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1.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128203

RESUMO

Associations between anthropometric factors and breast cancer (BC) risk have varied inconsistently by estrogen and/or progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status. Associations between prediagnostic anthropometric factors and risk of premenopausal and postmenopausal BC overall and ER/PR status subtypes were investigated in a pooled analysis of 20 prospective cohorts, including 36,297 BC cases among 1,061,915 women, using multivariable Cox regression analyses, controlling for reproductive factors, diet and other risk factors. We estimated dose-response relationships and tested for nonlinear associations using restricted cubic splines. Height showed positive, linear associations for premenopausal and postmenopausal BC risk (6-7% RR increase per 5 cm increment), with stronger associations for receptor-positive subtypes. Body mass index (BMI) at cohort baseline was strongly inversely associated with premenopausal BC risk, and strongly positively-and nonlinearly-associated with postmenopausal BC (especially among women who never used hormone replacement therapy). This was primarily observed for receptor-positive subtypes. Early adult BMI (at 18-20 years) showed inverse, linear associations for premenopausal and postmenopausal BC risk (21% and 11% RR decrease per 5 kg/m2, respectively) with stronger associations for receptor-negative subtypes. Adult weight gain since 18-20 years was positively associated with postmenopausal BC risk, stronger for receptor-positive subtypes, and among women who were leaner in early adulthood. Women heavier in early adulthood generally had reduced premenopausal BC risk, independent of later weight gain. Positive associations between height, baseline (adult) BMI, adult weight gain and postmenopausal BC risk were substantially stronger for hormone receptor-positive versus negative subtypes. Premenopausal BC risk was positively associated with height, but inversely with baseline BMI and weight gain (mostly in receptor-positive subtypes). Inverse associations with early adult BMI seemed stronger in receptor-negative subtypes of premenopausal and postmenopausal BC.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The overall macronutrient composition of diet, rather than just calorie intake, may influence long-term changes of anthropometry. We investigated relationships between dietary macronutrient composition and long-term changes in weight and waist circumference in participants of the EPIC-Italy - the Italian section of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition - study. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 32,119 participants provided anthropometric measures at recruitment and 12 years later (mean). Diet at recruitment was assessed using validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires. Weight and waist changes associated with replacing 10% of energy from one macronutrient with 10% of energy from another macronutrient were assessed by multivariable linear regression. Increased energy from total protein at the expense of any other macronutrient was significantly associated with increased weight and waist circumference. Increased starch at the expense of sugar and total protein was associated with significantly decreased weight and waist circumference; when starch replaced total fat, weight significantly decreased. Increased sugar at the expense of starch and total fat was significantly associated with increased weight and waist circumference; but increase at the expense of total protein was significantly associated with decreased weight and waist circumference. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that increasing protein at the expense of fat or carbohydrates, and reducing starch by increasing other macronutrients, might be associated with increased weight and waist gain.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105052

RESUMO

A full-term pregnancy is associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk; however, whether the effect of additional pregnancies is independent of age at last pregnancy is unknown. The associations between other pregnancy-related factors and endometrial cancer risk are less clear. We pooled individual participant data from 11 cohort and 19 case-control studies participating in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2) including 16 986 women with endometrial cancer and 39 538 control women. We used one- and two-stage meta-analytic approaches to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) for the association between exposures and endometrial cancer risk. Ever having a full-term pregnancy was associated with a 41% reduction in risk of endometrial cancer compared to never having a full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.63). The risk reduction appeared the greatest for the first full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.72-0.84), with a further ~15% reduction per pregnancy up to eight pregnancies (OR = 0.20, 95% CI 0.14-0.28) that was independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. Incomplete pregnancy was also associated with decreased endometrial cancer risk (7%-9% reduction per pregnancy). Twin births appeared to have the same effect as singleton pregnancies. Our pooled analysis shows that, while the magnitude of the risk reduction is greater for a full-term pregnancy than an incomplete pregnancy, each additional pregnancy is associated with further reduction in endometrial cancer risk, independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. These results suggest that the very high progesterone level in the last trimester of pregnancy is not the sole explanation for the protective effect of pregnancy.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overexpression of the receptor for advanced glycation end-product (RAGE) has been associated with chronic inflammation, which in turn has been associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. Soluble RAGE (sRAGE) competes with RAGE to bind its ligands, thus potentially preventing RAGE-induced inflammation. METHODS: To investigate whether sRAGE and related genetic variants are associated with colorectal cancer risk, we conducted a nested case-control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Plasma sRAGE concentrations were measured by ELISA in 1,361 colorectal cancer matched case-control sets. Twenty-four SNPs encoded in the genes associated with sRAGE concentrations were available for 1,985 colorectal cancer cases and 2,220 controls. Multivariable adjusted ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using conditional and unconditional logistic regression for colorectal cancer risk and circulating sRAGE and SNPs, respectively. RESULTS: Higher sRAGE concentrations were inversely associated with colorectal cancer (ORQ5vs.Q1, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.59-1.00). Sex-specific analyses revealed that the observed inverse risk association was restricted to men (ORQ5vs.Q1, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.42-0.94), whereas no association was observed in women (ORQ5vs.Q1, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.68-1.48; P heterogeneity for sex = 0.006). Participants carrying minor allele of rs653765 (promoter region of ADAM10) had lower colorectal cancer risk (C vs. T, OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Prediagnostic sRAGE concentrations were inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in men, but not in women. An SNP located within ADAM10 gene, pertaining to RAGE shedding, was associated with colorectal cancer risk. IMPACT: Further studies are needed to confirm our observed sex difference in the association and better explore the potential involvement of genetic variants of sRAGE in colorectal cancer development.

