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1.
Ann Surg ; 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649472

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this retrospective cohort study, we describe the clinical presentation and workup of parathyroid carcinoma (PC) and determine its clinical prognostic parameters. Primary outcome was recurrence free survival. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: PC is an orphan malignancy for which diagnostic workup and treatment is not established. METHODS: Eighty-three patients were diagnosed with PC between 1986 and 2018. Disease-specific and recurrence-free survivals were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Risk factors for recurrence were identified by binary logistic regression with adjustment for age and sex. Thirty-nine tumors underwent central histopathological review. RESULTS: Renal (39.8%), gastrointestinal (24.1%), bone (22.9%), and psychiatric (19.3%) symptoms were the most common symptoms. Surgical treatment was heterogeneous [parathyroidectomy [PTx)] alone: 22.9%; PTx and hemithyroidectomy: 24.1%; en bloc resection 15.7%; others 37.3%] and complications of surgery were frequent (recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy 25.3%; hypoparathyroidism 6%). Recurrence of PC was observed in 32 of 83 cases. In univariate analysis, rate of recurrence was reduced when extended initial surgery had been performed (P = 0.04). In multivariate analysis low T status [odds ratio (OR) = 2.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-6.88, P = 0.045], N0 stage at initial diagnosis (OR = 6.32, 95% CI 1.33-30.01, P = 0.02), Ki-67 <10% (OR = 14.07, 95% CI 2.09-94.9, P = 0.007), and postoperative biochemical remission (OR = 0.023, 95% CI 0.001-0.52, P = 0.018) were beneficial prognostic parameters for recurrence-free survival. CONCLUSION: Despite a favorable overall prognosis, PC shows high rates of recurrence leading to repeated surgery and postoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and hypoparathyroidism. In view of the reduced recurrence rate in cases of extended surgery, ipsilateral completion surgery may be considered when PC is confirmed.

2.
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 34(3): 101434, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622829

RESUMO

Almost one decade ago, etoposide, doxorubicin, cisplatin and mitotane (EDP-M) has been established as first-line systemic therapy of metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). Although heterogeneous, the prognosis of advanced stage ACC is still poor and novel treatments are urgently needed. This article provides a short summary of current systemic ACC treatment and provides a comprehensive overview of new therapeutic approaches that have been investigated in the past years, including drugs targeting the IGF pathway, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, radionuclide treatment, and immunotherapy. The results of most of these trials were disappointing and we will discuss possible reasons why these drugs failed (e.g. drug interactions with mitotane, disease heterogeneity with exceptional responses in very few patients, and resistance mechanisms to immunotherapy). We then will present potential new drug targets that have emerged from many molecular studies (e.g. wnt/ß-catenin, cyclin-dependent kinases, PARP1) that may be the foundation of next-generation therapies of ACC.

3.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(1)2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine malignancy. Tumor-related glucocorticoid excess is present in ~60% of patients and associated with particularly poor prognosis. Results of first clinical trials using immune checkpoint inhibitors were heterogeneous. Here we characterize tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes (TILs) in ACC in association with glucocorticoids as potential explanation for resistance to immunotherapy. METHODS: We performed immunofluorescence analysis to visualize tumor-infiltrating T cells (CD3+), T helper cells (CD3+CD4+), cytotoxic T cells (CD3+CD8+) and regulatory T cells (Tregs; CD3+CD4+FoxP3+) in 146 ACC tissue specimens (107 primary tumors, 16 local recurrences, 23 metastases). Quantitative data of immune cell infiltration were correlated with clinical data (including glucocorticoid excess). RESULTS: 86.3% of ACC specimens showed tumor infiltrating T cells (7.7 cells/high power field (HPF)), including T helper (74.0%, 6.7 cells/HPF), cytotoxic T cells (84.3%, 5.7 cells/HPF) and Tregs (49.3%, 0.8 cells/HPF). The number of TILs was associated with better overall survival (HR for death: 0.47, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.87), which was true for CD4+- and CD8+ subpopulations as well. In localized, non-metastatic ACC, the favorable impact of TILs on overall and recurrence-free survival was manifested even independently of ENSAT (European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors) stage, resection status and Ki67 index. T helper cells were negatively correlated with glucocorticoid excess (Phi=-0.290, p=0.009). Patients with glucocorticoid excess and low TILs had a particularly poor overall survival (27 vs. 121 months in patients with TILs without glucocorticoid excess). CONCLUSION: Glucocorticoid excess is associated with T cell depletion and unfavorable prognosis. To reactivate the immune system in ACC by checkpoint inhibitors, an inhibition of adrenal steroidogenesis might be pivotal and should be tested in prospective studies.

