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1.
Genes Immun ; 6(8): 699-706, 2005 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16163374

RESUMO

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by production of autoantibodies against intracellular antigens and tissue injury. Defective apoptosis of activated immune cells leads to the development of autoantibodies in SLE. FasL initiated apoptosis is central for peripheral tolerance. Fas deficiencies in humans and mice predispose toward systemic autoimmunity. SLE is conferred by many genes. The genetic effects may be concentrated by familial clustering or by stratifying of subphenotypes. We have tested polymorphisms and haplotypes in FAS and FASL for association to SLE or subphenotypes in 126 multiplex American SLE pedigrees and found association of the FAS codon214 AC(C/T) as well as the FAS-670G>A'-codon214 AC(C/T)' haplotype to thrombocytopenia in SLE. Furthermore we have functionally characterized the FAS/FASL promoter polymorphisms associated with SLE in other populations and demonstrate that the activity depends on the allelic variants as well as on the haplotype. The presence of FAS-670G, which affects STAT1 binding, leads to the highest activity. FASL-844C activity is modified by the cis acting -478A and, hence, the haplotype and not the individual variant, determines the promoter activity. We conclude that the FAS/FASL promoter haplotypes are functional and that polymorphisms in FAS may contribute to thrombocytopenia in SLE.


Assuntos
Haplótipos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/patologia , Fenótipo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Trombocitopenia/patologia , Receptor fas/genética , Afro-Americanos , Alelos , Apoptose , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Códon , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Proteína Ligante Fas , Genes Reporter , Variação Genética , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Luciferases/metabolismo , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Linhagem , Polimorfismo Genético , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/genética , Estados Unidos , Receptor fas/imunologia
2.
Diabetologia ; 48(2): 251-60, 2005 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15645209

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) is an essential regulator of the acute phase response associated with insulin-resistant states including type 2 diabetes and obesity. Three polymorphisms at positions -597, -572, and -174 of the IL6 promoter have been reported to influence IL6 transcription. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the IL6 promoter polymorphisms were associated with features of the WHO-defined metabolic syndrome and related quantitative traits in 7,553 Caucasian Danes. METHODS: Using analysis of PCR-generated primer extension products by mass spectrometry we examined -597 G/A, -572 G/C, and -174 G/C IL6 variants in the population-based Inter99 study cohort of middle-aged people (n=6,164) and in a group of type 2 diabetic patients (n=1,389). RESULTS: The -174 G/C and -597 G/A polymorphisms were in strong linkage disequilibrium (R(2)=0.95). In the Inter99 cohort the -174 G-allele was associated with insulin resistance (p<0.02) and dyslipidaemia (p<0.007) whereas the C-allele of the -572 polymorphism was associated with increased serum insulin release during an OGTT (p<0.0005). Composite genotype or haplotype analyses of all 3 IL6 promoter variants showed associations with type 2 diabetes (p<0.002), obesity (p<0.02), and the metabolic syndrome (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The present studies suggest that single-nucleotide polymorphisms and composite genotypes or haplotypes of the IL6 promoter may be associated with several features of the metabolic syndrome in Caucasians.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Interleucina-6/genética , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Sequência de Bases , Estudos de Coortes , Primers do DNA , Dinamarca , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos
3.
Diabet Med ; 21(10): 1135-40, 2004 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15384962

