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1.
Gastroenterol Nurs ; 43(1): E16-E23, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990879

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease requires long-term treatment to maintain disease control. Favorable follow-up of patients indicates attention from a multidisciplinary team, in which the nurse's responsibilities have great importance. The aim of this observational, descriptive study was to describe the role of an inflammatory bowel disease nurse in the management of patients in a tertiary center in Chile, including all patients in follow-up between January 2016 and April 2017. Inflammatory bowel disease nurse contacts were recorded and classified. Demographic data, clinical variables, and patient satisfaction were also analyzed. A total of 597 patients (51%) were in follow-up over the 16-month period; 63% had ulcerative colitis, with a median age of 35 years. The inflammatory bowel disease nurse performed 760 contacts in 253 patients (42% of the follow-up patients). The most frequent nurse interventions were reinforcement of medical indications (42%), assessment of laboratory results (17%), and disease follow-up (12%); 49% related to education. Nurse interventions were focused in more severely ill patients; flares during the follow-up, biological therapy, immunomodulators, and steroids were all statistically significant. Of a sample of 107 patients surveyed, 96% perceived the inflammatory bowel disease program as excellent/good. The inflammatory bowel disease nurse plays an important role in the follow-up and management, specifically in education, of more severely ill patients.

3.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436751

RESUMO

In Chile, the mortality from colorectal cancer has been on the rise. A national screening program based on a fecal immunochemical test was started in 2012 as an international collaboration with Japan. This case-control study was designed to identify the risk factors for colorectal cancer, with a goal of increasing the participation rate for colorectal cancer screening. In accordance with the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines, we conducted a case-control study from 2012 to 2017; 23 845 asymptomatic participants were enrolled in the study. Participants who were fecal immunochemical test-positive or had a family history of colorectal cancer underwent a colonoscopy. We analyzed the odds ratio of the risk factors for colorectal cancer, including sex, age, family history, BMI, hypertension, diabetes, regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, and daily intake of certain food items. For the screening program, 202 cases of colorectal cancer were detected, and 195 of them were evaluated pathologically after resection. Of these, 173 cases (88.7%) had colorectal cancer stage 0/1, 151 (77.4%) of which were treated with endoscopic resection. In the multivariate analysis, male sex, family history of colorectal cancer, and low intake of cereals or fibers were closely related to a high colorectal cancer incidence. Moreover, participants in their 60s and 70s had a higher incidence of colorectal cancer than those in their 50s. These results suggest that intensive screening of the high-risk population can help in improving the detection of colorectal cancer, whereas higher consumption of cereals or fibers can be effective in preventing its onset.

4.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1394, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281317

RESUMO

In colorectal cancer (CRC), cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the most abundant component from the tumor microenvironment (TM). CAFs facilitate tumor progression by inducing angiogenesis, immune suppression and invasion, thus altering the organization/composition of the extracellular matrix (i.e., desmoplasia) and/or activating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Soluble factors from the TM can also contribute to cell invasion through secretion of cytokines and recently, IL-33/ST2 pathway has gained huge interest as a protumor alarmin, promoting progression to metastasis by inducing changes in TM. Hence, we analyzed IL-33 and ST2 content in tumor and healthy tissue lysates and plasma from CRC patients. Tissue localization and distribution of these molecules was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (using localization reference markers α-smooth muscle actin or α-SMA and E-cadherin), and clinical/histopathological information was obtained from CRC patients. In vitro experiments were conducted in primary cultures of CAFs and normal fibroblasts (NFs) isolated from tumor and healthy tissue taken from CRC patients. Additionally, migration and proliferation analysis were performed in HT29 and HCT116 cell lines. It was found that IL-33 content increases in left-sided CRC patients with lymphatic metastasis, with localization in tumor epithelia associated with abundant desmoplasia. Although ST2 content showed similarities between tumor and healthy tissue, a decreased immunoreactivity was observed in left-sided tumor stroma, associated to metastasis related factors (advanced stages, abundant desmoplasia, and presence of tumor budding). A principal component analysis (including stromal and epithelial IL-33/ST2 and α-SMA immunoreactivity with extent of desmoplasia) allowed us to distinguish clusters of low, intermediate and abundant desmoplasia, with potential to develop a diagnostic signature with benefits for further therapeutic targets. IL-33 transcript levels from CAFs directly correlated with CRC cell line migration induced by CAFs conditioned media, with rhIL-33 inducing a mesenchymal phenotype in HT29 cells. These results indicate a role of IL-33/ST2 in tumor microenvironment, specifically in the interaction between CAFs and epithelial tumor cells, thus contributing to invasion and metastasis in left-sided CRC, most likely by activating desmoplasia.