4.
Metabolism ; 110: 154297, 2020 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) are neuroendocrine tumors that are mostly benign. Metastatic disease does occur in about 10% of cases of PCC and up to 25% of PGL, and for these patients no effective therapies are available. Patients with mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) gene tend to have metastatic disease. We hypothesized that a down-regulation in the active succinate dehydrogenase B subunit should result in notable changes in cellular metabolic profile and could present a vulnerability point for successful pharmacological targeting. METHODS: Metabolomic analysis was performed on human hPheo1 cells and shRNA SDHB knockdown hPheo1 (hPheo1 SDHB KD) cells. Additional analysis of 115 human fresh frozen samples was conducted. In vitro studies using N1,N11-diethylnorspermine (DENSPM) and N1,N12- diethylspermine (DESPM) treatments were carried out. DENSPM efficacy was assessed in human cell line derived mouse xenografts. RESULTS: Components of the polyamine pathway were elevated in hPheo1 SDHB KD cells compared to wild-type cells. A similar observation was noted in SDHx PCC/PGLs tissues compared to their non-mutated counterparts. Specifically, spermidine, and spermine were significantly elevated in SDHx-mutated PCC/PGLs, with a similar trend in hPheo1 SDHB KD cells. Polyamine pathway inhibitors DENSPM and DESPM effectively inhibited growth of hPheo1 cells in vitro as well in mouse xenografts. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates overactive polyamine pathway in PCC/PGL with SDHB mutations. Treatment with polyamine pathway inhibitors significantly inhibited hPheo1 cell growth and led to growth suppression in xenograft mice treated with DENSPM. These studies strongly implicate the polyamine pathway in PCC/PGL pathophysiology and provide new foundation for exploring the role for polyamine analogue inhibitors in treating metastatic PCC/PGL. PRéCIS: Cell line metabolomics on hPheo1 cells and PCC/PGL tumor tissue indicate that the polyamine pathway is activated. Polyamine inhibitors in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that polyamine inhibitors are promising for malignant PCC/PGL treatment. However, further research is warranted.

5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2320, 2020 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385320

RESUMO

Chromothripsis is a recently identified mutational phenomenon, by which a presumably single catastrophic event generates extensive genomic rearrangements of one or a few chromosome(s). Considered as an early event in tumour development, this form of genome instability plays a prominent role in tumour onset. Chromothripsis prevalence might have been underestimated when using low-resolution methods, and pan-cancer studies based on sequencing are rare. Here we analyse chromothripsis in 28 tumour types covering all major adult cancers (634 tumours, 316 whole-genome and 318 whole-exome sequences). We show that chromothripsis affects a substantial proportion of human cancers, with a prevalence of 49% across all cases. Chromothripsis generates entity-specific genomic alterations driving tumour development, including clinically relevant druggable fusions. Chromothripsis is linked with specific telomere patterns and univocal mutational signatures in distinct tumour entities. Longitudinal analysis of chromothriptic patterns in 24 matched tumour pairs reveals insights in the clonal evolution of tumours with chromothripsis.