RESUMO

AIMS: Disturbances in heparan sulphate proteoglycans in patients with diabetic nephropathy might contribute to the pathogenesis of vascular disease in these patients. To investigate this possible link, we measured the heparin-induced, immediate release of eight proteins with heparan sulphate binding properties in patients with nephropathy. METHODS: We studied three groups, Type 1 diabetic patients with (n = 10) or without (n = 15) albuminuria and matched controls (n = 12). Blood samples were obtained before and 5 min after the injection of 40 anti-Xa IU low molecular weight heparin/kg body weight. RESULTS: Lipoprotein lipase increased more in diabetic patients without albuminuria than in controls and patients with albuminuria [261 (170-293) vs. 177 (103-438), P < 0.05 and 203 (159-280) mU/ml, P < 0.05]. Total tissue factor pathway inhibitor increased more in the diabetic patients [284 (198-449) and 275 (243-399)] than in the controls [221 (169-289) ng/ml, P < 0.005]. Vitronectin increased significantly only in the diabetic patients with albuminuria. The remaining proteins did not increase significantly (antithrombin, von Willebrand factor, fibronectin) or increased equally in the three investigated groups (extracellular superoxid dismutase and platelet factor 4). CONCLUSIONS: The different release of lipoprotein lipase and vitronectin in diabetic subjects with and without albuminuria may reflect novel aspects of vascular derangement in patients with albuminuria.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/farmacologia , Heparina/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Heparina/metabolismo , Humanos , Injeções , Lipase Lipoproteica/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fator Plaquetário 4/metabolismo , Proteoglicanas/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
4.
Scand J Immunol ; 59(6): 582-91, 2004 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15182254

RESUMO

CD4 is a candidate gene in autoimmune diseases, including Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), because the CD4 receptor is crucial for appropriate antigen responses of CD4(+) T cells. We previously found linkage between a CD4-1188(TTTTC)(5-14) promoter polymorphism and T1DM. In the present study, we screened the human CD4 promoter for mutations and identified three frequent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): CD4-181C/G, CD4-521C/G and CD4-1050T/C. The SNPs are in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) and association with the CD4-1188(TTTTC)(5-14) alleles, and we observed nine CD4 promoter haplotypes, of which four are frequent. We genotyped the SNPs in 253 Danish T1DM families (1129 individuals) and found evidence for linkage and association of a CD4 (A4(-1188)T(-1050)G(-521)C(-181)) haplotype to T1DM. In reporter studies, we show that (1) the T1DM-associated CD4 haplotype encodes high constitutive promoter activity and (2) the CD4-181G variant encodes higher stimulated promoter activity than the CD4-181C variant. This difference is in part neutralized in the frequently occurring CD4 promoter haplotypes by the more upstream genetic variants. Thus, we report functional impact of a novel CD4-181C/G SNP on stimulated CD4 promoter activity and the identification of a novel CD4 haplotype with high constitutive promoter activity that is linked and associated with T1DM.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD4/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Adolescente , Antígenos CD4/imunologia , Criança , Dinamarca , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Haplótipos , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo Genético , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sequências de Repetição em Tandem/genética
6.
Diabet Med ; 21(3): 218-22, 2004 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15008830

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate whether the WFS1 gene, the gene for Wolfram syndrome, is a susceptibility gene for more common forms of diabetes in the Danish population. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-two Danish Type 1 diabetes mellitus sib-pair families were genotyped for two microsatellite markers situated within 5 cM of the WFS1 gene and analysed for linkage and association using the sib-TDT. The entire coding region, the 5'UTR and 3'UTR of the WFS1 gene, were screened for mutations by direct sequencing in 29 selected Type 1 diabetes patients. Four of the identified mutations were tested for linkage and association in 255 Danish Type 1 diabetes families (including 103 simplex families). RESULTS: Evidence for linkage to Type 1 diabetes was found as the second most frequent allele of the marker D4S394 were transmitted 137 times (T = 61%) and not transmitted 88 times to affected offspring (Puc = 0.0011). Twelve mutations were found in the coding region and three mutations in the 3'UTR. No evidence for linkage and association to Type 1 diabetes was found testing four of the identified amino acid substitutions. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence of linkage to Type 1 diabetes was observed in the Danish family collection. However, no evidence of linkage and association was observed for any of the analysed polymorphisms, suggesting that other variations must be responsible for the observed evidence of linkage in the region.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 4/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Ligação Genética/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Idade de Início , Alelos , Dinamarca , Saúde da Família , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Mutação/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
7.
Diabetologia ; 45(1): 134-9, 2002 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11845233