5.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(2): 212-220, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095170

RESUMO

Environmental factors may influence the development of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and modify its natural history. The objective of this review is to evaluate current evidence about environmental factors associated with the disease. A better knowledge about the pathogenesis of the disease can lead to better treatment strategies and suggestions to prevent the disease.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Probióticos , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Tabaco/efeitos adversos
6.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(2): 212-220, Feb. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1004334

RESUMO

Environmental factors may influence the development of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and modify its natural history. The objective of this review is to evaluate current evidence about environmental factors associated with the disease. A better knowledge about the pathogenesis of the disease can lead to better treatment strategies and suggestions to prevent the disease.

7.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 28(4): 245-253, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29958195

RESUMO

A national colorectal cancer (CRC) screening program began in Chile in 2012, which is an international collaboration between Japan and Chile and is based on a standardized protocol supported by Tokyo Medical and Dental University. We describe the results from the first 2 years of screening at one public hospital in Punta Arenas, Chile. Of 4124 asymptomatic individuals aged between 50 and 75 years, 485 participants with immunological fecal occult blood test values of at least 100 ng/ml and/or those with family histories of CRC underwent colonoscopies. Lesions were found in 291 participants, and 642 histologic samples were obtained. Chilean pathologists made the initial histologic diagnoses, and a Japanese pathologist reviewed the histologic slides and analyzed the results. Of the 291 participants with lesions, 60 (20.6%) were diagnosed with adenocarcinomas, of which 50 (83.3%) were early-phase adenocarcinomas (pTis or pT1), and 163 (56.0%) were diagnosed with conventional adenomas, of which 96 (58.9%) were high-risk adenomas. The cancer prevalence within the screened population was 1.5% (60 of 4124). The colonoscopy cancer detection rate was 12.4% (60 of 485). Notably, we detected one flat-depressed (0-IIc) lesion that measured 5 mm and had invaded the submucosa. The findings from this screening program are the first to show the histopathologic distributions of consecutive lesions and the high incidence of CRC in Chile. The high detection rates for high-risk adenomas and cancer support the feasibility of early CRC screening and its potential to reduce the mortality associated with CRC.

8.
Tumour Biol ; 40(11): 1010428318810059, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419802

RESUMO

A complex network of chemokines can influence cancer progression with the recruitment and activation of hematopoietic cells, including macrophages to the supporting tumor stroma promoting carcinogenesis and metastasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between tissue and plasma chemokine levels involved in macrophage recruitment with tumor-associated macrophage profile markers and clinicopathological features such as tumor-node-metastases stage, desmoplasia, tumor necrosis factor-α, and vascular endothelial growth factor plasma content. Plasma and tumor/healthy mucosa were obtained from Chilean patients undergoing colon cancer surgery. Chemokines were evaluated from tissue lysates (CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, and CX3CL1) by Luminex. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon match-paired test ( p < 0.05). Macrophage markers (CD68, CD163, and iNOS) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry samples derived from colorectal cancer patients. Correlation analysis between chemokines and macrophage markers and clinicopathological features were performed using Spearman's test. Plasmatic levels of chemokines and inflammatory mediators' vascular endothelial growth factor and tumor necrosis factor-α were evaluated by Luminex. Tumor levels of CCL2 (mean ± standard deviation = 530.1 ± 613.9 pg/mg), CCL3 (102.7 ± 106.0 pg/mg), and CCL4 (64.98 ± 48.09 pg/mg) were higher than those found in healthy tissue (182.1 ± 116.5, 26.79 ± 22.40, and 27.06 ± 23.69 pg/mg, respectively p < 0.05). The tumor characterization allowed us to identify a positive correlation between CCL4 and the pro-tumor macrophages marker CD163 ( p = 0.0443), and a negative correlation of iNOS with desmoplastic reaction ( p = 0.0467). Moreover, we identified that tumors with immature desmoplasia have a higher CD163 density compared to those with a mature/intermediated stromal tissue ( p = 0.0288). Plasmatic CCL4 has shown a positive correlation with inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-α and vascular endothelial growth factor) that have previously been associated with poor prognosis in patients. In conclusion High expression of CCL4 in colon cancer could induce the infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages and specifically a pro-tumor macrophage profile (CD163+ cells). Moreover, plasmatic chemokines could be considered inflammatory mediators associated to CRC progression as well as tumor necrosis factor-α and vascular endothelial growth factor. These data reinforce the idea of chemokines as potential therapeutic targets or biomarker in CRC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL3/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL4/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico
9.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(11): 1241-1251, nov. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-985697

