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1.
Occup Environ Med ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625507

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Exposure assessment for retrospective industrial cohorts are often hampered by limited availability of historical measurements. This study describes the development of company-specific job-exposure matrices (JEMs) based on measurements collected over five decades for a cohort study of 35 837 workers (Asbest Chrysotile Cohort Study) in the Russian Federation to estimate their cumulative exposure to chrysotile containing dust and fibres. METHODS: Almost 100 000 recorded stationary dust measurements were available from 1951-2001 (factories) and 1964-2001 (mine). Linear mixed models were used to extrapolate for years where measurements were not available or missing. Fibre concentrations were estimated using conversion factors based on side-by-side comparisons. Dust and fibre JEMs were developed and exposures were allocated by linking them to individual workers' detailed occupational histories. RESULTS: The cohort covered a total of 515 355 employment-years from 1930 to 2010. Of these individuals, 15% worked in jobs not considered professionally exposed to chrysotile. The median cumulative dust exposure was 26 mg/m3 years for the entire cohort and 37.2 mg/m3 years for those professionally exposed. Median cumulative fibre exposure was 16.4 fibre/cm3 years for the entire cohort and 23.4 fibre/cm3 years for those professionally exposed. Cumulative exposure was highly dependent on birth cohort and gender. Of those professionally exposed, women had higher cumulative exposures than men as they were more often employed in factories with higher exposure concentrations rather than in the mine. CONCLUSIONS: Unique company-specific JEMs were derived using a rich measurement database that overlapped with most employment-years of cohort members and will enable estimation of quantitative exposure-response.

2.
Environ Int ; 158: 106878, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poorly educated smallholder farmers in low-income countries are highly exposed to pesticides. This can result in adverse mental health issues, of which sleep problems might be an underlying indicator. We aim to examine the association between sleep problems and pesticide exposure among smallholder farmers in Uganda. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey with 253 smallholder farmers was conducted between October and December 2019. Sleep problems were assessed during the week before the visit using the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale (MOS-SS). Exposure to pesticides was assessed as application days of any pesticide and as use of 2,4-D, glyphosate, mancozeb, organophosphates & carbamates, pyrethroids and other pesticides during the week and year prior to the visit. Associations were assessed using adjusted multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: Increased odds ratio (OR) for the sleep problem index 6-items (OR [95% Confidence Interval] 1.99 [1.04; 3.84] and 3.21 [1.33; 7.82]), sleep inadequacy (1.94 [1.04; 3.66] and 2.49 [1.05-6.22]) and snoring (3.17 [1.12; 9.41] and 4.07 [1.04; 15.14]) were observed for farmers who respectively applied pesticides up to two days and three or more days in the past week compared to farmers who did not apply during the past week. Gender-stratified analyses showed a higher OR for female applicators (4.27 [1.76-11.16]) than for male applicators (1.82 [0.91-3.79]) for the association between the sleep problem index 6-items and pesticide use in the week before the visit. Increased ORs were also observed for the association between the sleep problem index 6-item and mancozeb exposure during the past year 2.28 [1.12-4.71] and past week 2.51 [0.86-7.55] and glyphosate exposure during the past week 3.75 [1.24-11.8] compared to non-applicators. DISCUSSION: Our findings suggest an increased risk of sleep problems among smallholder farmers in a pesticide-exposure-dependent way in a low-income context. Further gender-stratified, longitudinal investigations are warranted to confirm these findings.

