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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 760708, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777374

RESUMO

Objective: To characterize the incidence, type, and risk factors of severe infections (SI) in patients with autoimmune kidney diseases treated with rituximab (RTX). Methods: We conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study of adult patients with immune-related kidney diseases treated with at least one course of RTX between 2015 and 2019. As a part of the ABCDE Registry, detailed data on RTX application and SI were collected. SI were defined by Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v5.0 as infectious complications grade 3 and above. Patients were dichotomized between "nephrotic" and "nephritic" indications. The primary outcome was the incidence of SI within 12 months after the first RTX application. Results: A total of 144 patients were included. Twenty-five patients (17.4%) presented with SI, mostly within the first 3 months after RTX administration. Most patients in the nephritic group had ANCA-associated vasculitis, while membranous nephropathy was the leading entity in the nephrotic group. Respiratory infections were the leading SI (n= 10, 40%), followed by urinary tract (n=3, 12%) and gastrointestinal infections (n=2, 8%). On multivariable analysis, body mass index (BMI, 24.6 kg/m2 versus 26.9 kg/m2, HR: 0.88; 95%CI: 0.79-0.99; p=0.039) and baseline creatinine (HR: 1.25; 95%CI: 1.04-1.49; p=0.017) were significantly associated with SI. All patients in the nephritic group (n=19; 100%) who experienced a SI received oral glucocorticoid (GC) treatment at the time of infection. Hypogammaglobulinemia was frequent (58.5%) but not associated with SI. Conclusions: After RTX administration, impaired kidney function and lower BMI are independent risk factors for SI. Patients with nephritic glomerular diseases having concomitant GC treatment might be at higher risk of developing SI.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748001

RESUMO

In the last decades several important advances have taken place in the understanding of the pathogenesis underlying membranous nephropathy, which have sparked renewed interest in its management. Four landmark trials in membranous nephropathy, and a fifth clinical trial-which was a pilot study-, have been published in the last years. The results from some of these trials have had a significant impact in the recommendations included in the 2021 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Guideline for the Management of Glomerular Diseases, which represent a significant step forward compared to the previous guideline in several aspects such as diagnosis, disease monitoring and treatment strategies. However, considering the rapidly evolving advances in the knowledge of membranous nephropathy and the recent publication of the STARMEN and RI-CYCLO trials, several recommendations contained in the guideline warrant updates. This manuscript provides a perspective of the Immunonephrology Working Group of the European Renal Association (ERA) regarding the management of membranous nephropathy in native kidneys of adult patients.

4.
Psychol Med ; : 1-14, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in inflammatory biomarkers are important in depression. However, previous meta-analyses disagree on these associations, and errors in data extraction may account for these discrepancies. METHODS: PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library were searched from database inception to 14 January 2020. Meta-analyses of observational studies examining the association between depression and levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1-ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were eligible. Errors were classified as follows: incorrect sample sizes, incorrectly used standard deviation, incorrect participant inclusion, calculation error, or analysis with insufficient data. We determined their impact on the results after correction thereof. RESULTS: Errors were noted in 14 of the 15 meta-analyses included. Across 521 primary studies, 118 (22.6%) showed the following errors: incorrect sample sizes (20 studies, 16.9%), incorrect use of standard deviation (35 studies, 29.7%), incorrect participant inclusion (7 studies, 5.9%), calculation errors (33 studies, 28.0%), and analysis with insufficient data (23 studies, 19.5%). After correcting these errors, 11 (29.7%) out of 37 pooled effect sizes changed by a magnitude of more than 0.1, ranging from 0.11 to 1.15. The updated meta-analyses showed that elevated levels of TNF- α, IL-6, CRP, but not IL-1ß, are associated with depression. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that data extraction errors in meta-analyses can impact findings. Efforts to reduce such errors are important in studies of the association between depression and peripheral inflammatory biomarkers, for which high heterogeneity and conflicting results have been continuously reported.

