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1.
Acta Oncol ; : 1-8, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208873

RESUMO

Background: In precision cancer medicine, the challenge is to prioritize DNA driver events, account for resistance markers, and procure sufficient information for treatment that maintains patient safety. The MetAction project, exploring how tumor molecular vulnerabilities predict therapy response, first established the required workflow for DNA sequencing and data interpretation (2014-2015). Here, we employed it to identify molecularly matched therapy and recorded outcome in end-stage cancer (2016-2019).Material and methods: Metastatic tissue from 26 patients (16 colorectal cancer cases) was sequenced by the Oncomine assay. The study tumor boards interpreted called variants with respect to sensitivity or resistance to matched therapy and recommended single-agent or combination treatment if considered tolerable. The primary endpoint was the rate of progression-free survival 1.3-fold longer than for the most recent systemic therapy. The objective response rate and overall survival were secondary endpoints.Results: Both common and rare actionable alterations were identified. Thirteen patients were found eligible for therapy following review of tumor sensitivity and resistance variants and patient tolerability. The interventions were inhibitors of ALK/ROS1-, BRAF-, EGFR-, FGFR-, mTOR-, PARP-, or PD-1-mediated signaling for 2-3 cases each. Among 10 patients who received treatment until radiologic evaluation, 6 (46% of the eligible cases) met the primary endpoint. Four colorectal cancer patients (15% of the total study cohort) had objective response. The only serious adverse event was a transient colitis, which appeared in 1 of the 2 patients given PD-1 inhibitor with complete response. Apart from those two, overall survival was similar for patients who did and did not receive study treatment.Conclusions: The systematic MetAction approach may point forward to a refined framework for how to interpret the complexity of sensitivity versus resistance and patient safety that resides in tumor sequence data, for the possibly improved outcome of precision cancer medicine in future studies. ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT02142036.

2.
Bioinformatics ; 36(4): 994-999, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529022

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Breast cancer consists of multiple distinct tumor subtypes, and results from epigenetic and genetic aberrations that give rise to distinct transcriptional profiles. Despite previous efforts to understand transcriptional deregulation through transcription factor networks, the transcriptional mechanisms leading to subtypes of the disease remain poorly understood. RESULTS: We used a sophisticated computational search of thousands of expression datasets to define extended signatures of distinct breast cancer subtypes. Using ENCODE ChIP-seq data of surrogate cell lines and motif analysis we observed that these subtypes are determined by a distinct repertoire of lineage-specific transcription factors. Furthermore, specific pattern and abundance of copy number and DNA methylation changes at these TFs and targets, compared to other genes and to normal cells were observed. Overall, distinct transcriptional profiles are linked to genetic and epigenetic alterations at lineage-specific transcriptional regulators in breast cancer subtypes. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: The analysis code and data are deposited at https://bitbucket.org/qzhu/breast.cancer.tf/. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 146(1): 223-235, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444972

RESUMO

Angiogenesis is necessary for tumor growth and has been targeted in breast cancer; however, it is unclear which patients will respond and benefit from antiangiogenic therapy. We report noninvasive monitoring of patient response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy given alone or in combination with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (bevacizumab) in a randomized clinical trial. At four time points during neoadjuvant chemotherapy ± bevacizumab of receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2-negative breast cancers, we measured metabolites and inflammation-related markers in patient's serum. We report significant changes in the levels of several molecules induced by bevacizumab, the most prominent being an increase in pentraxin 3 (PTX3) and von Willebrand factor (VWF). Serum levels of AXL, VWF and pulmonary and activation-regulated cytokine (PARC/CCL18) reflected response to chemotherapy alone or in combination with bevacizumab. We further analyzed serum cytokines in relation to tumor characteristics such as gene expression, tumor metabolites and tumor infiltrating leukocytes. We found that VWF and growth-differentiation factor 15 tumor mRNA levels correlated with their respective serum protein levels suggesting that these cytokines may be produced by tumors and outflow to the bloodstream while influencing the tumor microenvironment locally. Finally, we used binomial logistic regression which allowed to predict patient's response using only 10 noninvasive biomarkers. Our study highlights the potential of monitoring circulating levels of cytokines and metabolites during breast cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante
4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5499, 2019 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796750