RESUMO

Background: Primary non-response and secondary loss of response (LOR) are significant problems of biological therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in IBD patients receiving these drugs can improve outcomes. Aim: To measure serum infliximab levels and anti-infliximab antibodies (ATI) in patients with IBD post-induction phase and during maintenance therapy assessing the clinical course of IBD. Patients and Methods: Prospective study of IBD patients receiving infliximab between July 2016-May 2017. Group-A included patients who received induction therapy while Group-B included patients who were in maintenance therapy. TDM was performed in serum samples collected at weeks-14 and 30 in Group-A and before the infliximab maintenance dose in Group-B. Clinical scores, fecal calprotectin and endoscopic score were also evaluated. Results: Of 14 patients in Group-A, 57% achieved endoscopic response. Median serum infliximab concentrations at week-14 and 30 were 2.65 AU/mL (0.23-32.58) and 2.3 AU/mL (0.3-16.8), respectively. Patients with mucosal healing had non-significantly higher median infliximab concentrations at week- 14, as compared to week 30 (median 3.2 vs 2.2 AU/ml, respectively, p 0.6). ATI >10 ug/mL were found in one and seven patients at week-14 and 30, respectively. At 52 weeks of follow-up, four patients (31%) had LOR. Group-B included 36 patients, 33% had LOR. Median serum concentrations of infliximab were 1.4 AU/mL (0.27-7.03). No significant differences in serum infliximab concentration were observed between patients in remission and those with inflammatory activity. Seventeen patients had ATI >10 ug/mL. Conclusions: Clinical algorithms using TDM might help to optimize the pharmacological therapy of IBD.