6.
Autoimmun Rev ; : 102986, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718165

RESUMO

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic influenced the management of patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis. A paucity of data exists on outcome of patients with vasculitis following COVID-19, but mortality is higher than in the general population and comparable to patients undergoing haemodialysis or kidney transplant recipients (reported mortality rates of 20-25%). Delays in diagnosis have been reported, which are associated with sequelae such as dialysis-dependency. Management of ANCA-associated vasculitis has not changed with the aim to suppress disease activity and reduce burden of disease. The use of rituximab, an important and widely used agent, is associated with a more severe hospital course of COVID-19 and absence of antibodies following severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 infections, which prone patients to re-infection. Reports on vaccine antibody response are scarce at the moment, but preliminary findings point towards an impaired immune response, especially when patients receive rituximab as part of their treatment. Seropositivity was reported in less than 20% of patients when rituximab was administered within the prior six months, and the antibody response correlated with CD19+ B-cell repopulation. A delay in maintenance doses, if disease activity allows, has been suggested using a CD19+ B-cell guided strategy. Other immunosuppressive measures, which are used in ANCA-associated vasculitis, also impair humoral and cellular vaccine responses. Regular measurements of vaccine response or a healthcare-policy time-based strategy are indicated to provide additional doses ("booster") of COVID-19 vaccines. This review summarizes a recent educational forum and a recent virtual meeting of the European Vasculitis Society (EUVAS) focusing on COVID-19.

7.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709664

RESUMO

Two messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines developed by Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna are being rolled out. Despite the high volume of emerging evidence regarding adverse events (AEs) associated with the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines, previous studies have thus far been largely based on the comparison between vaccinated and unvaccinated control, possibly highlighting the AE risks with COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. Comparing the safety profile of mRNA vaccinated individuals with otherwise vaccinated individuals would enable a more relevant assessment for the safety of mRNA vaccination. We designed a comparative safety study between 18 755 and 27 895 individuals who reported to VigiBase for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) with mRNA COVID-19 and influenza vaccines, respectively, from January 1, 2020, to January 17, 2021. We employed disproportionality analysis to rapidly detect relevant safety signals and compared comparative risks of a diverse span of AEFIs for the vaccines. The safety profile of novel mRNA vaccines was divergent from that of influenza vaccines. The overall pattern suggested that systematic reactions like chill, myalgia, fatigue were more noticeable with the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, while injection site reactogenicity events were more prevalent with the influenza vaccine. Compared to the influenza vaccine, mRNA COVID-19 vaccines demonstrated a significantly higher risk for a few manageable cardiovascular complications, such as hypertensive crisis (adjusted reporting odds ratio [ROR], 12.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.47-65.54), and supraventricular tachycardia (adjusted ROR, 7.94; 95% CI, 2.62-24.00), but lower risk of neurological complications such as syncope, neuralgia, loss of consciousness, Guillain-Barre syndrome, gait disturbance, visual impairment, and dyskinesia. This study has not identified significant safety concerns regarding mRNA vaccination in real-world settings. The overall safety profile patterned a lower risk of serious AEFI following mRNA vaccines compared to influenza vaccines.

8.
Clin Transl Sci ; 2021 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719115

RESUMO

On October 2020, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved remdesivir as the first drug for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), increasing remdesivir prescriptions worldwide. However, potential cardiovascular (CV) toxicities associated with remdesivir remain unknown. We aimed to characterize the CV adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with remdesivir using VigiBase, an individual case safety report database of the World Health Organization (WHO). Disproportionality analyses of CV-ADRs associated with remdesivir were performed using reported odds ratios and information components. We conducted in vitro experiments using cardiomyocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cell cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) to confirm cardiotoxicity of remdesivir. To distinguish drug-induced CV-ADRs from COVID-19 effects, we restricted analyses to patients with COVID-19 and found that, after adjusting for multiple confounders, cardiac arrest (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.88, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-3.29), bradycardia (aOR: 2.09, 95% CI: 1.24-3.53), and hypotension (aOR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.03-2.73) were associated with remdesivir. In vitro data demonstrated that remdesivir reduced the cell viability of hPSC-CMs in time- and dose-dependent manners. Physicians should be aware of potential CV consequences following remdesivir use and implement adequate CV monitoring to maintain a tolerable safety margin.