5.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-8, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045863

RESUMO

We examined the relationships between the dietary inflammatory index (DII®), dietary habits and cardiovascular risk factor profiles in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Energy-adjusted DII (E-DII™) scores were calculated from a Food Frequency Questionnaire in 2568 T2DM patients from different parts of Italy. Analyses were conducted according to quartiles of sex-specific E-DII scores. Higher, more pro-inflammatory, (quartile 4) E-DII scores were associated with overall poor quality of the diet characterised by higher content of refined carbohydrates, added sugars, saturated fat and cholesterol and lower unsaturated fat, fibre and polyphenols compared to quartile 1. Higher E-DII scores also were associated with higher waist circumference (105.4 vs. 103.5 cm; p = 0.002), triglycerides (154.6 vs. 146.1 mg/dL; p = 0.005), diastolic blood pressure (80.05 vs. 78.6 mmHg; p = 0.04) and lower HDL-cholesterol (45.3 vs. 47.4 mg/dL; p = 0.04). In conclusion, E-DII is a potent marker of overall quality of the diet and is associated with an unfavourable cardiovascular risk factor profile.

6.
Epigenomics ; 12(15): 1287-1302, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32875816

RESUMO

Aim: Inflammation represents a potential pathway through which socioeconomic position (SEP) is biologically embedded. Materials & methods: We analyzed inflammatory biomarkers in response to life course SEP by integrating multi-omics DNA-methylation, gene expression and protein level in 178 European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Italy participants. Results & conclusion: We identified 61 potential cis acting CpG loci whose methylation levels were associated with gene expression at a Bonferroni correction. We examined the relationships between life course SEP and these 61 cis-acting regulatory methylation sites individually and jointly using several scores. Less-advantaged SEP participants exhibit, later in life, a lower inflammatory methylome score, suggesting an overall increased expression of the corresponding inflammatory genes or proteins, supporting the hypothesis that SEP impacts adult physiology through inflammation.

7.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(10): 1673-1678, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The present study analyzes the relation between diet and all-cause mortality in a cohort of Italian men residing in different regions of Italy. METHODS AND RESULTS: The cohort was established using the members of the Associazione Nazionale Alpini, a voluntary organization that enlists individuals who have served in the Alpine troup; a mountain warfare infantry corps of the Italian Army. For the purpose of these analyses a total of 5049 participants were followed for an average of seven years. At baseline information was collected regarding age, education, life style habits, with special emphasis on diet (with the use of a validated dietary questionnaire), smoking and alcohol use. A total of 190 deaths were ascertained. In multivariate analyses the consumption of a Mediterranean type diet was inversely associated with mortality. Additional findings of relevance include: an inverse association between mortality and intake of vegetable fats and proteins, monounsaturated (MUFA) fats of vegetable origins, starch and folic acid. Positive association were evident between mortality and intake of animal fats, MUFA of animal origins and sugar. CONCLUSIONS: This study, focusing on a homogenous cohort characterized by a varied intake and high intake of monounsaturated fats, confirms the inverse association between a Mediterranean type diet and mortality and points out that the nature of the MUFA may be relevant for their effects on health. In addition, the study confirms that fats of animal origins and dietary sugar are associated with an overall deleterious effect on mortality.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Dieta Saudável , Dieta Mediterrânea , Comportamento Alimentar , Adulto , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Militar , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13814, 2020 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796953