10.
Complement Ther Med ; 40: 77-82, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30219473

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the type and prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who are treated at our center. DESIGN: Observational, cross-sectional questionnaire-based study that included patients from the IBD program of our center. SETTING: Tertiary clinical center in Santiago, Chile. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Types of CAM being used by patients with IBD. RESULTS: A total of 200 patients were included, 68% ulcerative colitis, 29% Crohn's disease, and 3% non-classifiable IBD. Overall, 25% of the patients reported current use of CAM, 30% reported using in it the past, and 45% indicated that they had never used it before. The use of CAM was recommended in 20% of the patients by other healthcare professionals and in 10% of the patients by the gastroenterologist. Forty-nine percent of the patients informed the gastroenterologist that they were using CAM. Overall, 86% of the patients did not modify the conventional medical treatment (CMT). None of the patients who were using curcumin, homeopathic medicine, acupuncture or biomagnetism modified the CMT. CONCLUSIONS: The type of CAM being used plays an important role when the patient makes the decision to inform the gastroenterologist. Other healthcare professionals play an important role in providing the advice to start CAM. Gastroenterologists must be aware of the high prevalence of CAM use in IBD patients, actively ask about CAM use and guide the patients who want to use CAM in a responsible and safe manner.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Chile/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Digestion ; 98(4): 270-274, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30130793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Chile, a national colorectal cancer (CRC) screening program using immunochemical fecal occult blood tests and colonoscopy was started in 2012 as an international collaboration between Chile and Japan. In the present study, we quantified exosomes in the peripheral blood and evaluated the implication of the results for CRC screening. METHODS: A total of 25 peripheral plasma samples from the participants of CRC screening in Punta Arenas, Chile, were analyzed for exosomes. RESULTS: Plasma exosomes were obtained from 5 participants with adenocarcinoma (4 pTis and 1 pT1), 8 with high-grade adenoma, 4 with low-grade adenoma, 4 with hyperplastic polyps, and 4 with normal findings. Participants with adenocarcinoma had significantly higher amounts of plasma exosomes (2.1-3.2 fold) than participants with normal findings, hyperplastic polyps, or low-grade adenoma (p = 0.016, p = 0.0034, and p = 0.0042 respectively; Tukey's multiple comparisons test). The size of the representative lesion, the number of lesions, and the sum of those 2 factors in each participant correlated significantly with the exosome amounts (r = 0.56, r = 0.58, and r = 0.72, respectively; p < 0.01; Spearman's correlation coefficient test). CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study demonstrated that quantification of plasma exosomes is a potential alternative screening method for detecting individuals with a high risk of colorectal malignancy.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Exossomos , Adenocarcinoma/sangue , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenoma/sangue , Adenoma/patologia , Idoso , Chile , Colo/diagnóstico por imagem , Colo/patologia , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sangue Oculto , Projetos Piloto
12.
Rev Med Chil ; 146(6): 685-692, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30148899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal Cancer Screening Programs (CRCSP) are widely accepted in developed countries. Unfortunately, financial restrictions, low adherence rate and variability on colonoscopy standardization hamper the implementation of CRCSP in developing countries. AIM: To analyze a multicentric pilot model of CRCSP in Chile. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective model of CRCSP was carried out in three cities, from 2012 to 2015. The model was based on CRC risk assessment and patient education. Health care personnel were trained about logistics and protocols. The endoscopy team was trained about colonoscopy standards. A registered nurse was the coordinator in each center. We screened asymptomatic population aged between 50 and 75 years. Immunological fecal occult blood test (FIT) was offered to all participants. Subjects with positive FIT underwent colonoscopy. RESULTS: A total of 12,668 individuals were enrolled, with a FIT compliance rate of 93.9% and 2,358 colonoscopies were performed. Two hundred and fifty high-risk adenomas and 110 cancer cases were diagnosed. One patient died before treatment due to cardiovascular disease, 74 patients (67%) underwent endoscopic resection and 35 had surgical treatment. Ninety one percent of patients had an early stage CRC (0-I-II). Among colonoscopy indicators, 80% of cases had an adequate bowel preparation (Boston > 6), cecal intubation rate was 97.7%, adenoma detection rate was 36.5%, and in 94.5% of colonoscopies, withdrawal time was adequate (> 8 min). CONCLUSIONS: This CRCS pilot model was associated to a high rate of FIT return and colonoscopy quality standards. Most CRCs detected with the program were treated by endoscopic resection.


Assuntos
Adenoma/diagnóstico , Colonoscopia/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adenoma/patologia , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Chile , Colonoscopia/normas , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Sangue Oculto , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
13.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(6): 685-692, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-961448

RESUMO

Background: Colorectal Cancer Screening Programs (CRCSP) are widely accepted in developed countries. Unfortunately, financial restrictions, low adherence rate and variability on colonoscopy standardization hamper the implementation of CRCSP in developing countries. Aim: To analyze a multicentric pilot model of CRCSP in Chile. Material and Methods: A prospective model of CRCSP was carried out in three cities, from 2012 to 2015. The model was based on CRC risk assessment and patient education. Health care personnel were trained about logistics and protocols. The endoscopy team was trained about colonoscopy standards. A registered nurse was the coordinator in each center. We screened asymptomatic population aged between 50 and 75 years. Immunological fecal occult blood test (FIT) was offered to all participants. Subjects with positive FIT underwent colonoscopy. Results: A total of 12,668 individuals were enrolled, with a FIT compliance rate of 93.9% and 2,358 colonoscopies were performed. Two hundred and fifty high-risk adenomas and 110 cancer cases were diagnosed. One patient died before treatment due to cardiovascular disease, 74 patients (67%) underwent endoscopic resection and 35 had surgical treatment. Ninety one percent of patients had an early stage CRC (0-I-II). Among colonoscopy indicators, 80% of cases had an adequate bowel preparation (Boston > 6), cecal intubation rate was 97.7%, adenoma detection rate was 36.5%, and in 94.5% of colonoscopies, withdrawal time was adequate (> 8 min). Conclusions: This CRCS pilot model was associated to a high rate of FIT return and colonoscopy quality standards. Most CRCs detected with the program were treated by endoscopic resection.