6.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449514

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Objective response rate to mitotane in advanced adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is approximately 20%, and adverse drug effects are frequent. To date, there is no marker established that predicts treatment response. Mitotane has been shown to inhibit sterol-O-acyl transferase 1 (SOAT1), which leads to endoplasmic reticulum stress and cell death in ACC cells. OBJECTIVE: To investigate SOAT1 protein expression as a marker of treatment response to mitotane. PATIENTS: A total of 231 ACC patients treated with single-agent mitotane as adjuvant (n = 158) or advanced disease therapy (n = 73) from 12 ENSAT centers were included. SOAT1 protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens. SETTING: Retrospective study at 12 ACC referral centers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Recurrence-free survival (RFS), progression-free survival (PFS), and disease-specific survival (DSS). RESULTS: Sixty-one of 135 patients (45%) with adjuvant mitotane treatment had recurrences and 45/68 patients (66%) with mitotane treatment for advanced disease had progressive disease. After multivariate adjustment for sex, age, hormone secretion, tumor stage, and Ki67 index, RFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-1.85; P = 0.82), and DSS (HR = 1.30; 95% CI, 0.58-2.93; P = 0.53) in adjuvantly treated ACC patients did not differ significantly between tumors with high and low SOAT1 expression. Similarly, in the advanced stage setting, PFS (HR = 1.34; 95% CI, 0.63-2.84; P = 0.45) and DSS (HR = 0.72; 95% CI, 0.31-1.70; P = 0.45) were comparable and response rates not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: SOAT1 expression was not correlated with clinical endpoints RFS, PFS, and DSS in ACC patients with mitotane monotherapy. Other factors appear to be relevant for mitotane treatment response and ACC patient survival.

7.
J Pathol ; 251(4): 378-387, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462735

RESUMO

Phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are rare neuroendocrine tumours with a hereditary background in over one-third of patients. Mutations in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) genes increase the risk for PPGLs and several other tumours. Mutations in subunit B (SDHB) in particular are a risk factor for metastatic disease, further highlighting the importance of identifying SDHx mutations for patient management. Genetic variants of unknown significance, where implications for the patient and family members are unclear, are a problem for interpretation. For such cases, reliable methods for evaluating protein functionality are required. Immunohistochemistry for SDHB (SDHB-IHC) is the method of choice but does not assess functionality at the enzymatic level. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based measurements of metabolite precursors and products of enzymatic reactions provide an alternative method. Here, we compare SDHB-IHC with metabolite profiling in 189 tumours from 187 PPGL patients. Besides evaluating succinate:fumarate ratios (SFRs), machine learning algorithms were developed to establish predictive models for interpreting metabolite data. Metabolite profiling showed higher diagnostic specificity compared to SDHB-IHC (99.2% versus 92.5%, p = 0.021), whereas sensitivity was comparable. Application of machine learning algorithms to metabolite profiles improved predictive ability over that of the SFR, in particular for hard-to-interpret cases of head and neck paragangliomas (AUC 0.9821 versus 0.9613, p = 0.044). Importantly, the combination of metabolite profiling with SDHB-IHC has complementary utility, as SDHB-IHC correctly classified all but one of the false negatives from metabolite profiling strategies, while metabolite profiling correctly classified all but one of the false negatives/positives from SDHB-IHC. From 186 tumours with confirmed status of SDHx variant pathogenicity, the combination of the two methods resulted in 185 correct predictions, highlighting the benefits of both strategies for patient management. © 2020 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373071

RESUMO

Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) are aggressive tumors with a heterogeneous prognosis and limited therapeutic options for advanced stages. This study aims to identify novel drug targets for a personalized treatment in ACC. RNA was isolated from 40 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded ACC samples. We evaluated gene expression of 84 known cancer drug targets by reverse transcriptase quantitative real time-PCR and calculated fold change using 5 normal adrenal glands as reference (overexpression by fold change >2.0). The most promising candidate cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) was investigated at protein level in 104 ACC samples and tested by in vitro experiments in two ACC cell lines (NCI-H295R and MUC1). The most frequently overexpressed genes were TOP2A (100% of cases, median fold change = 16.5), IGF2 (95%, fold change = 52.9), CDK1 (80%, fold change = 6.7), CDK4 (62%, fold change = 2.6), PLK4 (60%, fold change = 2.8), and PLK1 (52%, fold change = 2.3). CDK4 was chosen for functional validation, as it is actionable by approved CDK4/6-inhibitors (e.g., palbociclib). Nuclear immunostaining of CDK4 significantly correlated with mRNA expression (R = 0.52, P < 0.005). We exposed both NCI-H295R and MUC1 cell lines to palbociclib and found a concentration- and time-dependent reduction of cell viability, which was more pronounced in the NCI-H295R cells in line with higher CDK4 expression. Furthermore, we tested palbociclib in combination with insulin-like growth factor 1/insulin receptor inhibitor linsitinib showing an additive effect. In conclusion, we demonstrate that RNA profiling is useful to discover potential drug targets and that CDK4/6 inhibitors are promising candidates for treatment of selected patients with ACC.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349159