RESUMO

Sustained B-cell activation is an important mechanism contributing to B-cell lymphoma (BCL). We aimed to validate four previously reported B-cell activation markers predictive of BCL risk (sCD23, sCD27, sCD30, and CXCL13) and to examine their possible mediating effects on the association between anthropometric and lifestyle factors and major BCL subtypes. Pre-diagnostic serum levels were measured for 517 BCL cases and 525 controls in a nested case-control study. The odds ratios of BCL were 6.2 in the highest versus lowest quartile for sCD23, 2.6 for sCD30, 4.2 for sCD27, and 2.6 for CXCL13. Higher levels of all markers were associated with increased risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), follicular lymphoma (FL), and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Following mutual adjustment for the other immune markers, sCD23 remained associated with all subtypes and CXCL13 with FL and DLBCL. The associations of sCD23 with CLL and DLBCL and CXCL13 with DLBCL persisted among cases sampled > 9 years before diagnosis. sCD23 showed a good predictive ability (area under the curve = 0.80) for CLL, in particular among older, male participants. sCD23 and CXCL13 showed a mediating effect between body mass index (positive) and DLBCL risk, while CXCL13 contributed to the association between physical activity (inverse) and DLBCL. Our data suggest a role of B-cell activation in BCL development and a mediating role of the immune system for lifestyle factors.

9.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 2026-2037, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age-related epigenetic dysregulations are associated with several diseases, including cancer. The number of stochastic epigenetic mutations (SEM) has been suggested as a biomarker of life-course accumulation of exposure-related DNA damage; however, the predictive role of SEMs in cancer has seldom been investigated. METHODS: A SEM, at a given CpG site, was defined as an extreme outlier of DNA methylation value distribution across individuals. We investigated the association of the total number of SEMs with the risk of eight cancers in 4,497 case-control pairs nested in three prospective cohorts. Furthermore, we investigated whether SEMs were randomly distributed across the genome or enriched in functional genomic regions. RESULTS: In the three-study meta-analysis, the estimated ORs per one-unit increase in log(SEM) from logistic regression models adjusted for age and cancer risk factors were 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.41 for breast cancer, and 1.23; 95% CI, 1.07-1.42 for lung cancer. In the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study, the OR for mature B-cell neoplasm was 1.46; 95% CI, 1.25-1.71. Enrichment analyses indicated that SEMs frequently occur in silenced genomic regions and in transcription factor binding sites regulated by EZH2 and SUZ12 (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0005, respectively): two components of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PCR2). Finally, we showed that PCR2-specific SEMs are generally more stable over time compared with SEMs occurring in the whole genome. CONCLUSIONS: The number of SEMs is associated with a higher risk of different cancers in prediagnostic blood samples. IMPACT: We identified a candidate biomarker for cancer early detection, and we described a carcinogenesis mechanism involving PCR2 complex proteins worthy of further investigations.