14.
Colorectal Dis ; 2018 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29316139

RESUMO

AIM: To describe the long-term outcomes of adipose-mesenchymal stem cells, platelet-rich plasma, and endorectal advancement flaps in patients with Perineal Crohn's Disease. METHOD: This was a single-center, prospective, observational pilot study performed between March 2013 and December 2016. The study included adult patients diagnosed with Perianal Crohn's Disease (with complex perianal fistulas) refractory to previous surgical and/or biological treatment. Patients underwent surgical treatment in two stages. Stage 1: Fistula mapping, drainage, seton placement and lipoaspiration to obtain adipose-mesenchymal stem cells were performed. Stage 2: The setons were removed, and the fistula tract was debrided. A small endorectal advancement flap was created, with closure of the previous internal fistula opening. Then, 100-120 million adipose-mesenchymal stem cells mixed with platelet-rich plasma were injected into the internal fistula opening and fistula tract. RESULTS: The study included nine patients (seven females), with a median age of 36 years (r = 23-57). Eleven fistula tracks were treated, of which, two were pouch-vaginal fistulas. The median follow-up period was 31 months (r=21-37). At the end of the follow-up period, 10/11 (91%) fistulas were completely healed and 1/11 (9%) was partially healed. At the end of this period, there was no evidence of fistula relapse or adverse reactions in any patients. The Perianal Disease Activity Index and Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire scores significantly improved after the procedure. CONCLUSION: Combined therapy with adipose-mesenchymal stem cells, platelet-rich plasma and endorectal advancement flaps yielded good results in patients with refractory Perineal Crohn's Disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

16.
Rev Med Chil ; 145(8): 1083-1088, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29189869

RESUMO

Acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC) is a potentially life-threatening condition that requires early recognition, hospitalization and adequate treatment. Currently, the use of infliximab in ulcerative colitis (UC) is recommended in the case of severe disease refractory to corticosteroids, once that superimposed bacterial or viral infections (such as cytomegalovirus or Clostridium difficile) have been excluded. However, conventional weight-based regimens of infliximab might be insufficient for patients with ASUC. Accelerated infliximab induction regimen may increase its serum concentration levels and efficacy by reducing early colectomy rates in these patients. We report a 34 year old female presenting with an ASUC. She was initially treated with hydrocortisone 300 mg/day and mesalazine enemas 4 g/day with an unfavorable clinical response. At the fifth day of therapy, an accelerated induction therapy with infliximab was started in doses of 10 mg/kg at weeks 0, 1 and 4. After the second dose, there was a favorable response with reduction of abdominal pain, stool frequency and hematochezia. She was discharged with prednisone and azathioprine. After a year of starting infliximab, the patient remains in clinical remission.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Biópsia , Colite Ulcerativa/diagnóstico por imagem , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Colonoscopia , Fezes , Feminino , Humanos , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/análise , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(10): 1342-1348, oct. 2017. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-902449

RESUMO

Primary colorectal lymphoma is a rare form of presentation of gastrointestinal tract lymphomas. Inflammatory bowel disease and its treatment are risk factors for its development. We report a 47-year-old male patient with Ulcerative Colitis of two years of evolution, treated initially with azathioprine and later on with infliximab. Due to a relapse in symptoms after the second dose of infliximab, a new coloncoscopy was performed showing a rectal ulcerative lesion, corresponding to a large cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma. The patient was successfully treated with RCHOP chemotherapy (Rituximab cyclophosphamide doxorubicin vincristine prednisone). He is currently in disease remission.