3.
Environ Int ; 157: 106825, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Agricultural work can expose workers to potentially hazardous agents including known and suspected carcinogens. This study aimed to evaluate cancer incidence in male and female agricultural workers in an international consortium, AGRICOH, relative to their respective general populations. METHODS: The analysis included eight cohorts that were linked to their respective cancer registries: France (AGRICAN: n = 128,101), the US (AHS: n = 51,165, MESA: n = 2,177), Norway (CNAP: n = 43,834), Australia (2 cohorts combined, Australian Pesticide Exposed Workers: n = 12,215 and Victorian Grain Farmers: n = 919), Republic of Korea (KMCC: n = 8,432), and Denmark (SUS: n = 1,899). For various cancer sites and all cancers combined, standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for each cohort using national or regional rates as reference rates and were combined by random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: During nearly 2,800,000 person-years, a total of 23,188 cancers were observed. Elevated risks were observed for melanoma of the skin (number of cohorts = 3, meta-SIR = 1.18, CI: 1.01-1.38) and multiple myeloma (n = 4, meta-SIR = 1.27, CI: 1.04-1.54) in women and prostate cancer (n = 6, meta-SIR = 1.06, CI: 1.01-1.12), compared to the general population. In contrast, a deficit was observed for the incidence of several cancers, including cancers of the bladder, breast (female), colorectum, esophagus, larynx, lung, and pancreas and all cancers combined (n = 7, meta-SIR for all cancers combined = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.77-0.90). The direction of risk was largely consistent across cohorts although we observed large between-cohort variations in SIR for cancers of the liver and lung in men and women, and stomach, colorectum, and skin in men. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that agricultural workers have a lower risk of various cancers and an elevated risk of prostate cancer, multiple myeloma (female), and melanoma of skin (female) compared to the general population. Those differences and the between-cohort variations may be due to underlying differences in risk factors and warrant further investigation of agricultural exposures.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Exposição Ocupacional , Neoplasias da Próstata , Austrália , Estudos de Coortes , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
4.
Occup Environ Med ; 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413158

RESUMO

AIM: The biological mechanisms of work-related asthma induced by irritants remain unclear. We investigated the associations between occupational exposure to irritants and respiratory endotypes previously identified among never asthmatics (NA) and current asthmatics (CA) integrating clinical characteristics and biomarkers related to oxidative stress and inflammation. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from 999 adults (mean 45 years old, 46% men) from the case-control and familial Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environments of Asthma (EGEA) study. Five respiratory endotypes have been identified using a cluster-based approach: NA1 (n=463) asymptomatic, NA2 (n=169) with respiratory symptoms, CA1 (n=50) with active treated adult-onset asthma, poor lung function, high blood neutrophil counts and high fluorescent oxidation products level, CA2 (n=203) with mild middle-age asthma, rhinitis and low immunoglobulin E level, and CA3 (n=114) with inactive/mild untreated allergic childhood-onset asthma. Occupational exposure to irritants during the current or last held job was assessed by the updated occupational asthma-specific job-exposure matrix (levels of exposure: no/medium/high). Associations between irritants and each respiratory endotype (NA1 asymptomatic as reference) were studied using logistic regressions adjusted for age, sex and smoking status. RESULTS: Prevalence of high occupational exposure to irritants was 7% in NA1, 6% in NA2, 16% in CA1, 7% in CA2 and 10% in CA3. High exposure to irritants was associated with CA1 (adjusted OR aOR, (95% CI) 2.7 (1.0 to 7.3)). Exposure to irritants was not significantly associated with other endotypes (aOR range: 0.8 to 1.5). CONCLUSION: Occupational exposure to irritants was associated with a distinct respiratory endotype suggesting oxidative stress and neutrophilic inflammation as potential associated biological mechanisms.

5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(14)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298794

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The extent of exposure to occupational carcinogens is not well characterized in Iran, and little is known about the burden of occupational cancer. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe exposure to occupational carcinogens and occupational epidemiology studies in Iran. METHODS: Relevant studies up to January 2021 in Iran were identified through three databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar). RESULTS: Forty-nine publications from 2009 to 2020 (one cohort, 11 case-control, 34 exposure monitoring studies, and three cancer burden studies) were included. The exposure monitoring studies were conducted mainly in the petroleum industry, metal industry, manufacturing of electronics, manufacturing of plastics, construction industry, and service industry. A few of the case-control studies also reported increased risk of cancers in relation to work in those industries. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational cancer epidemiology in Iran is at an early stage. Both epidemiological and exposure monitoring studies are generally limited in size to provide robust evidence of occupational cancer risks. A coherent strategy to estimate the occupational cancer burden in Iran should start with conducting epidemiological studies along with systematic monitoring of occupational carcinogens for use in hazard control and research.