10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(3): 631-643, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High carbohydrate intake raises blood triglycerides, glucose, and insulin; reduces HDLs; and may increase risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Epidemiological studies indicate that high dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) are associated with increased CHD risk. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine whether dietary GI, GL, and available carbohydrates are associated with CHD risk in both sexes. METHODS: This large prospective study-the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-consisted of 338,325 participants who completed a dietary questionnaire. HRs with 95% CIs for a CHD event, in relation to intake of GI, GL, and carbohydrates, were estimated using covariate-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: After 12.8 y (median), 6378 participants had experienced a CHD event. High GL was associated with greater CHD risk [HR 1.16 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.31) highest vs. lowest quintile, p-trend 0.035; HR 1.18 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.29) per 50 g/day of GL intake]. The association between GL and CHD risk was evident in subjects with BMI (in kg/m2) ≥25 [HR: 1.22 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.35) per 50 g/d] but not in those with BMI <25 [HR: 1.09 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.22) per 50 g/d) (P-interaction = 0.022). The GL-CHD association did not differ between men [HR: 1.19 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.30) per 50 g/d] and women [HR: 1.22 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.40) per 50 g/d] (test for interaction not significant). GI was associated with CHD risk only in the continuous model [HR: 1.04 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.08) per 5 units/d]. High available carbohydrate was associated with greater CHD risk [HR: 1.11 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.18) per 50 g/d]. High sugar intake was associated with greater CHD risk [HR: 1.09 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.17) per 50 g/d]. CONCLUSIONS: This large pan-European study provides robust additional support for the hypothesis that a diet that induces a high glucose response is associated with greater CHD risk.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Índice Glicêmico , Carga Glicêmica , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the benefits related to physical exercise, large numbers of cancer patients are not sufficiently active. METHODS: To investigate exercise levels and preferences in cancer patients, a cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of 392 cancer outpatients who anonymously completed a questionnaire investigating general and medical characteristics, and expressed willingness to participate in exercise programs. Current exercise levels were estimated with the Leisure Score Index (LSI). RESULTS: Most patients (93%) were insufficiently active but 80% declared an interest in exercise programs. Patients preferred oncologist-instructed programs and specified particular exercise needs. Multivariate logistic regression showed that willingness to exercise was associated with education (OR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.15-3.04 beyond age 14 years vs. up to 14 years) and current physical activity (OR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.92-3.63 for sweat-inducing activity >2 times/week vs. <1 time/week). Patients given chemotherapy were less inclined to exercise (OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.23-0.86) than those who did not. LSI was lower if cancer stage was advanced (ß: -0.36; 95% CI: -0.75 to -0.02) than if it was in remission. High LSI was also associated with longer education, lower BMI, and longer time after diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Cancer patients are insufficiently active but are willing to participate in personalized exercise programs. Information from this survey may help in designing personalized interventions so these patients will achieve sufficient exercise.

12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(9): 1739-1749, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fatty acids impact obesity, estrogens, and inflammation, which are risk factors for ovarian cancer. Few epidemiologic studies have investigated the association of fatty acids with ovarian cancer. METHODS: Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 1,486 incident ovarian cancer cases were identified. Cox proportional hazard models with adjustment for ovarian cancer risk factors were used to estimate HRs of ovarian cancer across quintiles of intake of fatty acids. False discovery rate was computed to control for multiple testing. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate ORs of ovarian cancer across tertiles of plasma fatty acids among 633 cases and two matched controls in a nested case-control analysis. RESULTS: A positive association was found between ovarian cancer and intake of industrial trans elaidic acid [HR comparing fifth with first quintileQ5-Q1 = 1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03-1.62; P trend = 0.02, q-value = 0.06]. Dietary intakes of n-6 linoleic acid (HRQ5-Q1 = 1.10; 95% CI = 1.01-1.21; P trend = 0.03) and n-3 α-linolenic acid (HRQ5-Q1 = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.05-1.34; P trend = 0.007) from deep-frying fats were also positively associated with ovarian cancer. Suggestive associations were reported for circulating elaidic (OR comparing third with first tertileT3-T1 = 1.39; 95% CI = 0.99-1.94; P trend = 0.06) and α-linolenic acids (ORT3-T1 = 1.30; 95% CI = 0.98-1.72; P trend = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that higher intakes and circulating levels of industrial trans elaidic acid, and higher intakes of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid from deep-frying fat, may be associated with greater risk of ovarian cancer. IMPACT: If causal, eliminating industrial trans-fatty acids could offer a straightforward public health action for reducing ovarian cancer risk.

13.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(8): 1654-1664, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urothelial carcinoma is the predominant (95%) bladder cancer subtype in industrialized nations. Animal and epidemiologic human studies suggest that hormonal factors may influence urothelial carcinoma risk. METHODS: We used an analytic cohort of 333,919 women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort. Associations between hormonal factors and incident urothelial carcinoma (overall and by tumor grade, tumor aggressiveness, and non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma) risk were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: During a mean of 15 years of follow-up, 529 women developed urothelial carcinoma. In a model including number of full-term pregnancies (FTP), menopausal status, and menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), number of FTP was inversely associated with urothelial carcinoma risk (HR≥5vs1 = 0.48; 0.25-0.90; P trend in parous women = 0.010) and MHT use (compared with nonuse) was positively associated with urothelial carcinoma risk (HR = 1.27; 1.03-1.57), but no dose response by years of MHT use was observed. No modification of HRs by smoking status was observed. Finally, sensitivity analyses in never smokers showed similar HR patterns for the number of FTP, while no association between MHT use and urothelial carcinoma risk was observed. Association between MHT use and urothelial carcinoma risk remained significant only in current smokers. No heterogeneity of the risk estimations in the final model was observed by tumor aggressiveness or by tumor grade. A positive association between MTH use and non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma risk was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support that increasing the number of FTP may reduce urothelial carcinoma risk. IMPACT: More detailed studies on parity are needed to understand the possible effects of perinatal hormone changes in urothelial cells.