RESUMO

How mixtures of immune cells associate with cancer cell phenotype and affect pathogenesis is still unclear. In 15 breast cancer gene expression datasets, we invariably identify three clusters of patients with gradual levels of immune infiltration. The intermediate immune infiltration cluster (Cluster B) is associated with a worse prognosis independently of known clinicopathological features. Furthermore, immune clusters are associated with response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In silico dissection of the immune contexture of the clusters identified Cluster A as immune cold, Cluster C as immune hot while Cluster B has a pro-tumorigenic immune infiltration. Through phenotypical analysis, we find epithelial mesenchymal transition and proliferation associated with the immune clusters and mutually exclusive in breast cancers. Here, we describe immune clusters which improve the prognostic accuracy of immune contexture in breast cancer. Our discovery of a novel independent prognostic factor in breast cancer highlights a correlation between tumor phenotype and immune contexture.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/classificação , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Simulação por Computador , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Feminino , Genes Neoplásicos , Heterogeneidade Genética , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
5.
Cell Rep ; 29(13): 4389-4406.e10, 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875548

RESUMO

Genomic amplification of 3q26.2 locus leads to the increased expression of microRNA 551b-3p (miR551b-3p) in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Our results demonstrate that miR551b-3p translocates to the nucleus with the aid of importin-8 (IPO8) and activates STAT3 transcription. As a consequence, miR551b upregulates the expression of oncostatin M receptor (OSMR) and interleukin-31 receptor-α (IL-31RA) as well as their ligands OSM and IL-31 through STAT3 transcription. We defined this set of genes induced by miR551b-3p as the "oncostatin signaling module," which provides oncogenic addictions in cancer cells. Notably, OSM is highly expressed in TNBC, and the elevated expression of OSM associates with poor outcome in estrogen-receptor-negative breast cancer patients. Conversely, targeting miR551b with anti-miR551b-3p reduced the expression of the OSM signaling module and reduced tumor growth, as well as migration and invasion of breast cancer cells.

6.
Future Oncol ; 15(32): 3675-3682, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513453

RESUMO

The aromatase inhibitor letrozole (Femar®/Femara®) and the aromatase inactivator exemestane (Aromasin®) differ in their biochemical effect on the aromatase enzyme. Letrozole is a competitive aromatase inhibitor while exemestane binds irreversibly to the aromatase enzyme. This pharmacological difference is of clinical interest since a lack of cross-resistance has been documented. It has been demonstrated in several clinical trials that exemestane may cause a disease regression following resistance to nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors. The exact mechanism(s) behind this phenomenon is yet unknown. Here, we present the NEOLETEXE trial with the aim of exploring the individual mechanisms involved behind the observed lack of cross resistance. Clinical trial registration: The trial has been approved by the Regional Ethics Committee of South-East Norway (project number 2015/84).

7.
Mol Oncol ; 13(10): 2278-2296, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402562

RESUMO

One of the hallmarks of cancer is sustained angiogenesis. Favorable results have been reported in some breast cancer (BC) patients receiving antiangiogenic therapy with bevacizumab (Bev) in combination with chemotherapy, and further knowledge on how Bev can be optimally combined with conventional treatment to increase efficacy is strongly needed. In this randomized, neoadjuvant phase II clinical trial, 132 patients with HER2-negative, nonmetastatic BC were treated with Bev in combination with sequential chemotherapy. Biopsies were sampled before treatment, after 12 weeks with anthracycline and after taxane therapy at week 25. MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profiling was performed on biopsies from each time point. Altogether, 241 biopsies were analyzed with the aim of identifying miRNA-based biomarkers of response to therapy. Results from the miRNA analyses were reported for the ER-positive cohort, which were previously demonstrated to benefit from antiangiogenic therapy in this study. For both treatment arms of this cohort, significantly different expression was observed for 217 miRNAs between objective responding and nonresponding patients before treatment initiation. These miRNAs have been linked to regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, metastasis, and tumor growth, among other processes. Bev in combination with chemotherapy resulted in similar miRNA changes to chemotherapy alone. However, the deregulation of miRNA expression occurred earlier in the Bev arm. In both arms, tumor suppressor miRNAs were found upregulated after treatment, while oncogenic miRNAs were downregulated in the Bev arm. Patients responding to Bev showed a strong correlation between deregulated miRNAs and decreased proliferation score during the course of treatment, with downregulation of miR-4465 as the strongest indicator of reduced proliferation. Integrative analyses at miRNA-, gene-, and protein expression further indicated a longitudinal decrease in proliferation. Altogether, the results indicate that proliferation might represent a predictive factor for increased Bev sensitivity, which may aid in the identification of patients who could potentially benefit from Bev.