7.
Scand J Work Environ Health ; 47(6): 475-481, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942106

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated general job demands as a risk factor for lung cancer as well as their role in the association between occupational prestige and lung cancer. METHODS: In 13 case-control studies on lung cancer, as part of the international SYNERGY project, we applied indices for physical (PHI) and psychosocial (PSI) job demands - each with four categories (high to low). We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer by unconditional logistic regression, separately for men and women and adjusted for study centre, age, smoking behavior, and former employment in occupations with potential exposure to carcinogens. Further, we investigated, whether higher risks among men with low occupational prestige (Treiman's Standard International Occupational Prestige Scale) were affected by adjustment for the job indices. RESULTS: In 30 355 men and 7371 women, we found increased risks (OR) for lung cancer with high relative to low job demands in both men [PHI 1.74 (95% CI 1.56-1.93), PSI 1.33 (95% CI 1.17-1.51)] and women [PHI 1.62 (95% CI 1.24-2.11), PSI 1.31 (95% CI 1.09-1.56)]. OR for lung cancer among men with low occupational prestige were slightly reduced when adjusting for PHI [low versus high prestige OR from 1.44 (95% CI 1.32-1.58) to 1.30 (95% CI 1.17-1.45)], but not PSI. CONCLUSIONS: Higher physical job demands were associated with increased risks of lung cancer, while associations for higher psychosocial demands were less strong. In contrast to physical demands, psychosocial demands did not contribute to clarify the association of occupational prestige and lung cancer.

8.
Environ Int ; 152: 106477, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to single pesticide active ingredients or chemical groups is associated with adverse neurobehavioral outcomes in farmers. In agriculture, exposure to multiple pesticide active ingredients is the rule, rather than exception. Therefore, occupational studies on neurobehavioral effects of pesticides should account for potential co-exposure confounding. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 288 Ugandan smallholder farmers between September and December 2017. We collected data on self-reported use of pesticide products during the 12 months prior to survey and estimated yearly exposure-intensity scores for 14 pesticide active ingredients using a semi-quantitative exposure algorithm. We administered 11 neurobehavioral tests to assess five neurobehavioral domains. We implemented a Bayesian Model-Averaging (BMA) approach to examine the association between exposure to multiple pesticides and neurobehavioral outcomes, while accounting for multiple testing. We applied two levels of inference to determine (1) which neurobehavioral outcomes were associated with overall pesticide exposure (marginal inclusion probability (MIP) for covariate-only models <0.5) and (2) which specific pesticide active ingredients were associated with these outcomes (MIP for models where active ingredient was included >0.5). RESULTS: Seventy-two percent of farmers reported use of pesticide products that contained at least one of 14 active ingredients, while the applicators used in median three different active ingredients (interquartile range (IQR) 4) in the 12 months prior to the study. The most widely used active ingredients were glyphosate (79%), cypermethrin (60%), and mancozeb (55%). We found that overall pesticide exposure was associated with impaired visual memory (Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT)), language (semantic verbal fluency test), perceptual-motor function (Finger tapping test), and complex attention problems (Trail making A test and digit symbol test). However, when we looked at the associations for individual active ingredients, we only observed a positive association between glyphosate exposure and impaired visual memory (-0.103 [95% Bayesian Credible Interval (BCI)] [-0.24, 0] units in BVRT scores per interquartile range (IQR) increase in annual exposure to glyphosate, relative to a median [IQR] of 6 [3] units in BVRT across the entire study population). CONCLUSIONS: We found that overall pesticide exposure was associated with several neurobehavioral outcome variables. However, when we examined individual pesticide active ingredients, we observed predominantly null associations, except for a positive association between glyphosate exposure and impaired visual memory. Additional epidemiologic studies are needed to evaluate glyphosate's neurotoxicity, while accounting for co-pollutant confounding.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Praguicidas , Agricultura , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos Transversais , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Uganda
9.
Thorax ; 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653936