14.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230790

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to evaluate whether nutrients intake in an Italian adult population receiving pharmacological treatment for hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes are within the recommended values proposed by dietary guidelines. Cross-sectional data from the Cardiovascular Epidemiology Observatory/Health Examination Survey in 8462 individuals 35-79 years were used. Food consumption was assessed with a self-administered semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary sodium and potassium intakes were measured in 24-hour urine collection. Recommendations from WHO were used for salt and potassium intakes, those from the Diabetes and Nutrition Study Group for diabetes, and those from the European Society of Cardiology for hypertension and dyslipidemia. Salt intake in urine collection of participants receiving treatment for hypertension was 11.1 ± 4.0 g/day for men and 8.6 ± 3.3 g/day for women, higher than recommended. In participants treated for dyslipidemia, mean saturated fat intake was 11.4% and 11.6% total Kcal in men and women respectively, higher than recommended, while cholesterol intake was higher only in men (365.9 ± 149.6 mg/day). In both men and women receiving treatment for diabetes, mean intake of saturated fats (12.3% and 12.2% of total Kcal), simple carbohydrates (17.5% and 19.8% of total Kcal) and cholesterol (411.0 ± 150.4 and 322.7 ± 111.1 mg/day) were above the recommendations, while fiber intake was below (19.5 ± 6.3 and 17.5 ± 6.2 mg/day). Overall, 70% to 80% of participants treated for these conditions received advice from family doctors on dietary management; however, nutrition is far from being optimal.

16.
Diabetologia ; 63(2): 266-277, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713011

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Type 1 and type 2 diabetes differ with respect to pathophysiological factors such as beta cell function, insulin resistance and phenotypic appearance, but there may be overlap between the two forms of diabetes. However, there are relatively few prospective studies that have characterised the relationship between autoimmunity and incident diabetes. We investigated associations of antibodies against the 65 kDa isoform of GAD (GAD65) with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes genetic risk scores and incident diabetes in adults in European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct, a case-cohort study nested in the EPIC cohort. METHODS: GAD65 antibodies were analysed in EPIC participants (over 40 years of age and free of known diabetes at baseline) by radioligand binding assay in a random subcohort (n = 15,802) and in incident diabetes cases (n = 11,981). Type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes genetic risk scores were calculated. Associations between GAD65 antibodies and incident diabetes were estimated using Prentice-weighted Cox regression. RESULTS: GAD65 antibody positivity at baseline was associated with development of diabetes during a median follow-up time of 10.9 years (HR for GAD65 antibody positive vs negative 1.78; 95% CI 1.43, 2.20) after adjustment for sex, centre, physical activity, smoking status and education. The genetic risk score for type 1 diabetes but not type 2 diabetes was associated with GAD65 antibody positivity in both the subcohort (OR per SD genetic risk 1.24; 95% CI 1.03, 1.50) and incident cases (OR 1.97; 95% CI 1.72, 2.26) after adjusting for age and sex. The risk of incident diabetes in those in the top tertile of the type 1 diabetes genetic risk score who were also GAD65 antibody positive was 3.23 (95% CI 2.10, 4.97) compared with all other individuals, suggesting that 1.8% of incident diabetes in adults was attributable to this combination of risk factors. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our study indicates that incident diabetes in adults has an element of autoimmune aetiology. Thus, there might be a reason to re-evaluate the present subclassification of diabetes in adulthood.