8.
Oncol Rep ; 42(2): 763-774, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173253

RESUMO

Multidrug resistance to anticancer drugs, which is often associated with enhanced expression of the ATP­binding cassette (ABC) transporter P­glycoprotein (encoded by the ABCB1 gene) may limit the effects of cancer therapy. Epigenetic regulation of ABCB1 expression may thus have a clinical impact. A detailed assessment of ABCB1 promoter methylation is of importance for predicting therapy outcome and prognosis. Thus, validated methods for the analysis of ABCB1 promoter methylation are urgently required. In the present study, high­resolution melting (HRM) analysis of the CpG island regions covering the distal promoter of the ABCB1 gene was developed and compared with pyrosequencing. In addition, the clinical effects of the methylation status of the ABCB1 promoter were analyzed in patients with breast and ovarian carcinoma prior and subsequent to chemotherapy treatment. HRM analysis of ABCB1 methylation correlated with the results of pyrosequencing (P=0.001) demonstrating its analytical validity and utility. Hypermethylation of the analyzed ABCB1 promoter region was significantly correlated with low levels of the ABCB1 transcript in tumors from a subset of patients with breast and ovarian carcinoma prior to chemotherapy but not following treatment. Finally, high ABCB1 transcript levels were observed in tumors of patients with short progression­free survival prior to chemotherapy. Our data suggest the existence of functional epigenetic changes in the ABCB1 gene with prognostic value in tumor tissues of patients with breast and ovarian carcinoma. The clinical importance of such changes should be further evaluated.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Metilação de DNA , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/genética , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/tratamento farmacológico , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/patologia , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Desnaturação de Ácido Nucleico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
Cancer Res ; 79(16): 4293-4304, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118201

RESUMO

The usefulness of mechanistic models to disentangle complex multiscale cancer processes, such as treatment response, has been widely acknowledged. However, a major barrier for multiscale models to predict treatment outcomes in individual patients lies in their initialization and parametrization, which needs to reflect individual cancer characteristics accurately. In this study, we use multitype measurements acquired routinely on a single breast tumor, including histopathology, MRI, and molecular profiling, to personalize parts of a complex multiscale model of breast cancer treated with chemotherapeutic and antiangiogenic agents. The model accounts for drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. We developed an open-source computer program that simulates cross-sections of tumors under 12-week therapy regimens and used it to individually reproduce and elucidate treatment outcomes of 4 patients. Two of the tumors did not respond to therapy, and model simulations were used to suggest alternative regimens with improved outcomes dependent on the tumor's individual characteristics. It was determined that more frequent and lower doses of chemotherapy reduce tumor burden in a low proliferative tumor while lower doses of antiangiogenic agents improve drug penetration in a poorly perfused tumor. Furthermore, using this model, we were able to correctly predict the outcome in another patient after 12 weeks of treatment. In summary, our model bridges multitype clinical data to shed light on individual treatment outcomes. SIGNIFICANCE: Mathematical modeling is used to validate possible mechanisms of tumor growth, resistance, and treatment outcome.