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To date, only a few studies have investigated the associations between occupational exposures and respiratory outcomes longitudinally in the general population. We investigated the associations between occupational exposures and the development of respiratory symptoms and airway obstruction in the Lifelines Cohort Study. METHODS: We included 35 739 occupationally active subjects with data on chronic cough, chronic phlegm, chronic bronchitis or airway obstruction at baseline and approximately 4.5 years follow-up. Exposures to biological dust, mineral dust, gases/fumes, pesticides, solvents and metals in the current job at baseline were estimated with the ALOHA+job-exposure matrix (JEM). Airway obstruction was defined as FEV1/FVC below the lower limit of normal. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for baseline covariates was used to investigate the associations. RESULTS: At follow-up, 1888 (6.0%), 1495 (4.7%), 710 (2.5%) and 508 (4.5%) subjects had developed chronic cough, chronic phlegm, chronic bronchitis and airway obstruction, respectively. High exposure to biological dust was associated with a higher odds to develop chronic cough and chronic bronchitis. High exposure to pesticides was associated with a higher odds for the development of all respiratory symptoms and airway obstruction. In the multiple exposures analyses, only the association between pesticides exposure and respiratory symptoms remained. CONCLUSIONS: Subjects exposed to high pesticides had a higher odds to develop respiratory symptoms on average 4.5 years later. Control measures should be taken to reduce pesticides exposure among the working population to prevent respiratory symptoms and airway obstruction.

10.
Mol Oncol ; 15(3): 753-763, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544948

RESUMO

Respirable crystalline silica in mineral dust, wood dust, diesel engine exhaust emissions and welding fumes are among the most common process-generated substances to which millions of workers are exposed daily. The composition of process-generated substances can vary substantially, depending on the parameters of the underlying processes; for example, the composition and intensity of diesel motor emissions differs among the various generations of diesel engines and working environments (e.g. surface or underground mining). We illustrate how common these occupational exposures are and discuss challenges in estimating their global prevalence and their contribution to the burden of occupational cancer. Estimates of the number and proportion of workers exposed in most countries and on a global scale are generally scarce. A remarkable exception is based on the proactive bottom-up estimates generated within the European Network for Silica. Actions to reduce exposures and research to fill gaps in knowledge adapted to local settings are warranted to mitigate the occupational cancer burden, especially in under-researched settings including low- and middle-income countries.

11.
Int J Epidemiol ; 50(4): 1213-1226, 2021 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to respirable crystalline silica is suggested to increase the risk of autoimmune rheumatic diseases. We examined the association between respirable crystalline silica exposure and systemic sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and small vessel vasculitis. METHODS: In a cohort study of the total Danish working population, we included 1 541 505 male and 1 470 769 female workers followed since entering the labour market 1979-2015. Each worker was annually assigned a level of respirable crystalline silica exposure estimated with a quantitative job exposure matrix. We identified cases of autoimmune rheumatic diseases in a national patient register and examined sex-specific exposure-response relations by cumulative exposure and other exposure metrics. RESULTS: We identified 4673 male and 12 268 female cases. Adjusted for age and calendar year, men exposed to high levels of respirable crystalline silica compared with non-exposed showed increased incidence rate ratio (IRR) for the four diseases combined of 1.53 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.39-1.69], for systemic sclerosis of 1.62 (1.08-2.44) and rheumatoid arthritis of 1.57 (1.41-1.75). The overall risk increased with increasing cumulative exposure attained since entering the workforce [IRR: 1.07 (1.05-1.09) per 50 µg/m3-years]. Female workers were less exposed to respirable crystalline silica, but showed comparable risk patterns with overall increased risk with increasing cumulative exposure [IRR: 1.04 (0.99-1.10) per 50 µg/m3-years]. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows an exposure-dependent association between occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica and autoimmune rheumatic diseases and thus suggests causal effects, most evident for systemic sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Dióxido de Silício/efeitos adversos
12.
Scand J Work Environ Health ; 47(2): 163-168, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073852