9.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(15): 3395-3402, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522166

RESUMO

Computed tomography (CT) of the chest is one of the main diagnositic tools for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. To document the chest CT findings in patients with confirmed COVID-19 and their association with the clinical severity, we searched related literatures through PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science (inception to May 4, 2020) and reviewed reference lists of previous systematic reviews. A total of 31 case reports (3768 patients) on CT findings of COVID-19 were included. The most common comorbid conditions were hypertension (18.4%) and diabetes mellitus (8.3%). The most common symptom was fever (78.7%), followed by cough (60.2%). It took an average of 5.6 days from symptom onset to admission. The most common chest CT finding was vascular enlargement (84.8%), followed by ground-glass opacity (GGO) (60.1%), air-bronchogram (47.8%), and consolidation (41.4%). Most lung lesions were located in the lung periphery (72.2%) and involved bilateral lung (76%). Most patients showed normal range of laboratory findings such as white blood cell count (96.4%) and lymphocyte (87.2%). Compared to previous published meta-analyses, our study is the first to summarize the different radiologic characteristics of chest CT in a total of 3768 COVID-19 patients by compiling case series studies. A comprehensive diagnostic approach should be adopted for patients with known COVID-19, suspected cases, and for exposed individuals.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , COVID-19/sangue , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Contagem de Linfócitos , Oxigênio/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico
10.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 146(19): 1277-1282, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553353

RESUMO

HOW EFFECTIVE ARE THE APPROVED VACCINES IN KIDNEY DISEASES AND THOSE RECEIVING IMMUNOSUPPRESSION?: Several observational studies indicated that immunosuppression is associated with a weakened or absent humoral response. Patients with chronic kidney diseases or undergoing maintenance dialysis without immunosuppression have a reduced humoral response to COVID-19 vaccines. I HAD COVID-19. SHOULD I GET VACCINATED?: It is recommended to receive a booster after SARS-CoV-2 infection with a mRNA vaccine. IS A COVID-19 VACCINATION DESPITE ONGOING IMMUNOSUPPRESSION POSSIBLE?: Patients receiving immunosuppression have a reduced humoral response, and this is especially observed when anti-CD20 therapy is used. IS THERE A POSSIBILITY THAT THE VACCINE PROVOKES REJECTION OF MY TRANSPLANTED KIDNEY OR RELAPSE OF MY GLOMERULAR DISEASE?: Several reports were published in the last months highlighting new-onset diseases, recurrences and relapses of different glomerular diseases, which occurred after the receipt of the first or second vaccine dose. As a clear association of vaccines and induction of autoimmunity still needs to be established, most of these diseases are treatable, and COVID-19 in patients under immunosuppression is often fatal, there is a clear net benefit of vaccination. DO I HAVE A PERMANENT PROTECTION AFTER VACCINATION?: The antibody titers and likely the cellular immune response is significantly reduced in patients with kidney diseases, and titers are reducing at a fast pace under ongoing immunosuppression. A booster dose should be considered, especially taking into consideration the evolvement of virus variants and their impact on vaccine efficacy. AFTER THE FIRST SERIES OF VACCINATION, NO OR ONLY A MARGINAL AMOUNT OF ANTIBODIES WERE DETECTABLE. ARE THERE STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE VACCINE RESPONSE?: Many countries recommend the application of a third dose for vulnerable patient cohorts, especially because of a weakened response and their risk to develop a severe disease course of COVID-19. Prospective clinical trials are ongoing to test the ideal strategy to improve vaccine response in these cohorts.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Imunossupressores , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Humanos , Imunossupressão , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico
11.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508831

RESUMO

There continues to be rapid advancement in the understanding of pathogenesis of immune mediated kidney disease. This progress has culminated into development of multiple therapeutic agents that have consistently improved renal and patient outcomes. The focus of this review is to discuss these recent advancements in immune mediated kidney disease via the lens of direct and indirect immune mediated mechanisms. In the direct immune mediated disease, recently described antigens in anti-GBM disease and membranous nephropathy are discussed, along with new therapeutic regimes in membranous nephropathy and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. From an indirect immune disease standpoint, recent pivotal trials in anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody vasculitis, lupus nephritis and IgA nephropathy are examined from a real world practice perspective. New molecular pathways in various disorders of alternate complement pathway are described, which in turn, have led to development of various experimental therapies. In addition, pivotal and ongoing therapeutic trials in the aforementioned diseases are presented.