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus is the result of a T-cell regulated selective destruction of pancreatic beta cells. There is evidence that the apoptosis inducing T-cell effector, Fas ligand (FasL) could be involved in the pathogenesis of Type I diabetes, probably because FasL-mediated apoptosis is important in maintaining peripheral self-tolerance and in down-regulating an immune response. We therefore evaluated the human FasL gene FASL on chromosome 1q23 as a candidate susceptibility gene for Type I diabetes. METHODS: The entire FASL (promoter, exons 1-4 and 3'UTR) was scanned for polymorphisms using single strand conformational polymorphism-heteroduplex analysis and direct sequencing. RESULTS: We identified two novel polymorphisms, a g-C843T and a g-A475T, in a negative regulatory region of the promoter. A Danish Type I diabetes family collection of 1143 subjects comprising 257 families (420 affected and 252 unaffected offspring) was typed for the g-C843T polymorphism and for a FASL microsatellite. Haplotypes were established and data were analysed using the extended transmission disequilibrium test. CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION: We found no overall evidence for linkage in the presence of association of the FASL polymorphism to Type I diabetes and conclude that FASL does not contribute to the genetic susceptibility to Type I diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Ligação Genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Primers do DNA , Dinamarca , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Éxons , Proteína Ligante Fas , Feminino , Haplótipos , Humanos , Íntrons , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Núcleo Familiar , Ácidos Nucleicos Heteroduplexes/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo Conformacional de Fita Simples , Valores de Referência
8.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 86(6): 2792-6, 2001 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11397889

RESUMO

Exposure of human pancreatic islets to a mixture of cytokines induces expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), impairs beta-cell function, and induces apoptosis. We performed a mutational scanning of all 27 exons of the human NOS2 gene and linkage transmission disequilibrium testing of identified NOS2 polymorphisms in a Danish nationwide type 1 diabetes mellitus (IDDM) family collection. Mutational screening was performed using PCR-amplified exons, followed by single stranded conformation polymorphism and verification of potential polymorphisms by sequencing. The transmission disequilibrium test was performed in an IDDM family material comprising 257 Danish families; 154 families were affected sibling pair families, and 103 families were simplex families. In total, 10 polymorphisms were identified in 8 exons, of which 4 were tested in the family material. A C/T single nucleotide polymorphism in exon 16 resulting in an amino acid substitution, Ser(608)Leu, showed linkage to IDDM in human leukocyte antigen DR3/4-positive affected offspring (P = 0.008; corrected P = 0.024). No other distorted transmission patterns were found for any other tested single nucleotide polymorphism or constructed haplotypes with the exception of those including data from exon 16. In conclusion, linkage of the human NOS2 gene to IDDM in a subset of patients supports a pathogenic role of nitric oxide in human IDDM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Ligação Genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/genética , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II , Polimorfismo Genético , Polimorfismo Conformacional de Fita Simples
9.
Immunogenetics ; 52(1-2): 107-11, 2000 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11132145

RESUMO

Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes is a complex trait. The region harboring the ICAM1 gene on 19p13 links to type 1 diabetes, and a growing body of evidence indicates that intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) could play a role in type 1 diabetes development. Recently, association studies of an ICAM-1 K469E polymorphism in type 1 diabetes populations have reported conflicting results. Hence, we performed a transmission disequilibrium test analysis of the ICAM-1 K469E variations in 253 Danish type 1 diabetes families. Linkage and association was not found between the ICAM-1 K469E variation and type 1 diabetes in Danish patients (P(tdt)> or =0.48), and our data did not indicate an interaction between ICAM1 and IDDM1 in predisposition to type 1 diabetes in Danes (P=0.78). We did not observe significant association with late-onset type 1 diabetes (P(tdt)> or =0.12) or differences in transmission patterns between groups of affected offspring stratified for age at onset (P> or =0.19), as suggested in Japanese patients. Combined analysis of the present and previously reported transmission data comprising 728 affected offspring of Romanian, Finnish, and Danish ancestry suggested association between the ICAM-1 E469 allele and type 1 diabetes (P(tdt)=0.013), but association was not found in the combined Scandinavian material. In conclusion, we found no association of the ICAM-1 K469E polymorphism with type 1 diabetes or its subsets stratified for age at onset and HLA risk in Danish patients. Analysis of ICAM-1 K469E transmissions reported in three populations suggested association to type 1 diabetes, but also demonstrated heterogeneity between populations.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/genética , Mutação Puntual , Polimorfismo Genético , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Diabetes ; 49(5): 876-8, 2000 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10905500