RESUMO

CONTEXT: NCI-H295 cells are the most widely used model for adrenal steroidogenesis and adrenocortical carcinoma and have been used for decades in laboratories worldwide. However, reported steroidogenic properties differ considerably. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate heterogeneity of steroidogenesis among NCI-H295 cell strains, clarify the influence of culture media and test response to inhibitors of steroidogenesis by using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). METHODS: NCI-H295 cells were obtained from two cell banks and cultivated in different media. An LC-MS/MS-based panel analysis of thirteen steroids was adapted for cell culture supernatant. Cells were treated with metyrapone, abiraterone and mitotane. RESULTS: Mineralocorticoid synthesis was strongly affected by passaging as reflected by reduction of aldosterone secretion from 0.158±0.006 to 0.017±0.001 µg/106 cells (p<0.05). Relevant differences were also found for cells from two vendors in terms of aldosterone secretion (0.180±0.001 vs. 0.09±0.002 µg/106 cells, p<0.05). Selection of medium strongly impacted on cortisol secretion with>4-fold difference (40.6±5.5 vs. 182.1±23 µg/106 cells) and reflected differential activation of the glucocorticoid pathway. Exposure to abiraterone, metyrapone and mitotane resulted in characteristic steroidogenic profiles consistent with known mechanism of drug action with considerable differences in metabolites upstream of the blocked enzyme. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that steroid hormone secretion in NCI-H295 cells is strongly affected by the individual strain, passage and growing conditions. These factors should be taken into account in the evaluation of experiments analyzing steroid parameters directly or as surrogate parameters of cell viability.

11.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(3): 192, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184394

RESUMO

Conditions of impaired adrenal function and tissue destruction, such as in Addison's disease, and treatment resistance of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) necessitate improved understanding of the pathophysiology of adrenal cell death. Due to relevant oxidative processes in the adrenal cortex, our study investigated the role of ferroptosis, an iron-dependent cell death mechanism and found high adrenocortical expression of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and long-chain-fatty-acid CoA ligase 4 (ACSL4) genes, key factors in the initiation of ferroptosis. By applying MALDI mass spectrometry imaging to normal and neoplastic adrenocortical tissue, we detected high abundance of arachidonic and adrenic acid, two long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids which undergo peroxidation during ferroptosis. In three available adrenal cortex cell models (H295R, CU-ACC1 and CU-ACC-2) a high susceptibility to GPX4 inhibition with RSL3 was documented with EC50 values of 5.7 × 10-8, 8.1 × 10-7 and 2.1 × 10-8 M, respectively, while all non-steroidogenic cells were significantly less sensitive. Complete block of GPX4 activity by RSL3 led to ferroptosis which was completely reversed in adrenal cortex cells by inhibition of steroidogenesis with ketoconazole but not by blocking the final step of cortisol synthesis with metyrapone. Mitotane, the only approved drug for ACC did not induce ferroptosis, despite strong induction of lipid peroxidation in ACC cells. Together, this report is the first to demonstrate extraordinary sensitivity of adrenal cortex cells to ferroptosis dependent on their active steroid synthetic pathways. Mitotane does not induce this form of cell death in ACC cells.