RESUMO

Objectives It is still not well established how occupational air pollutants affect the prognosis of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study uses nationwide Danish registers and quantitative dust industry exposure matrices (IEM) for the farming and wood industries to estimate whether previous year dust exposure level impacts hospital readmissions for workers diagnosed with asthma or COPD. Methods We identified all individuals with a first diagnosis of either asthma (769 individuals) or COPD (342 individuals) between 1997 and 2007 and followed them until the next hospital admission for asthma or COPD, emigration, death or 31 December 2007. We included only individuals who worked in either the wood or farming industries at least one year during follow-up. We used logistic regression analysis to investigate associations between dust exposure level in the previous year and hospital readmission, adjusting for sex, age, time since first diagnosis, socioeconomic status, and labor force participation. Results Asthma readmissions for individuals with low and high dust exposure were increased [adjusted rate ratio (RR adj) 2.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.45-4.40] and RR adj2.64 (95% CI 1.52-4.60), respectively. For COPD readmission, the risk estimates were RR adj1.36 (95% CI 0.57-3.23) for low and RR adj1.20 (95% CI 0.49-2.95) for high exposure level in the previous year. For asthma readmission, stratified analyses by type of dust exposure during follow-up showed increased risks for both wood dust [RR adj2.67 (95% CI 1.35-5.26) high exposure level] and farming dust [RR adj3.59 (95% CI 1.11-11.59) high exposure level]. No clear associations were seen for COPD readmissions. Conclusions This study indicates that exposure to wood or farm dust in the previous year increases the risk of hospital readmission for individuals with asthma but not for those with COPD.

13.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 231: 113636, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080525

RESUMO

We investigated the association between occupational exposure to MRI-related magnetic stray fields with sleep quality in a cross-sectional study among 490 imaging technicians in the Netherlands. Imaging technicians filled in questionnaires about MRI exposure, lifestyle, work practices and sleep quality and quantity (Medical Outcomes Study sleep scale). Of six sleep domains, exposure to MRI-related magnetic stray fields appeared to be associated with increased sleep disturbance (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.00-3.70) and non-optimal sleep duration (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.11-3.44). Given earlier findings of possible increased accident risks among exposed imaging technicians, these findings merit follow-up.

14.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(3): 393-402, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034341

RESUMO

In a New Zealand population-based case-control study we assessed associations with occupational exposure to electric shocks, extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) and motor neurone disease using job-exposure matrices to assess exposure. Participants were recruited between 2013 and 2016. Associations with ever/never, duration, and cumulative exposure were assessed using logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, sports, head or spine injury, and solvents, and was mutually adjusted for the other exposure. All analyses were repeated stratified by sex. An elevated risk was observed for having ever worked in a job with potential for electric shocks (odds ratio (OR) = 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.98, 1.86), with the strongest association for the highest level of exposure (OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.31, 3.09). Analysis by duration suggested a nonlinear association: Risk was increased for both short duration (<3 years; OR = 4.69, 95% CI: 2.25, 9.77) and long duration (>24 years; OR = 1.88; 95% CI: 1.05, 3.36) in a job with high level of electric shock exposure, with less pronounced associations for intermediate durations. No association with ELF-MF was found. Our findings provide support for an association between occupational exposure to electric shocks and motor neurone disease but did not show associations with exposure to work-related ELF-MF.


Assuntos
Campos Eletromagnéticos , Doença dos Neurônios Motores/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 18(2): 238-246, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090904