RESUMO

Mutations in the NeuroD/BETA2 gene have been shown to associate with type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we examined mutations in the NeuroD/BETA2 gene for association with either type 1 or 2 diabetes. Three variants were identified in patients with type 2 diabetes: Ala45Thr (allelic frequency 0.36, 95% CI 0.31-0.41), Pro197His (0.01), and Ser259Ser (0.01). Ala45Thr and Pro197His were not associated with type 2 diabetes, but the transmission disequilibrium test showed unequal transmission of the A45 allele to offspring with type 1 diabetes (chi2 = 5.90, P < 0.02, odds ratio 1.55, 95% CI 0.91-2.63). This association could not be explained by linkage disequilibrium between the Ala45 allele and IDDM7 (D2S152), which is also located on chromosome 2q32. When tested in vitro, the biological activity of Thr45 (117+/-36% vs. Ala45) and His197 (90+/-28% vs. Pro197) on the regulation of the human insulin gene promoter appeared normal. In conclusion, mutations in the NeuroD/BETA2 gene are not a common cause of late-onset type 2 diabetes among Danes. However, in the type 1 diabetic Danish population, the Ala45Thr variant of NeuroD/BETA2 may represent a susceptibility marker independent of IDDM7 on chromosome 2q32.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Variação Genética , Transativadores/genética , Idade de Início , Alelos , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos , Dinamarca , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular
11.
Diabetologia ; 43(6): 800-8, 2000 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10907126

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The human Fas gene (FAS) on chromosome 10q24.1 encoding a cell surface receptor involved in apoptosis was evaluated as a candidate susceptibility gene for Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Apoptosis mediated by Fas is important in maintaining peripheral self-tolerance and in down-regulating the immune response and could have a role in immune-mediated beta-cell destruction. METHODS: We did a molecular scan of the entire human FAS (promoter, exons 1-9 including exon-intron boundaries and the 3'UTR) using single strand conformational polymorphism-heteroduplex analysis. RESULTS: We identified 15 mutations, of which 11 are new. Of these a g-1194A-->T and a g-295Ains give rise to alterations of transcription-factor-binding consensus sequences for c-Myb, SP-1 and NF-kappa B, respectively. A total of 1068 people from a Danish family collection comprising 138 Type I diabetic sib-pair families (289 affected and 121 unaffected offspring) and 103 Type I diabetic parent-offspring multiplex families (103 affected and 112 unaffected offspring) were typed for the three most frequent polymorphisms with high heterozygosity indices and for a FAS microsatellite. Haplotypes were established and data analysed using the extended transmission disequilibrium test, ETDT. CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION: We found no overall evidence for linkage of the FAS polymorphisms to Type I diabetes. We conclude that it is unlikely that the Fas gene does contribute to genetic susceptibility for Type I diabetes.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 10 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Mutação , Receptor fas/genética , Adulto , Criança , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Primers do DNA , Dinamarca , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Éxons , Feminino , Ligação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Núcleo Familiar , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo Conformacional de Fita Simples
12.
Hum Mutat ; 15(3): 295-6, 2000 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10679951

