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Plant Dis ; 106(2): 357-359, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340566


In this Short Communication we describe the occurrence of mummy berry associated with huckleberry (Vaccinium membranaceum) caused by Monilinia spp. in Oregon. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a Monilinia spp. associated with mummy berry of huckleberry in Oregon. Sequence data from our specimens reveal the closest identity was Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi, a pathogen of commercial blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum). This may be a new species of Monilinia, not previously reported on huckleberry, and further investigation is needed. Of specific importance, the huckleberry holds cultural importance as a sacred First Food of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation and other Pacific Northwest tribes. Although plant pathogen management in natural landscapes presents unique challenges, we will work with tribal authorities to determine whether cultural management techniques may mitigate yield loss due to Monilinia spp.

Huckleberry (Planta) , Vaccinium , Frutas , Oregon
Front Microbiol ; 12: 576763, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34093451


Liming is an effective agricultural practice and is broadly used to ameliorate soil acidification in agricultural ecosystems. Our understanding of the impacts of lime application on the soil fungal community is scarce. In this study, we explored the responses of fungal communities to liming at two locations with decreasing soil pH in Oregon in the Pacific Northwest using high-throughput sequencing (Illumina MiSeq). Our results revealed that the location and liming did not significantly affect soil fungal diversity and richness, and the impact of soil depth on fungal diversity varied among locations. In contrast, location and soil depth had a strong effect on the structure and composition of soil fungal communities, whereas the impact of liming was much smaller, and location- and depth-dependent. Interestingly, families Lasiosphaeriaceae, Piskurozymaceae, and Sordariaceae predominated in the surface soil (0-7.5 cm) and were positively correlated with soil OM and aluminum, and negatively correlated with pH. The family Kickxellaceae which predominated in deeper soil (15-22.5 cm), had an opposite response to soil OM. Furthermore, some taxa in Ascomycota, such as Hypocreales, Peziza and Penicillium, were increased by liming at one of the locations (Moro). In conclusion, these findings suggest that fungal community structure and composition rather than fungal diversity responded to location, soil depth and liming. Compared to liming, location and depth had a stronger effect on the soil fungal community, but some specific fungal taxa shifted with lime application.

Plant Dis ; 105(1): 169-174, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170771


Zymoseptoria tritici is the causal agent of Septoria tritici blotch (STB), a disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum) that results in significant yield loss worldwide. Z. tritici's life cycle, reproductive system, effective population size, and gene flow put it at high likelihood of developing fungicide resistance. Succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) fungicides (FRAC code 7) were not widely used to control STB in the Willamette Valley until 2016. Field isolates of Z. tritici collected in the Willamette Valley at dates spanning the introduction of SDHI (2015 to 2017) were screened for sensitivity to four SDHI active ingredients: benzovindiflupyr, penthiopyrad, fluxapyroxad, and fluindapyr. Fungicide sensitivity changes were determined by the fungicide concentration at which fungal growth is decreased by 50% (EC50) values. The benzovindiflupyr EC50 values increased significantly, indicating a reduction in sensitivity, following the adoption of SDHI fungicides in Oregon (P < 0.0001). Additionally, significant reduction in cross-sensitivity among SDHI active ingredients was also observed with a moderate and significant relationship between penthiopyrad and benzovindiflupyr (P = 0.0002) and a weak relationship between penthiopyrad and fluxapyroxad (P = 0.0482). No change in cross-sensitivity was observed with fluindapyr, which has not yet been labeled in the region. The results document a decrease in SDHI sensitivity in Z. tritici isolates following the introduction of the active ingredients to the Willamette Valley. The reduction in cross-sensitivity observed between SDHI active ingredients highlights the notion that careful consideration is required to manage fungicide resistance and suggests that within-group rotation is insufficient for resistance management.

Fungicidas Industriais , Ascomicetos , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Norbornanos , Oregon , Doenças das Plantas , Pirazóis , Succinato Desidrogenase/genética , Ácido Succínico
Plant Dis ; 104(10): 2649-2657, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749926


No-till or direct seeding can be described as seeding directly into the crop stubble from the previous season without use of tillage. A reduction in tillage can result in many benefits, including increased soil organic matter, increased water holding capacity, and reduced fuel costs. However, the effect of no-till and reduced tillage on crop root disease profiles is poorly understood. To study the effect of tillage on disease dynamics, soil samples were collected from commercial wheat fields representing a wide range of tillage strategies in fall 2016 and fall 2017. Because precipitation might affect soilborne diseases, wheat fields located across a diverse gradient of precipitation zones of the dryland Pacific Northwest were selected. Fusarium spp., Pythium spp., and Rhizoctonia spp. were quantified from soil samples using soil dilution plating and quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. Results of dilution plating showed that the colony counts of Fusarium, Pythium, and Rhizoctonia at the genus level were negatively associated with tillage. However, the same patterns were not observed when specific causal agents of Fusarium, Pythium, and Rhizoctonia that are known to be pathogenic on wheat were quantified with qPCR. Furthermore, precipitation affected the population density of some fungal pathogens (F. culmorum, P. ultimum, and R. solani AG 8). Within the scope of inference of this study, results of this study indicate that the benefits of adopting reduced tillage likely outweigh potential risk for increased root disease.

Rhizoctonia , Triticum , Noroeste dos Estados Unidos , Oregon , Dinâmica Populacional
J Nematol ; 48(4): 241-247, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28154430


One of the major constraints on the production of red raspberries in the Pacific Northwest is the presence of the root-lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans. Current management of this nematode relies heavily on preplant soil fumigation; however, regulations have made the practice more difficult and expensive. Additional issues with soil fumigation include lack of efficacy at deeper soil depths and potential inability to penetrate raspberry root material that remains in the field during fumigation which may harbor P. penetrans. To address these issues, two field experiments were conducted in northwestern Washington. In the first experiment, the residency time of P. penetrans in root material from the previous raspberry crop, which was terminated with or without the use of herbicides, was monitored over time. Pratylenchus penetrans was found in root material from 6 to 8 mon after the crop was terminated, and herbicide application did not reduce P. penetrans residency time compared to untreated root material. In a second experiment, the vertical distribution of P. penetrans at three different times during the field establishment process (pre- and postfumigation, and at planting) was determined at two locations. Both locations had detectable prefumigation P. penetrans populations at all depths. However, postfumigation populations showed a different distribution pattern between locations. The location with coarser soil had populations located mainly at shallower depths with a maximum of 44 P. penetrans/100 g soil at 16 to 30 cm deep, whereas the location with finer soil had populations located mainly at deeper depths with a maximum of 8 P. penetrans/100 g soil at 76 to 90 cm deep. At planting, distribution tended to equilibrate among depths at both locations, but the overall population pattern across depth at each location was similar to that observed at postfumigation. Understanding more about the residency time and distribution of this nematode may provide growers with information that can be used to more effectively target P. penetrans.