RESUMO

Rationale: Few longitudinal studies have assessed the relationship between occupational exposures and lung-function decline in the general population with a sufficiently long follow-up.Objectives: To examine the potential association in two large cohorts: the ECRHS (European Community Respiratory Health Survey) and the SAPALDIA (Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults).Methods: General-population samples of individuals aged 18 to 62 were randomly selected in 1991-1993 and followed up approximately 10 and 20 years later. Spirometry (without bronchodilation) was performed at each visit. Coded complete job histories during follow-up visits were linked to a job-exposure matrix, generating cumulative exposure estimates for 12 occupational exposures. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were jointly modeled in linear mixed-effects models, fitted in a Bayesian framework, taking into account age and smoking.Results: A total of 40,024 lung-function measurements from 17,833 study participants were analyzed. We found accelerated declines in FEV1 and the FEV1/FVC ratio for exposure to biological dust, mineral dust, and metals (FEV1 = -15.1 ml, -14.4 ml, and -18.7 ml, respectively; and FEV1/FVC ratio = -0.52%, -0.43%, and -0.36%, respectively; per 25 intensity-years of exposure). These declines were comparable in magnitude with those associated with long-term smoking. No effect modification by sex or smoking status was identified. Findings were similar between the ECRHS and the SAPALDIA cohorts.Conclusions: Our results greatly strengthen the evidence base implicating occupation, independent of smoking, as a risk factor for lung-function decline. This highlights the need to prevent or control these exposures in the workplace.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos de Coortes , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Capacidade Vital
16.
Occup Environ Med ; 78(4): 269-278, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the risk of lung cancer associated with ever working as a painter, duration of employment and type of painter by histological subtype as well as joint effects with smoking, within the SYNERGY project. METHODS: Data were pooled from 16 participating case-control studies conducted internationally. Detailed individual occupational and smoking histories were available for 19 369 lung cancer cases (684 ever employed as painters) and 23 674 age-matched and sex-matched controls (532 painters). Multivariable unconditional logistic regression models were adjusted for age, sex, centre, cigarette pack-years, time-since-smoking cessation and lifetime work in other jobs that entailed exposure to lung carcinogens. RESULTS: Ever having worked as a painter was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in men (OR 1.30; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.50). The association was strongest for construction and repair painters and the risk was elevated for all histological subtypes, although more evident for small cell and squamous cell lung cancer than for adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma. There was evidence of interaction on the additive scale between smoking and employment as a painter (relative excess risk due to interaction >0). CONCLUSIONS: Our results by type/industry of painter may aid future identification of causative agents or exposure scenarios to develop evidence-based practices for reducing harmful exposures in painters.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Pintura/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/epidemiologia
17.
J Agromedicine ; 26(2): 97-108, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182198

RESUMO

Purpose: Respiratory hazards of farming have been identified for centuries, with little focus on gender differences. We used data from the AGRICOH consortium, a collective of prospective cohorts of agricultural workers, to assess respiratory disease prevalence among adults in 18 cohorts representing over 200,000 farmers, farm workers, and their spouses from six continents.Methods: Cohorts collected data between 1992 and 2016 and ranged in size from 200 to >128,000 individuals; 44% of participants were female. Farming practices varied from subsistence farming to large-scale industrial agriculture. All cohorts provided respiratory outcome information for their cohort based on their study definitions. The majority of outcomes were based on self-report using standard respiratory questionnaires; the greatest variability in assessment methods was associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Results: For all three respiratory symptoms (cough, phlegm, and wheeze), the median prevalence in men was higher than in women, with the greatest difference for phlegm (17% vs. 10%). For asthma, women had a higher prevalence (7.8% vs 6.5%), with the difference associated with allergic asthma. The relative proportion of allergic asthma varied among cohorts. In two of eight cohorts for women and two of seven cohorts for men, allergic asthma was more common than non-allergic asthma.Conclusions: These findings indicate that respiratory outcomes are common among farmers around the world despite differences in agricultural production. As women in the general population are at higher risk of asthma, exploring gender differences in occupational studies is critical for a deeper understanding of respiratory disease among agricultural workers.