12.
Ther Apher Dial ; 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339589

RESUMO

Anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease (Goodpasture disease) often presents with severe kidney failure and pulmonary hemorrhage. Anti-GBM antibodies are pathogenic, and other autoantibodies such as laminin-521 have been identified recently, potentially indicating a subset with a more severe disease phenotype and poor prognosis. Around 30%-40% of patients are also anti-neutrophil cytoplasmatic antibody (ANCA)-positive and this subset combines features of anti-GBM disease and ANCA-associated vasculitis, with particular impact on long-term treatment. A combination of therapeutic plasma exchange (or immunoadsorption), cyclophosphamide, and glucocorticoids is considered standard of care management, but despite early initiation, patients with poor prognostic factors often remain dialysis dependent. Imlifidase (IdeS), capable to cleave IgG within hours, has been tested in a phase II trial. Among 15 patients, 10 with poor prognosis at baseline (eGFR <15 ml/min/1.73 m2 ) were dialysis independent at 6 months. Further developments are needed to refine treatment approaches in anti-GBM disease.

13.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(8): e21656, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation (LT) is the only curative treatment for end-stage liver disease. Less than 10% of global transplantation needs are met worldwide, and the need for LT is still increasing. The death rates on the waiting list remain too high. OBJECTIVE: It is, therefore, critical to raise awareness among the public and health care providers and in turn increasingly acquire donors. METHODS: We performed a Google Trends search using the search terms liver transplantation and liver transplant on October 15, 2020. On the basis of the resulting monthly data, the annual average Google Trends indices were calculated for the years 2004 to 2018. We not only investigated the trend worldwide but also used data from the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS), Spain, and Eurotransplant. Using pairwise Spearman correlations, Google Trends indices were examined over time and compared with the total number of liver transplants retrieved from the respective official websites of UNOS, the Organización Nacional de Trasplantes, and Eurotransplant. RESULTS: From 2004 to 2018, there was a significant decrease in the worldwide Google Trends index from 78.2 in 2004 to 20.5 in 2018 (-71.2%). This trend was more evident in UNOS than in the Eurotransplant group. In the same period, the number of transplanted livers increased worldwide. The waiting list mortality rate was 31% for Eurotransplant and 29% for UNOS. However, in Spain, where there are excellent awareness programs, the Google Trends index remained stable over the years with comparable, increasing LT numbers but a significantly lower waiting list mortality (15%). CONCLUSIONS: Public awareness in LT has decreased significantly over the past two decades. Therefore, novel awareness programs should be initialized.


Assuntos
Transplante de Fígado , Benchmarking , Humanos , Ferramenta de Busca , Espanha , Listas de Espera
15.
Br J Sports Med ; 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301715

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the potential associations between physical activity and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe illness from COVID-19 and COVID-19 related death using a nationwide cohort from South Korea. METHODS: Data regarding 212 768 Korean adults (age ≥20 years), who tested for SARS-CoV-2, from 1 January 2020 to 30 May 2020, were obtained from the National Health Insurance Service of South Korea and further linked with the national general health examination from 1 January 2018 to 31 December 2019 to assess physical activity levels. SARS-CoV-2 positivity, severe COVID-19 illness and COVID-19 related death were the main outcomes. The observation period was between 1 January 2020 and 31 July 2020. RESULTS: Out of 76 395 participants who completed the general health examination and were tested for SARS-CoV-2, 2295 (3.0%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, 446 (0.58%) had severe illness from COVID-19 and 45 (0.059%) died from COVID-19. Adults who engaged in both aerobic and muscle strengthening activities according to the 2018 physical activity guidelines had a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (2.6% vs 3.1%; adjusted relative risk (aRR), 0.85; 95% CI 0.72 to 0.96), severe COVID-19 illness (0.35% vs 0.66%; aRR 0.42; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.91) and COVID-19 related death (0.02% vs 0.08%; aRR 0.24; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.99) than those who engaged in insufficient aerobic and muscle strengthening activities. Furthermore, the recommended range of metabolic equivalent task (MET; 500-1000 MET min/week) was associated with the maximum beneficial effect size for reduced risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (aRR 0.78; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.92), severe COVID-19 illness (aRR 0.62; 95% CI 0.43 to 0.90) and COVID-19 related death (aRR 0.17; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.98). Similar patterns of association were observed in different sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSION: Adults who engaged in the recommended levels of physical activity were associated with a decreased likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe COVID-19 illness and COVID-19 related death. Our findings suggest that engaging in physical activity has substantial public health value and demonstrates potential benefits to combat COVID-19.