12.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072159

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The clinical relevance of bone metastases (BM) in advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is poorly described. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this work are to describe the prevalence of BM, frequency of skeletal related events (SREs), and impact of BM morphology and SREs on prognosis, and to assess the role of antiresorptive treatment (ART). DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study was conducted. SETTING: This study was conducted at 4 German referral centers. PATIENTS: A total of 1060 MTC patients were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Main outcome measures include descriptive statistics, overall survival (OS) by the Kaplan-Meier method, and risk factors by Cox proportional hazards modeling. RESULTS: A total of 120 of 416 patients (29%) with metastatic MTC had BM, of which 97% had concurrent nonosseous metastases. BM occurred 2.1 years (median, range -0.1 to 20.6 years) after initial diagnosis, were multifocal in 79%, and were located preferentially in the spine (86%) and pelvis (60%). BM morphology was osteolytic in 32%, osteoblastic in 25%, and mixed in 22% of cases (unknown: 21%). Within a median observation period of 26.6 months (range, 0-188 months) after BM diagnosis, 47% of patients experienced one or more SREs (bone radiation 50%, pathological fractures 32%), of which 42% occurred in osteolytic and 17% in osteoblastic BM (P = .047). Presence of osteolytic metastases (hazard ratio 3.85, 95% CI 1.52-9.77, P = .005) but not occurrence of SREs was associated with impaired OS. Among the 36 patients who received ART (no ART: n = 71), SREs were significantly less frequent than in untreated patients (P = .04). CONCLUSION: BM are common in metastatic MTC and most often with an osteolytic morphology and an unfavorable prognosis. The majority of SREs occur in osteolytic metastases and may be prevented by ART.

13.
Invest New Drugs ; 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31984451

RESUMO

Background Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and aggressive malignancy with very limited treatment options. Nevanimibe HCl (formerly ATR-101), a novel adrenal-specific sterol O-acyltransferase 1 (SOAT1) inhibitor, has been shown in nonclinical studies to decrease adrenal steroidogenesis at lower doses and to cause apoptosis of adrenocortical cells at higher doses. Methods This phase 1, multicenter, open-label study assessed the safety and pharmacokinetics (PK) of nevanimibe in adults with metastatic ACC (NCT01898715). A "3 + 3" dose-escalation design was used. Adverse events (AEs), PK, and tumor response based on Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1 were evaluated every 2 months. Results 63 patients with metastatic ACC, all of whom had previously failed systemic chemotherapy and only 2 of whom were mitotane-naïve, were dosed with oral nevanimibe at doses ranging from 1.6 mg/kg/day to 158.5 mg/kg/day. Subjects who did not experience tumor progression or a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) could continue to receive additional cycles. No patients experienced a complete or partial response; however, 13 of the 48 (27%) patients who underwent imaging at 2 months had stable disease (SD), and 4 of these had SD > 4 months. In addition, drug-related adrenal insufficiency, considered a pharmacologic effect of nevanimibe, was observed in two patients. The most common treatment-emergent AEs were gastrointestinal disorders (76%), including diarrhea (44%) and vomiting (35%). A maximum tolerated dose (MTD) could not be defined, as very few dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) occurred. Because the large number of tablets required at the highest dose (i.e., ~24 tablets/day) resulted in low-grade gastrointestinal adverse effects, a maximum feasible dose of 128.2 mg/kg/day was established as a dose that could be taken on a long-term basis. Conclusions This study demonstrated the safety of nevanimibe at doses of up to ~6000 mg BID. As the total number of tablets required to achieve an MTD exceeded practical administration limits, a maximum feasible dose was defined. Given that the expected exposure levels necessary for an apoptotic effect could not be achieved, the current formulation of nevanimibe had limited efficacy in patients with advanced ACC.