RESUMO

The insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) susceptibility locus IDDM7 on 2q31 links to IDDM in some but not other populations. Linkage of D2S152, the marker for IDDM7, has hitherto not been demonstrated in Danish patients. GALNT3 that encodes the UDP-GalNAc: polypeptide N-acetyl-galactosaminyltransferase-T3 (GalNAc-T3), was recently identified and mapped to a region 5-25 cM from D2S152. The GalNAc transferases may play a role in immune mediated diseases by glycosylating autoantigens. Hence, the aims of the present study were to investigate by means of extended transmission disequilibrium testing (ETDT) and transmission disequilibrium testing (TDT) of the marker for IDDM7, D2S152, the marker for GALNT3, D2S2363, and novel polymorphisms identified through mutation screening of the entire GALNT3 for linkage with IDDM in 241 Danish IDDM multiplex families. ETDT analysis demonstrated linkage between IDDM and D2S152 (P(ETDT)=0.034). A prevalent T-->A polymorphism, T284A, was found in the GALNT3 3'UTR. Analysis of the D2S2363 and the T284A GALNT3 transmission patterns did not show linkage to IDDM in Danish patients (P(ETDT)=0.15 and P(TDT)=0.76, respectively). In conclusion, IDDM7 (D2S152) links to IDDM in Danish patients, but D2S2363 and the identified T284A polymorphism in the GALNT3 3'UTR did not. Hence, it is unlikely that the GALNT3 is an IDDM susceptibility gene.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , N-Acetilgalactosaminiltransferases/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias , Adulto , Cromossomos Humanos Par 2 , Dinamarca , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo Genético
13.
Cytokine ; 12(2): 171-5, 2000 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10671304

RESUMO

The molecules of the interleukin 1 (IL-1) system have been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), and polymorphisms in the genes encoding IL-1beta (IL1B), the IL-1 Type 1 receptor (IL1RTI) and the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN) molecules have been associated with IDDM in case-control studies. It can be difficult to exclude selection biases in case-control studies leading to spurious association. This risk is eliminated when using the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT). Hence, by means of the TDT we have investigated four intragenic IL-1 gene-cluster polymorphisms, the IL1B AvaI, the IL1B TaqI, the IL1RTI PstI and the IL1RN 2(nd)intron polymorphisms, for linkage and intra-familial association with IDDM in Danish IDDM multiplex family material comprising 245 families. We found no evidence for overall linkage or intra-familial association between any of the polymorphisms and IDDM. In addition, we did not find linkage between any of the polymorphisms and IDDM in HLA-DR3/4 heterozygous or HLA-non-DR3/4 heterozygous IDDM subjects, respectively. In conclusion, by means of intra-familial TDT analysis we found no linkage or intra-familial association between IDDM and the four IL-1 gene-cluster polymorphisms in Danish IDDM multiplex family material.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Interleucina-1/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Família Multigênica , Polimorfismo Genético , Dinamarca , Feminino , Antígeno HLA-DR3/genética , Antígeno HLA-DR4/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição
14.
Genes Immun ; 1(6): 362-6, 2000 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11196682

RESUMO

Exposure of human pancreatic islets to a mixture of cytokines induces expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), impairs beta-cell function and induces apoptosis. Exposing human islets to high amounts of NO from chemical NO-donors causes DNA strand breaks and mitochondrial damage, suggesting that NO is deleterious to human beta-cells. Hence, we consider the gene encoding iNOS in beta-cells, NOS2, a candidate gene for type 1 diabetes in humans. In the present study we have tested three identified polymorphisms within the promoter sequence of the human NOS2 gene in a type 1 diabetic family material comprising 154 affected sib-pair families and 103 affected simplex families (1143 individuals in total). PCR-based amplification of the polymorphic loci were established. Linkage analysis was performed using the extended transmission disequilibrium testing (ETDT). A Bsal RFLP was found not to be polymorphic in 20 type 1 diabetic patients and 14 healthy control subjects and was not analysed further. In affected cases a nine allele CCTTT repeat and a bi-allelic TAAA repeat revealed allelewise Petdt of 0.52 and 0.60, respectively. ETDT applied to (TAAA)n; (CCTTT)n haplotypes demonstrated random transmission from heterozygous parents to affected offspring. In conclusion, the tested polymorphisms within the NOS2 gene promoter did not show evidence for linkage to type 1 diabetes in a Danish family material.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/enzimologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Sequência de Bases , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Primers do DNA/genética , Dinamarca , Feminino , Ligação Genética , Haplótipos , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo Genético , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição
15.
Genes Immun ; 1(3): 170-84, 2000 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11196709