17.
Int J Cancer ; 146(7): 1841-1850, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342519

RESUMO

Polyphenols are bioactive compounds with several anticarcinogenic activities; however, human data regarding associations with thyroid cancer (TC) is still negligible. Our aim was to evaluate the association between intakes of total, classes and subclasses of polyphenols and risk of differentiated TC and its main subtypes, papillary and follicular, in a European population. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort included 476,108 men and women from 10 European countries. During a mean follow-up of 14 years, there were 748 incident differentiated TC cases, including 601 papillary and 109 follicular tumors. Polyphenol intake was estimated at baseline using validated center/country-specific dietary questionnaires and the Phenol-Explorer database. In multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models, no association between total polyphenol and the risks of overall differentiated TC (HRQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.77-1.29), papillary (HRQ4 vs. Q1 = 1.06, 95% CI 0.80-1.41) or follicular TC (HRQ4 vs. Q1 = 1.10, 95% CI 0.55-2.22) were found. No associations were observed either for flavonoids, phenolic acids or the rest of classes and subclasses of polyphenols. After stratification by body mass index (BMI), an inverse association between the intake of polyphenols (p-trend = 0.019) and phenolic acids (p-trend = 0.007) and differentiated TC risk in subjects with BMI ≥ 25 was observed. In conclusion, our study showed no associations between dietary polyphenol intake and differentiated TC risk; although further studies are warranted to investigate the potential protective associations in overweight and obese individuals.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Folicular/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma Folicular/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/prevenção & controle
18.
Int J Cancer ; 146(12): 3294-3303, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513294

RESUMO

Although smoking and oxidative stress are known contributors to lung carcinogenesis, their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. To shed light into these mechanisms, we applied a novel approach using Cys34-adductomics in a lung cancer nested case-control study (n = 212). Adductomics profiles were integrated with DNA-methylation data at established smoking-related CpG sites measured in the same individuals. Our analysis identified 42 Cys34-albumin adducts, of which 2 were significantly differentially abundant in cases and controls: adduct of N-acetylcysteine (NAC, p = 4.15 × 10-3 ) and of cysteinyl-glycine (p = 7.89 × 10-3 ). Blood levels of the former were found associated to the methylation levels at 11 smoking-related CpG sites. We detect, for the first time in prospective blood samples, and irrespective of time to diagnosis, decreased levels of NAC adduct in lung cancer cases. Altogether, our results highlight the potential role of these adducts in the oxidative stress response contributing to lung carcinogenesis years before diagnosis.

19.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(2): 497-510, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socio-economic inequalities in mortality are well established, yet the contribution of intermediate risk factors that may underlie these relationships remains unclear. We evaluated the role of multiple modifiable intermediate risk factors underlying socio-economic-associated mortality and quantified the potential impact of reducing early all-cause mortality by hypothetically altering socio-economic risk factors. METHODS: Data were from seven cohort studies participating in the LIFEPATH Consortium (total n = 179 090). Using both socio-economic position (SEP) (based on occupation) and education, we estimated the natural direct effect on all-cause mortality and the natural indirect effect via the joint mediating role of smoking, alcohol intake, dietary patterns, physical activity, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes and coronary artery disease. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated, using counterfactual natural effect models under different hypothetical actions of either lower or higher SEP or education. RESULTS: Lower SEP and education were associated with an increase in all-cause mortality within an average follow-up time of 17.5 years. Mortality was reduced via modelled hypothetical actions of increasing SEP or education. Through higher education, the HR was 0.85 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84, 0.86] for women and 0.71 (95% CI 0.70, 0.74) for men, compared with lower education. In addition, 34% and 38% of the effect was jointly mediated for women and men, respectively. The benefits from altering SEP were slightly more modest. CONCLUSIONS: These observational findings support policies to reduce mortality both through improving socio-economic circumstances and increasing education, and by altering intermediaries, such as lifestyle behaviours and morbidities.

20.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705265

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The evidence from the literature regarding the association of dietary factors and risk of prostate cancer is inconclusive. METHODS: A nutrient-wide association study was conducted to systematically and comprehensively evaluate the associations between 92 foods or nutrients and risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Cox proportional hazard regression models adjusted for total energy intake, smoking status, body mass index, physical activity, diabetes and education were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for standardized dietary intakes. As in genome-wide association studies, correction for multiple comparisons was applied using the false discovery rate (FDR < 5%) method and suggested results were replicated in an independent cohort, the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). RESULTS: A total of 5916 and 3842 incident cases of prostate cancer were diagnosed during a mean follow-up of 14 and 20 years in EPIC and NLCS, respectively. None of the dietary factors was associated with the risk of total prostate cancer in EPIC (minimum FDR-corrected P, 0.37). Null associations were also observed by disease stage, grade and fatality, except for positive associations observed for intake of dry cakes/biscuits with low-grade and butter with aggressive prostate cancer, respectively, out of which the intake of dry cakes/biscuits was replicated in the NLCS. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide little support for an association for the majority of the 92 examined dietary factors and risk of prostate cancer. The association of dry cakes/biscuits with low-grade prostate cancer warrants further replication given the scarcity in the literature.

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