14.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Objective response of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) to mitotane and cytotoxic chemotherapy regimen is only ~20% and early tumor progression is frequent. Previous clinical trials with oral multikinase inhibitors were negative, which has been attributed in part to inadvertent drug interaction with mitotane. Cabozantinib (CABO) is an inhibitor of c-MET, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, AXL, and RET and approved for advanced kidney cancer, liver carcinoma after previous sorafenib, and medullary thyroid carcinoma. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of CABO monotherapy in ACC patients. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Three referral centers for ACC (Germany, United States). RESULTS: Sixteen patients (13 female) with progressive ACC received CABO after previous mitotane in 15/16 and 3 (median, range 0-8) further systemic treatments. Prior CABO therapy, mitotane was discontinued in all patients. Mitotane plasma concentration was <2 mg/L in 7/16 patients and discontinued >12 months in 6 additional patients before CABO use. In 4/5 cases with available plasma samples, CABO concentration was in the expected steady-state range. Adverse events of grade 1/2 and 3 were observed in 13 and 3 patients, respectively, and consistent with the known safety profile of CABO. Best response was partial response in 3, stable disease in 5, and progressive disease in 8 patients. Median progression-free and overall survival was 16 and 58 weeks, respectively. CONCLUSION: CABO monotherapy appears to be safe and effective as a monotherapy in advanced ACC after failing prior treatments. Therefore, prospective investigation of CABO in ACC patients is warranted.

15.
Macromol Biosci ; 20(1): e1900178, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596553

RESUMO

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor and prognosis is overall poor but heterogeneous. Mitotane (MT) has been used for treatment of ACC for decades, either alone or in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy. Even at doses up to 6 g per day, more than half of the patients do not achieve targeted plasma concentration (14-20 mg L-1 ) even after many months of treatment due to low water solubility, bioavailability, and unfavorable pharmacokinetic profile. Here a novel MT nanoformulation with very high MT concentrations in physiological aqueous media is reported. The MT-loaded nanoformulations are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and powder X-ray diffraction which confirms the amorphous nature of the drug. The polymer itself does not show any cytotoxicity in adrenal and liver cell lines. By using the ACC model cell line NCI-H295 both in monolayers and tumor cell spheroids, micellar MT is demonstrated to exhibit comparable efficacy to its ethanol solution. It is postulated that this formulation will be suitable for i.v. application and rapid attainment of therapeutic plasma concentrations. In conclusion, the micellar formulation is considered a promising tool to alleviate major drawbacks of current MT treatment while retaining bioactivity toward ACC in vitro.

16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(44): 22269-22274, 2019 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611400

RESUMO

Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are rare and highly malignant cancers associated with poor survival of patients. Currently, mitotane, a nonspecific derivative of the pesticide DDT (1,1-(dichlorobiphenyl)-2,2-dichloroethane), is used as the standard treatment, but its mechanism of action in ACCs remains elusive. Here we demonstrate that the human ACC NCI-H295R cell line is remarkably sensitive to induction of ferroptosis, while mitotane does not induce this iron-dependent mode of regulated necrosis. Supplementation with insulin, transferrin, and selenium (ITS) is commonly used to keep NCI-H295R cells in cell culture. We show that this supplementation prevents spontaneous ferroptosis, especially when it contains polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as linoleic acid. Inhibitors of apoptosis (zVAD, emricasan) do not prevent the mitotane-induced cell death but morphologically prevent membrane blebbing. The expression of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) in H295R cells, however, is significantly higher when compared to HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells, suggesting a role for ferroptosis. Direct inhibition of GPX4 in H295R cells led to high necrotic populations compared to control, while cotreatment with ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1) completely reverted ferroptosis. Interestingly, the analysis of public databases revealed that several key players of the ferroptosis pathway are hypermethylated and/or mutated in human ACCs. Finally, we also detected that growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) antagonists, such as MIA602, kill H295R cells in a nonapoptotic manner. In summary, we found elevated expression of GPX4 and higher sensitivity to ferroptosis in ACCs. We hypothesize that instead of treatment with mitotane, human adrenocortical carcinomas may be much more sensitive to induction of ferroptosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/metabolismo , Ferroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células 3T3 , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HEK293 , Células HT29 , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Ácido Linoleico/metabolismo , Camundongos , Mitotano/toxicidade , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Sermorelina/análogos & derivados , Sermorelina/farmacologia , Transferrina/metabolismo
17.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 181(6): 647-657, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614337