18.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 18(1): 60-67, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795190

RESUMO

Rationale: The association between airborne occupational exposures and lung function level is inconsistent in the general population. Moreover, little is known about the association between occupational exposures and annual lung function decline.Objectives: We investigated the association between occupational exposures and lung function level and annual lung function decline in the population-based Lifelines cohort study.Methods: We included 55,631 adults with baseline spirometry and reliable job code-13,759 of these subjects were aged ≥30 years and underwent spirometry again after 4.5 years of follow-up. Occupational exposures in the current or last-held job at baseline were estimated with the ALOHA+ job-exposure matrix. Linear regression analyses adjusted for covariates were used to test the association between each occupational exposure-biological dust, mineral dust, gases and fumes, pesticides, solvents, and metals-and lung function level and annual lung function decline. Interactions were used to test effect modification by sex or smoking.Results: Exposures to biological dust, mineral dust, gases and fumes, insecticides, fungicides, and aromatic solvents were associated with a lower lung function level at baseline. The effects were larger in males and smokers compared with females and nonsmokers, respectively. However, no association between occupational exposures and the rate of annual lung function decline was found between baseline and follow-up.Conclusions: In this study, airborne occupational exposures are associated with lower lung function level but not with a faster lung function decline. These negative effects are more pronounced among males and smokers.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Pulmão , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Poeira , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/fisiologia , Masculino
19.
Scand J Work Environ Health ; 46(6): 599-608, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135766

RESUMO

Objectives Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most prevalent congenital anomalies. This study aims to examine the association between maternal occupational exposures to organic and mineral dust, solvents, pesticides, and metal dust and fumes and CHD in the offspring, assessing several subgroups of CHD. Methods For this case-control study, we examined 1174 cases with CHD from EUROCAT Northern Netherlands and 5602 controls without congenital anomalies from the Lifelines cohort study. Information on maternal jobs held early in pregnancy was collected via self-administered questionnaires, and job titles were linked to occupational exposures using a job exposure matrix. Results An association was found between organic dust exposure and coarctation of aorta [adjusted odds ratio (OR adj) 1.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-3.59] and pulmonary (valve) stenosis in combination with ventricular septal defect (OR adj2.68, 95% CI 1.07-6.73). Mineral dust exposure was associated with increased risk of coarctation of aorta (OR adj2.94, 95% CI 1.21-7.13) and pulmonary valve stenosis (OR adj1.99, 95% CI 1.10-3.62). Exposure to metal dust and fumes was infrequent but was associated with CHD in general (OR adj2.40, 95% CI 1.09-5.30). Exposure to both mineral dust and metal dust and fumes was associated with septal defects (OR adj3.23, 95% CI 1.14-9.11). Any maternal occupational exposure was associated with a lower risk of aortic stenosis (OR adj0.32, 95% CI 0.11-0.94). Conclusions Women should take preventive measures or avoid exposure to mineral and organic dust as well as metal dust and fumes early in pregnancy as this could possibly affect foetal heart development.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Exposição Materna , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Poeira , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Troca Materno-Fetal , Metais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minerais , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Praguicidas , Gravidez , Solventes , Adulto Jovem
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12963, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737337

RESUMO

In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the association between occupational exposures and sickness absence (SA), the mediating role of respiratory symptoms, and whether genetic susceptibility to SA upon occupational exposures exists. Logistic regression was used to examine associations and structural equation modelling was used for mediation analyses. Genetic susceptibility was investigated by including interactions between occupational exposures and 11 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Biological dust, mineral dust, and pesticides exposure were associated with a lower prevalence of any SA (OR (95% CI) = 0.72 (0.58-0.89), 0.88 (0.78-0.99), and 0.70 (0.55-0.89), respectively) while gases/fumes exposure was associated with a higher prevalence of long-term SA (1.46 (1.11-1.91)). Subjects exposed to solvents and metals had a higher prevalence of any (1.14 (1.03-1.26) and 1.68 (1.26-2.24)) and long-term SA (1.26 (1.08-1.46) and 1.75 (1.15-2.67)). Chronic cough and chronic phlegm mediated the association between high gases/fumes exposure and long-term SA. Two of 11 SNPs investigated had a positive interaction with exposure on SA and one SNP negatively interacted with exposure on SA. Exposure to metals and gases/fumes showed a clear dose-response relationship with a higher prevalence of long-term SA; contrary, exposure to pesticides and biological/mineral dust showed a protective effect on any SA. Respiratory symptoms mediated the association between occupational exposures and SA. Moreover, gene-by-exposure interactions exist.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Tosse , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Tosse/induzido quimicamente , Tosse/genética , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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