10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1600, 2019 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962452

RESUMO

In the preceding decades, molecular characterization has revolutionized breast cancer (BC) research and therapeutic approaches. Presented herein, an unbiased analysis of breast tumor proteomes, inclusive of 9995 proteins quantified across all tumors, for the first time recapitulates BC subtypes. Additionally, poor-prognosis basal-like and luminal B tumors are further subdivided by immune component infiltration, suggesting the current classification is incomplete. Proteome-based networks distinguish functional protein modules for breast tumor groups, with co-expression of EGFR and MET marking ductal carcinoma in situ regions of normal-like tumors and lending to a more accurate classification of this poorly defined subtype. Genes included within prognostic mRNA panels have significantly higher than average mRNA-protein correlations, and gene copy number alterations are dampened at the protein-level; underscoring the value of proteome quantification for prognostication and phenotypic classification. Furthermore, protein products mapping to non-coding genomic regions are identified; highlighting a potential new class of tumor-specific immunotherapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Proteoma/metabolismo , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/genética , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/imunologia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Proteogenômica/métodos , Proteoma/genética , Proteoma/imunologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1749, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988298

RESUMO

Global loss of DNA methylation and CpG island (CGI) hypermethylation are key epigenomic aberrations in cancer. Global loss manifests itself in partially methylated domains (PMDs) which extend up to megabases. However, the distribution of PMDs within and between tumor types, and their effects on key functional genomic elements including CGIs are poorly defined. We comprehensively show that loss of methylation in PMDs occurs in a large fraction of the genome and represents the prime source of DNA methylation variation. PMDs are hypervariable in methylation level, size and distribution, and display elevated mutation rates. They impose intermediate DNA methylation levels incognizant of functional genomic elements including CGIs, underpinning a CGI methylator phenotype (CIMP). Repression effects on tumor suppressor genes are negligible as they are generally excluded from PMDs. The genomic distribution of PMDs reports tissue-of-origin and may represent tissue-specific silent regions which tolerate instability at the epigenetic, transcriptomic and genetic level.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos
12.
Oncoimmunology ; 8(2): e1537691, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30713794

RESUMO

Cancers elicit an immune response by modifying the microenvironment. The immune system plays a pivotal role in cancer recognition and eradication. While the potential clinical value of infiltrating lymphocytes at the tumor site has been assessed in breast cancer, circulating cytokines - the molecules coordinating and fine-tuning immune response - are still poorly characterized. Using two breast cancer cohorts (MicMa, n = 131, DCTB, n = 28) and the multiplex Luminex platform, we measured the levels of 27 cytokines in the serum of breast cancer patients prior to treatment. We investigated the cytokine levels in relation to clinicopathological characteristics and in perspective of the tumor infiltrating immune cells predicted from the bulk mRNA expression data. Unsupervised clustering analysis of the serum cytokine levels in the MicMa cohort identified a cluster of pro-inflammatory, pro-angiogenic, and Th2-related cytokines which was associated with poor prognosis. Notably high levels of platelet derived growth factor BB (PDGF) reflected a more aggressive tumor phenotype and larger tumor size. A significant positive correlation between serum levels of interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP10) and its mRNA expression at the tumor site suggested that tumor-IP10-production may outflow to the bloodstream. High IP10 serum levels were associated with a worse prognosis. Finally, we found serum levels of both PDGF and IP10 associated with enrichment scores of specific tumor infiltrating immune cells. Our study suggests that monitoring cytokine circulating levels in breast cancer could be used to characterize breast cancers and the immune composition of their microenvironment through readily available biological material.

13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 525, 2019 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30692535

RESUMO

The original version of this Article omitted a declaration from the competing interests statement, which should have included the following: 'K.P.W. is President of Tempus Lab, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA'. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

14.
Cell Syst ; 8(2): 152-162.e6, 2019 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30685436

RESUMO

A key challenge for the diagnosis and treatment of complex human diseases is identifying their molecular basis. Here, we developed a unified computational framework, URSAHD (Unveiling RNA Sample Annotation for Human Diseases), that leverages machine learning and the hierarchy of anatomical relationships present among diseases to integrate thousands of clinical gene expression profiles and identify molecular characteristics specific to each of the hundreds of complex diseases. URSAHD can distinguish between closely related diseases more accurately than literature-validated genes or traditional differential-expression-based computational approaches and is applicable to any disease, including rare and understudied ones. We demonstrate the utility of URSAHD in classifying related nervous system cancers and experimentally verifying novel neuroblastoma-associated genes identified by URSAHD. We highlight the applications for potential targeted drug-repurposing and for quantitatively assessing the molecular response to clinical therapies. URSAHD is freely available for public use, including the use of underlying models, at ursahd.princeton.edu.