RESUMO

Objective: Excess catecholamine release by pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGL) leads to characteristic clinical features and increased morbidity and mortality. The influence of PPGLs on metabolism is ill described but may impact diagnosis and management. The objective of this study was to systematically and quantitatively study PPGL-induced metabolic changes at a systems level. Design: Targeted metabolomics by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of plasma specimens in a clinically well-characterized prospective cohort study. Methods: Analyses of metabolic profiles of plasma specimens from 56 prospectively enrolled and clinically well-characterized patients (23 males, 33 females) with catecholamine-producing PPGL before and after surgery, as well as measurement of 24-h urinary catecholamine using LC-MS/MS. Results: From 127 analyzed metabolites, 15 were identified with significant changes before and after surgery: five amino acids/biogenic amines (creatinine, histidine, ornithine, sarcosine, tyrosine) and one glycerophospholipid (PCaeC34:2) with increased concentrations and six glycerophospholipids (PCaaC38:1, PCaaC42:0, PCaeC40:2, PCaeC42:5, PCaeC44:5, PCaeC44:6), two sphingomyelins (SMC24:1, SMC26:1) and hexose with decreased levels after surgery. Patients with a noradrenergic tumor phenotype had more pronounced alterations compared to those with an adrenergic tumor phenotype. Weak, but significant correlations for 8 of these 15 metabolites with total urine catecholamine levels were identified. Conclusions: This first large prospective metabolomics analysis of PPGL patients demonstrates broad metabolic consequences of catecholamine excess. Robust impact on lipid and amino acid metabolism may contribute to increased morbidity of PPGL patients.


Assuntos
Metabolômica/métodos , Paraganglioma/metabolismo , Paraganglioma/cirurgia , Feocromocitoma/metabolismo , Feocromocitoma/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Catecolaminas/urina , Cromatografia Líquida , Creatinina/urina , Feminino , Histidina/urina , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ornitina/urina , Paraganglioma/urina , Feocromocitoma/urina , Estudos Prospectivos , Sarcosina/urina , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tirosina/urina , Adulto Jovem
18.
Clin Chem ; 65(10): 1276-1286, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor with variable prognosis even within the same tumor stage. Cancer-related sex hormones and their sulfated metabolites in body fluids can be used as tumor markers. The role of steroid sulfation in ACC has not yet been studied. MALDI mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) is a novel tool for tissue-based chemical phenotyping. METHODS: We performed phenotyping of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 72 ACC by MALDI-MSI at a metabolomics level. RESULTS: Tumoral steroid hormone metabolites-estradiol sulfate [hazard ratio (HR) 0.26; 95% CI, 0.10-0.69; P = 0.005] and estrone 3-sulfate (HR 0.22; 95% CI, 0.07-0.63; P = 0.003)-were significantly associated with prognosis in Kaplan-Meier analyses and after multivariable adjustment for age, tumor stage, and sex (HR 0.29; 95% CI, 0.11-0.79; P = 0.015 and HR 0.30; 95% CI, 0.10-0.91; P = 0.033, respectively). Expression of sulfotransferase SULT2A1 was associated with prognosis to a similar extent and was validated to be a prognostic factor in two published data sets. We discovered the presence of estradiol-17ß 3,17-disulfate (E2S2) in a subset of tumors with particularly poor overall survival. Electron microscopy revealed novel membrane-delimited organelles in only these tumors. By applying cluster analyses of metabolomic data, 3 sulfation-related phenotypes exhibited specific metabolic features unrelated to steroid metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: MALDI-MSI provides novel insights into the pathophysiology of ACC. Steroid hormone sulfation may be used for prognostication and treatment stratification. Sulfation-related metabolic reprogramming may be of relevance also in conditions beyond the rare ACC and can be directly investigated by the use of MALDI-MSI.