RESUMO

For most autoimmune disorders, the pattern of inheritance is very complex. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene complex has been implicated as the major genetic component in the predisposition to these diseases but other genes are likely to be involved. Based on function and experimental data, the gene encoding cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4) has been suggested as a candidate gene for conferring susceptibility to autoimmunity. In this review, we critically evaluate the evidence for pathogenetical involvement of CTLA-4 in the different autoimmune diseases with focus on the possible role of genetic variation of the CTLA4 locus.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Diferenciação/genética , Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Imunoconjugados , Abatacepte , Doença de Addison/genética , Doença de Addison/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos CD/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Antígeno B7-1/genética , Antígeno B7-2 , Antígenos CD28/genética , Antígeno CTLA-4 , Doença Celíaca/genética , Doença Celíaca/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Esclerose Múltipla/genética , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Mutação , Miastenia Gravis/genética , Miastenia Gravis/imunologia , Polimorfismo Genético , Ratos , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/imunologia , Vitiligo/genética , Vitiligo/imunologia
16.
Genes Immun ; 1(8): 495-500, 2000 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11197691

RESUMO

The human interleukin-1 type I receptor (IL-1RI) is the signal transducing receptor for IL-1, a principal proinflammatory cytokine, which is cytotoxic to pancreatic islet beta cells. The IL-1RI gene, IL1R1, maps to chromosome 2q12. We have previously examined part of the IL1R1 promoter region and in the present study we further characterized the promoter region demarcating exon 1B and 1C by sequencing and mutation scanning. New sequence was obtained 1762 bp upstream and 1609 bp downstream the known region. Within this sequence, we identified four frequent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). PCR-based RFLP assays were established and three of the polymorphisms were typed in a Danish Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus (T1DM) family collection comprising 103 simplex and 150 sib-pair affected families. Linkage was evaluated by the sib-TDT (transmission disequilibrium test). One of the polymorphisms, defined by a Hinfl RFLP assay, demonstrated linkage to T1DM, P(sTDT) = 0.026. Random transmission was observed to unaffected offspring from heterozygous parents, P = 0.87. No evidence for positive linkage was seen for the other tested polymorphisms, P = 0.14 and P = 0.21, respectively. To evaluate the possible functional significance of the Hinfl polymorphism, we measured circulating IL-1RI plasma level in 30 T1DM patients and in 30 control subjects--10 with each genotype in both groups. Significant differences in plasma levels in relation to genotype--independent of disease status--were found (P = 0.04). In both diabetic and non-diabetic subjects, the wt/wt genotype correlated with the highest IL-1RI plasma level, whereas the plasma levels were lowest for the mt/mt genotype.


Assuntos
Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Ligação Genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Receptores de Interleucina-1/genética , Sequência de Bases , DNA Complementar , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Receptores de Interleucina-1/sangue , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo
17.
Autoimmunity ; 31(1): 35-42, 1999.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10593567

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent) is a multifactorial disease with polygenic susceptibility. The major genetic component (IDDM1) resides within the HLA region, but several non-HLA loci have been implicated in the genetic susceptibility. In the present study, we have analysed two such loci, IDDM12 (CTLA4) on 2q33 and IDDM13 on 2q34, in Danish (n = 254) and Spanish (n = 39) type 1 diabetic multiplex families. No significant evidence of linkage of IDDM12 was observed in any of the two studied data sets. However, when the present data were combined with previously published data, they strengthened the evidence of linkage at this locus, p = 0.00002. For the IDDM13 region, we found some positive evidence of linkage of the D2S137-D2S164-D2S1471 markers (p-values 0.007, 0.02, and 0.007, respectively) using transmission disequilibrium testing (TDT) and the Tsp version of the TDT. Importantly, random transmission of all tested alleles was observed in unaffected offspring (p > 0.3). Stratification for HLA (high risk and non-high risk genotypes) in the Danish families did not reveal heterogeneity at IDDM12 or IDDM13. In conclusion, our data on an entirely new family data set did not support the existence of IDDM12 as a type 1 diabetes susceptibility locus in the Danish population. In addition, we found support for evidence of linkage and association of the IDDM13/D2S137-D2S1471 region (approximately 3.5 cM) to type 1 diabetes, however, further studies are needed to substantiate this observation.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Diferenciação/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos Humanos Par 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Imunoconjugados , Abatacepte , Alelos , Antígenos CD , Antígeno CTLA-4 , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Antígenos HLA/genética , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Repetições de Microssatélites
18.
Hum Mutat ; 14(1): 67-70, 1999.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10447260