15.
Brain Behav Immun ; 76: 82-96, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is one of the most important causes of disability among adolescents while limited knowledge exists on genetic determinants underlying disease pathophysiology. METHODS: We analyzed deregulated immune-gene modules using Pathifier software on whole blood gene expression data (29 CFS patients, 18 controls). Deconvolution of immune cell subtypes based on gene expression profile was performed using CIBERSORT. Supervised consensus clustering on pathway deregulation score (PDS) was used to define CFS subgroups. Associations between PDS and immune, neuroendocrine/autonomic and clinical markers were examined. The impact of plasma norepinephrine level on clinical markers over time was assessed in a larger cohort (91 patients). RESULTS: A group of 29 immune-gene sets was shown to differ patients from controls and detect subgroups within CFS. Group 1P (high PDS, low norepinephrine, low naïve CD4+ composition) had strong association with levels of serum C-reactive protein and Transforming Growth Factor-beta. Group 2P (low PDS, high norepinephrine, high naïve CD4+ composition) had strong associations with neuroendocrine/autonomic markers. The corresponding plasma norepinephrine level delineated 91 patients into two subgroups with significant differences in fatigue score. CONCLUSION: We identified 29 immune-gene sets linked to plasma norepinephrine level that could delineate CFS subgroups. Plasma norepinephrine stratification revealed that lower levels of norepinephrine were associated with higher fatigue. Our data suggests potential involvement of neuro-immune dysregulation and genetic stratification in CFS.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica/genética , Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica/imunologia , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Adolescente , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise por Conglomerados , Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica/metabolismo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Sistemas Neurossecretores/fisiopatologia , Norepinefrina/sangue , Plasma , Transcriptoma/genética
16.
Genome Med ; 10(1): 92, 2018 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30497530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemotherapeutic agents such as anthracyclines and taxanes are commonly used in the neoadjuvant setting. Bevacizumab is an antibody which binds to vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and inhibits its receptor interaction, thus obstructing the formation of new blood vessels. METHODS: A phase II randomized clinical trial of 123 patients with Her2-negative breast cancer was conducted, with patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (fluorouracil (5FU)/epirubicin/cyclophosphamide (FEC) and taxane), with or without bevacizumab. Serial biopsies were obtained at time of diagnosis, after 12 weeks of treatment with FEC ± bevacizumab, and after 25 weeks of treatment with taxane ± bevacizumab. A time course study was designed to investigate the genomic landscape at the three time points when tumor DNA alterations, tumor percentage, genomic instability, and tumor clonality were assessed. Substantial differences were observed with some tumors changing mainly between diagnosis and at 12 weeks, others between 12 and 25 weeks, and still others changing in both time periods. RESULTS: In both treatment arms, good responders (GR) and non-responders (NR) displayed significant difference in genomic instability index (GII) at time of diagnosis. In the combination arm, copy number alterations at 25 loci at the time of diagnosis were significantly different between the GR and NR. An inverse aberration pattern was also observed between the two extreme response groups at 6p22-p12 for patients in the combination arm. Signs of subclonal reduction were observed, with some aberrations disappearing and others being retained during treatment. Increase in subclonal amplification was observed at 6p21.1, a locus which contains the VEGFA gene for the protein which are targeted by the study drug bevacizumab. Of the 13 pre-treatment samples that had a gain at VEGFA, 12 were responders. Significant decrease of frequency of subclones carrying gains at 17q21.32-q22 was observed at 12 weeks, with the peak occurring at TMEM100, an ALK1 receptor signaling-dependent gene essential for vasculogenesis. This implies that cells bearing amplifications of VEGFA and TMEM100 are particularly sensitive to this treatment regime. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results suggest that heterogeneity and subclonal architecture influence the response to targeted treatment in combination with chemotherapy, with possible implications for clinical decision-making and monitoring of treatment efficacy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00773695 . Registered 15 October 2008.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Instabilidade Genômica , Humanos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética
17.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 5397, 2018 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30559362

RESUMO

The original version of this Article contained an error in the author affiliations. The affiliation of Kevin P. White with Tempus Labs, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA was inadvertently omitted.This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