19.
JAMA Oncol ; 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294750

RESUMO

Importance: The risk stratification of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) based on tumor proliferation index and stage is limited. Adjuvant therapy after surgery is recommended for most patients. Pan-genomic studies have identified distinct molecular groups closely associated with outcome. Objective: To compare the molecular classification for prognostic assessment of ACC with other known prognostic factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this retrospective biomarker analysis, ACC tumor samples from 368 patients who had undergone surgical tumor removal were collected from March 1, 2005, to September 30, 2015 (144 in the training cohort and 224 in the validation cohort) at 21 referral centers with a median follow-up of 35 months (interquartile range, 18-74 months). Data were analyzed from March 2016 to March 2018. Exposures: Meta-analysis of pan-genomic studies (transcriptome, methylome, chromosome alteration, and mutational profiles) was performed on the training cohort. Targeted biomarker analysis, including targeted gene expression (BUB1B and PINK1), targeted methylation (PAX5, GSTP1, PYCARD, and PAX6), and targeted next-generation sequencing, was performed on the training and validation cohorts. Main Outcomes and Measures: Disease-free survival. Cox proportional hazards regression and C indexes were used to assess the prognostic value of each model. Results: Of the 368 patients (mean [SD] age, 49 [16] years), 144 were in the training cohort (100 [69.4%] female) and 224 were in the validation cohort (142 [63.4%] female). In the training cohort, pan-genomic measures classified ACC into 3 molecular groups (A1, A2, and A3-B), with 5-year survival of 9% for group A1, 45% for group A2, and 82% for group A3-B (log-rank P < .001). Molecular class was an independent prognostic factor of recurrence in stage I to III ACC after complete surgery (hazard ratio, 55.91; 95% CI, 8.55-365.40; P < .001). The combination of European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors (ENSAT) stage, tumor proliferation index, and molecular class provided the most discriminant prognostic model (C index, 0.88). In the validation cohort, the molecular classification, determined by targeted biomarker measures, was confirmed as an independent prognostic factor of recurrence (hazard ratio, 5.96 [95% CI, 1.81-19.58], P = .003 for the targeted classifier combining expression, methylation, and chromosome alterations; and 2.61 [95% CI, 1.31-5.19], P = .006 for the targeted classifier combining methylation, chromosome alterations, and mutational profile). The prognostic value of the molecular markers was limited for patients with stage IV ACC. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings suggest that in localized ACC, targeted classifiers may be used as independent markers of recurrence. The determination of molecular class may improve individual prognostic assessment and thus may spare unnecessary adjuvant treatment.

20.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(17): 3951-3962, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093700

RESUMO

Mitotane is the only currently approved treatment for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), a rare endocrine malignancy. Plasma levels within the range of 14 to 20 mg L-1 are correlated with higher clinical efficacy and manageable toxicity. Because of this narrow therapeutic index and slow pharmacokinetics, therapeutic drug monitoring is an essential element of mitotane therapy. A small step towards the therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) by volumetric absorptive microsampling (VAMS) was made with this work. A simple method enabling the patient to collect capillary blood at home for the control of mitotane blood concentration was developed and characterized using MITRA™ VAMS 20 µL microsampler. Dried blood samples were extracted prior to HPLC-UV analysis. Mitotane and the internal standard dicofol (DIC) were detected at 230 nm by ultra-violet detection after separation on a C8 reversed phase column. The assay was validated in the range of 1 to 50 mg L-1. Dried samples were stable at room temperature and at 2-8 °C for 1 week. At 37 °C, a substantial amount of the analyte was lost probably due to evaporation. Hematocrit bias, a common problem of conventional dried blood techniques, was acceptable in the tested range. However, a significant difference in recovery from spiked and authentic patient blood was detected. Comparison of mitotane concentration in dried blood samples (CDBS) by VAMS with venous plasma in patients on mitotane therapy demonstrated poor correlation of CDBS with the concentration in plasma (CP). In conclusion, application of VAMS in clinical routine for mitotane TDM appears to be of limited value in the absence of a method-specific target range.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Hormonais/sangue , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Mitotano/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Dicofol/sangue , Humanos , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta/métodos
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