RESUMO

Recent genome screening studies have identified novel regions of possible interest for susceptibility to type 1 diabetes. One of these is a 30-35 cM region mapping to 16q22-q24 (D16S515-D16S520), where also the gene encoding NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) maps. Data has suggested association of a polymorphism (P187S) in the NQO1 gene and type 1 diabetes. NQO1 is involved in protection against oxidative stress, which is likely to be involved in beta-cell destruction. By use of the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT), we analyzed the P187S polymorphism for association to type 1 diabetes in a population-based sample of 247 Danish nuclear type 1 diabetic families. Random transmission patterns were observed to all affected offspring (p(tdt) = 0.82), to index cases (P(tdt) = 0.77), as well as to unaffected offspring (P(tdt) = 0.93). Hence, the NQO1 polymorphism is not likely to be an etiological mutation underlying the reported linkage of the 16q22-q24 region.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Ligação Genética , NAD(P)H Desidrogenase (Quinona)/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16 , Dinamarca , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/enzimologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino
19.
Diabet Med ; 16(6): 472-6, 1999 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10391394

RESUMO

AIMS: Whether pregnant women with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (Type 1 DM) have an increased risk of abortions is controversial. The aim of the present Danish population-based study of 33% of the Danish population was to describe the pattern of self-reported miscarriage and stillbirths from 1304 women with Type 1 DM. METHODS: Data were obtained by questionnaire. The current age of the women was 20-65 years and their age at diabetes onset was 30 years or less. RESULTS: The frequency of spontaneous abortions (SA) and induced abortions (IA) reported from women diagnosed with Type 1 DM prior to pregnancy was 17.5% (95% CI 15.5-19.9%) and 18.0%. (95% CI 16.0-20.0%), respectively. No significant differences in abortion frequencies before or after 1980 were reported. Previous findings of a decreasing stillbirth-rate in diabetic pregnancies during the last decades were supported. CONCLUSIONS: The reported SA frequency of 17.5% (95% CI 15.5-19.9%) in pregnant women with Type 1 DM is higher than previously reported SA rates of 10-12% in Danish nondiabetic women and the SA rate is more than twice the SA rate found in a previous Danish study from a highly specialized obstetrical centre for diabetic women. These data suggest an urgent need for further improvement in the general management of Danish pregnant women with Type 1 DM.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Gravidez em Diabéticas , Aborto Espontâneo/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 161(7): 953-8, 1999 Feb 15.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10051805

RESUMO

To assess the offspring IDDM recurrence risk in a Danish population-based study and to investigate parental and offspring related biological variables that might influence this risk, we identified 2726 IDDM probands and their 2826 offspring from a background population of 1.725 million people (33% of the Danish population). Proband current age was 20-60 years and age at IDDM onset was 30 years or less. Offspring data were obtained by a questionnaire. The cumulative IDDM risk up to age 30 years was found significantly decreased in maternal offspring compared to paternal offspring (2.3 +/- 0.6% and 5.7 +/- 0.9%, RR = 2.40, 95% CI 1.30-4.47; Mantel Cox: p = 0.004) only if parents were diagnosed with IDDM before offspring birth. However, due to a low number of diabetic offspring of probands diagnosed with IDDM after offspring birth, this observation need to be confirmed in a larger population. Using the Cox proportional hazards model we found that among several biological variables tested separately on offspring of male and female probands, all diagnosed with IDDM before pregnancy, paternal age at IDDM onset was the only statistically significant predictor of IDDM risk in offspring. Our findings may be important for counselling families in which one parent has IDDM.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco
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