18.
Oncoimmunology ; 7(11): e1457598, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30377556

RESUMO

A high concentration of circulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in cancer patients is associated with an aggressive tumor phenotype. Here, serum levels of 27 cytokines and blood cell counts were assessed in breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab (Bev) in a randomized cohort of 132 patients with non-metastatic HER2-negative tumors. Cytokine levels were determined prior to treatment and at various time-points. The cytotoxic chemotherapy regimen of fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FEC) had a profound impact on both circulating white blood cells and circulating cytokine levels. At the end of FEC treatment, the global decrease in cytokine levels correlated with the drop in white blood cell counts and was significantly greater in the patients of the Bev arm for cytokines, such as VEGF-A, IL-12, IP-10 and IL-10. Among patients who received Bev, those with pathological complete response (pCR) exhibited significantly lower levels of VEGF-A, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-4 than patients without pCR. This effect was not observed in the chemotherapy-only arm. Certain circulating cytokine profiles were found to correlate with different immune cell types at the tumor site. For the Bev arm patients, the serum cytokine levels correlated with higher levels of cytotoxic T cells at the end of the therapy regimen, which was indicative of treatment response. The higher response rate for Bev-treated patients and stronger correlations between serum cytokine levels and infiltrating CD8T cells merits further investigation.

19.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 172(2): 339-351, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30132219

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We have compared the mutational profiles of human breast cancer tumor samples belonging to all major subgroups with special emphasis on triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Our major goal was to identify specific mutations that could be potentially used for clinical decision making in TNBC patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Primary tumor specimens from 149 Norwegian breast cancer patients were available. We analyzed the tissue samples for somatic mutations in 44 relevant breast cancer genes by targeted next-generation sequencing. As a second confirmatory technique, we performed pyrosequencing on selected samples. RESULTS: We observed a distinct subgroup of TNBC patients, characterized by an almost completely lack of pathogenic somatic mutations. A point mutation in the adenoviral E1A binding protein p300 (EP300-G211S) was significantly correlated to this TNBC subgroup. The EP300-G211S mutation was exclusively found in the TNBC patients and its presence reduced the chance for other pathological somatic mutations in typical breast cancer genes investigated in our gene panel by 94.9% (P < 0.005). Interestingly, the EP300-G211S mutation also predicted a lower risk for relapses and decreased breast cancer-specific mortality during long-term follow-up of the patients. CONCLUSION: Next-generation sequencing revealed specific mutations in EP300 to be associated with the mutational patterns in typical breast cancer genes and long-term outcome of triple-negative breast cancer patients.


Assuntos
Análise Mutacional de DNA , Proteína p300 Associada a E1A/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
20.
Mol Oncol ; 12(9): 1540-1558, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29741811

RESUMO

The tumor microenvironment (TME) may influence both cancer progression and therapeutic response. In breast cancer, particularly in the aggressive triple-negative/basal-like subgroup, patient outcome is strongly associated with the tumor's inflammatory profile. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are among the most abundant immune cells in the TME, shown to be linked to poor prognosis and therapeutic resistance. In this study, we investigated the effect of the metastasis- and inflammation-associated microenvironmental factor S100A4 on breast cancer cells (BCCs) of different subtypes and explored their further interactions with myeloid cells. We demonstrated that extracellular S100A4 activates BCCs, particularly the basal-like subtype, to elevate secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The secreted factors promoted conversion of monocytes to TAM-like cells that exhibited protumorigenic activities: stimulated epithelial-mesenchymal transition, proliferation, chemoresistance, and motility in cancer cells. In conclusion, we have shown that extracellular S100A4 instigates a tumor-supportive microenvironment, involving a network of cytokines and TAM-like cells, which was particularly characteristic for basal-like BCCs and potentiated their aggressive properties. The S100A4-BCC-TAM interaction cascade could be an important contributor to the aggressive behavior of this subtype and should be further explored for therapeutic targeting.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Proteína A4 de Ligação a Cálcio da Família S100/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral , Biópsia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Feminino , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Células MCF-7 , Monócitos/patologia , Esferoides Celulares
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