18.
J Dig Dis ; 18(11): 634-641, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28949435

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the correlation between clinical, fecal, endoscopic and histological activity in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: A correlational cross-sectional analysis was performed in patients with UC who underwent colonoscopy between February and December 2016. Clinical, endoscopic, fecal and histological activities were determined using the partial Mayo subscore, Mayo endoscopic subscore and modified Mayo endoscopic subscore, fecal calprotectin and Geboes score and the presence of basal plasmacytosis, respectively. Scores were analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation test. To determine the association between scores and some clinical variables and active UC, univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used. RESULTS: Altogether 105 procedures (93 patients) were included. In 64.8% of the procedures, the mucosa was inflamed; however, 14.7% did not show histological inflammation. Endoscopic remission was observed in the other 35.2% of procedures; however, in biopsies 21.6% exhibited histological inflammation. Mayo endoscopic subscore and modified Mayo endoscopic score were well correlated but were only moderately correlated with clinical and histological scores. Furthermore, there was a moderate correlation between Mayo endoscopic score and Geboes score. Conversely, histological scores were poorly correlated with partial Mayo score. In multivariate analysis, Geboes score and basal plasmacytosis were predictive of active disease (OR 3.505, 95% CI 1.544-7.959 and OR 3.240, 95% CI 1.123-9.349, respectively), whereas biological therapy was found to be protective against UC (OR 0.021, 95% CI 0.000-0.641). CONCLUSION: Clinical, endoscopic and histological activities were moderately correlated, while Geboes score and basal plasmacytosis were predictive of endoscopically active UC.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/diagnóstico por imagem , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia , Colonoscopia , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/química , Feminino , Humanos , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmócitos/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
19.
Tumour Biol ; 39(9): 1010428317724517, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28936923

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer is a multistep process affecting several signaling pathways including EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), a therapeutic target for metastatic disease. Our aim was to characterize the mutational and expression profiles of the EGFR pathway in colorectal tumors and to integrate these results according to five previously defined groups. We screened seven genes for mutations ( KRAS-BRAF-PIK3CA-PIK3R1-AKT1-MAP2K1-PTEN) and six proteins (EGFR-p110α-p85α-PTEN-phosphoAKT-phosphoMEK1) by immunohistochemistry, PTEN deletion, and MSI. At least one mutated gene was observed in 68% of tumors ( KRAS 45%, PIK3CA 21%, BRAF 14%, and PTEN 7%). PTEN deletion was observed in 10.7% of tumors and 19.6% were MSI-High. In all, 54% of tumors showed a high EGFR expression, 48% p110α, 4.4% phosphoAKT, and 22% phosphoMEK1; and 43% showed low PTEN expression and 22% p85α. In total, five groups of tumors were defined based on MSI, BRAF, and KRAS mutations. Three groups gather mainly early-stage tumors, whereas a fourth group is mostly conformed by advanced tumors. We described here that 71.4% of tumors from one group have a mutated PI3K/PTEN pathway, in comparison to other groups having 32%, 27%, and 25%. In addition, the five groups are differentiated by molecular features such as EGFR, p85α, p110α, and PTEN, showing variable expression among tumor groups. In conclusion, alterations on the EGFR pathway were found in a high percentage of colorectal cancer patients. Using the integration of diverse molecular markers, we ratified previous classification in an ethnic group having relevant genetic differences and living in a different environmental background, adding complementary molecular targets related to therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Receptores ErbB/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Chile , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Genes erbB-1 , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Análise Serial de Tecidos , Transcriptoma
20.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(8): 1083-1088, ago. 2017. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-902589

RESUMO

Acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC) is a potentially life-threatening condition that requires early recognition, hospitalization and adequate treatment. Currently, the use of infliximab in ulcerative colitis (UC) is recommended in the case of severe disease refractory to corticosteroids, once that superimposed bacterial or viral infections (such as cytomegalovirus or Clostridium difficile) have been excluded. However, conventional weight-based regimens of infliximab might be insufficient for patients with ASUC. Accelerated infliximab induction regimen may increase its serum concentration levels and efficacy by reducing early colectomy rates in these patients. We report a 34 year old female presenting with an ASUC. She was initially treated with hydrocortisone 300 mg/day and mesalazine enemas 4 g/day with an unfavorable clinical response. At the fifth day of therapy, an accelerated induction therapy with infliximab was started in doses of 10 mg/kg at weeks 0, 1 and 4. After the second dose, there was a favorable response with reduction of abdominal pain, stool frequency and hematochezia. She was discharged with prednisone and azathioprine. After a year of starting infliximab, the patient remains in clinical remission.

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