashbacks about the traumatic event. OBJECTIVE: To review how memory is conceptualized in each of these models and the implications for clinical practice. METHODS: A narrative review of the literature was conducted through analysis of the perspectives of memory in theoretical models of PTSD. RESULTS: Two main perspectives were identified: 1) models in which specific mechanisms of memory for processing traumatic events are proposed, especially those based on clinical studies, and 2) models in which common mnemonic mechanisms are utilized to explain the phenomenon, primarily based on basic experimental research studies investigating memory. The different theories based on these approaches have led to distinct psychotherapy interventions. CONCLUSION: In order to clarify these discrepancies, future research should aim for the methodological rigor of experimental studies, while maintaining the ecological applicability of findings. Cognitive experimental psychopathology is therefore an area on which research funding should be focused. Such studies could elucidate the role of mnemonic aspects in PTSD and how they impact psychological treatments.


Assuntos
Memória , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Psicoterapia/métodos
20.
Temas psicol. (Online) ; 24(2): 533-547, jun. 2016. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: psi-68487

RESUMO

INTRODUÇÃO: Embora a Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental (TCC) possua evidências que demonstram sua efetividade para o tratamento de Transtornos Relacionados ao Trauma e Estresse, alguns casos específicos apresentam baixa resposta. Tais casos estão associados à exposição recorrente a eventos traumáticos, de natureza interpessoal, durante a infância. Apesar de não haver consenso sobre a nomeação destes quadros clínicos, é possível que estejam associados ao diagnóstico de Trauma Complexo (TC). OBJETIVO: Este estudo objetivou revisar sistematicamente evidências sobre os efeitos da TCC para TC. MÉTODO: Realizou-se buscas no MEDLINE, Embase e ISI Web of Science. Artigos com desenho de estudo clínico randomizado, estudo clínico não randomizado e estudos não controlados com intervenções em TCC para TC foram incluídos. Apenas estudos com avaliações pré e pós-intervenção foram elegíveis. RESULTADOS: Identificou-se 369 estudos sendo 7 elegíveis para esta revisão. As intervenções abordaram vários sintomas envolvidos na proposta para diagnóstico de TC, incluindo sintomas pós-traumático, depressivos, de ansiedade e regulação emocional. CONCLUSÃO: Os artigos revisados demonstraram que intervenções terapêuticas, independente da natureza, possuem efeitos ao longo do tempo sobre sintomas de TC. A TCC revelou-se superior em comparação ao tratamento controle, sendo que tanto TCC em grupo como individual revelaram-se capazes de reduzir os sintomas de TC.(AU)


INTRODUCTION: Although Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) has been shown effectiveness for treating posttraumatic stress disorders, there are some difficults regarding specfic cases. This cases are usually associated with a history of recurrent and prolonged exposure to traumatic events during the childhood. Since there is no consensus concerning the appointment of these clinical conditions, it is suggested that such cases could represent the diagnosis of Complex Trauma (CT). OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate, through a systematic review, the efficacy of CBT for CT. METHOD: The searches were conducted in Pubmed, Embase and ISI Web of Science. Articles that described randomized controlled, non-randomized controlled and non-controlled studies which had interventions based on CBT for CT symptoms were included. RESULTS: The search identified 369 studies, and 7 were selected. The focus of CBT interventions comprised a variety of symptoms that have been proposed for the CT diagnosis, including posttraumatic and depressive symptoms, anxiety and emotional regulation. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that therapeutic interventions, regardless of type, have an effect over time on CT symptoms. CBT was more efficient compared to the control treatments. Both individual and group CBT were able to reduce CT symptoms.(AU)


INTRODUCCIÓN: A pesar de la Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual (TCC) tiener un cuerpo de evidencia que demuestra la eficacia para el tratamiento de desórdenes de estrés y trauma, algunos casos específicos tienen una baja respuesta. Estos casos están asociados con la exposición repetida a los acontecimientos traumáticos, de carácter interpersonal, durante la infancia. Aunque no existe un consenso en cuanto a la designación de estos cuadros clínicos, es posible que se asocie con un diagnóstico llamado Trauma Complejo (TC). META: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar, a través de la revisión sistemática, estudios sobre los efectos de las intervenciones en la TCC para el TC. MÉTODO: Se realizaron búsquedas en MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science. Se incluyeron los artículos con diseño aleatorio estudio clínico, estudio clínico no aleatorizado y estudios no controlados con intervenciones en la TCC para la CT. Sólo los estudios con pre y post-intervención fueron elegibles. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 369 estudios y son 7 electos para esta revisión. Las intervenciones discutieron diversos síntomas de TC, incluyendo los síntomas postraumáticos, depresivo, de ansiedad y regulación emocional. CONCLUSIÓN: Artículos revisados han demostrado que las intervenciones terapéuticas, independientemente de la naturaleza, tienen un efecto en el tiempo de los síntomas de la CT. La TCC ha demostrado ser superior en comparación con el tratamiento control. Tanto la TCC individual y grupal demostró ser capaz de reducir los síntomas de TC.(AU)


Assuntos
Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia
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