16.
Kidney Int Rep ; 6(9): 2292-2304, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34250319

RESUMO

The effects of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, particularly among those with chronic kidney disease (CKD), who commonly have defects in humoral and cellular immunity, and the efficacy of vaccinations against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) are uncertain. To inform public health and clinical practice, we synthesized published studies and preprints evaluating surrogate measures of immunity after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with CKD, including those receiving dialysis or with a kidney transplant. We found 35 studies (28 published, 7 preprints), with sample sizes ranging from 23 to 1140 participants and follow-up ranging from 1 week to 1 month after vaccination. Seventeen of these studies enrolled a control group. In the 22 studies of patients receiving dialysis, the development of antibodies was observed in 18% to 53% after 1 dose and in 70% to 96% after 2 doses of mRNA vaccine. In the 14 studies of transplant recipients, 3% to 59% mounted detectable humoral or cellular responses after 2 doses of mRNA vaccine. After vaccination, there were a few reported cases of relapse or de novo glomerulonephritis, and acute transplant rejection, suggesting a need for ongoing surveillance. Studies are needed to better evaluate the effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in these populations. Rigorous surveillance is necessary for detection of long-term adverse effects in patients with autoimmune disease and transplant recipients. For transplant recipients and those with suboptimal immune responses, alternate vaccination platforms and strategies should be considered. As additional data arise, the NephJC COVID-19 page will continue to be updated (http://www.nephjc.com/news/covid-vaccine).

17.
J Urol ; 206(6): 1361-1372, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288714

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD) and erectile dysfunction after cancer treatment are clinically important complications, but their exact prevalence by various kinds of cancer site and type of treatment is unknown. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the available evidence and provide pooled estimates for prevalence of EjD and erectile dysfunction in relation to all cancer sites and identify characteristics associated with EjD in cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional and case-control studies. We searched 4 electronic databases (Medline®, CINAHL, PsychInfo and Embase®) until July 22, 2020. All retrospective or prospective studies reporting the prevalence of EjD in male patients with cancer were included in this review. A random effects meta-analysis was conducted calculating prevalence proportions with 95% confidence intervals. Prevalence proportions were calculated for the incidences of EjD by cancer site and type of treatment. RESULTS: A total of 64 studies (a total of 10,057 participants) were included for analysis. The most common cancer sites were bladder, colon, testis and rectum. The prevalence rates of EjD after surgical intervention ranged from 14.5% (95% CI 2.2-56.3) in colon cancer to 53.0% (95% CI 23.3-80.7) in bladder cancer. The prevalence rates of erectile dysfunction ranged from 6.8% (95% CI 0.8-39.1) in bladder cancer to 68.7% (95% CI 55.2-79.6) in cancer of the rectum. CONCLUSIONS: In a large study-level meta-analysis, we looked at a high prevalence of EjD and erectile dysfunction at various cancer sites and across different treatment types. Prospective studies of EjD and erectile dysfunction after various kinds of cancer treatments are warranted.

18.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 3(10): e698-e706, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34179832

RESUMO

Background: Real-world evidence on the association between autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases, therapies related to these diseases, and COVID-19 outcomes are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the potential association between autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases and COVID-19 early in the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: We did an exposure-driven, propensity score-matched study using a South Korean nationwide cohort linked to general health examination records. We analysed all South Korean patients aged older than 20 years who underwent SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing between Jan 1 and May 30, 2020, and received general health examination results from the Korean National Health Insurance Service. We defined autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (inflammatory arthritis and connective tissue diseases) based on the relevant ICD-10 codes, with at least two claims (outpatient or inpatient) within 1 year. The outcomes were positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test, severe COVID-19 (requirement of oxygen therapy, intensive care unit admission, application of invasive ventilation, or death), and COVID-19-related death. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs were estimated after adjusting for the potential confounders. Findings: Between Jan 1 and May 30, 2020, 133 609 patients (70 050 [52·4%] female and 63 559 [47·6%] male) completed the general health examination and were tested for SARS-CoV-2; 4365 (3·3%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, and 8297 (6·2%) were diagnosed with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases. After matching, patients with an autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic disease showed an increased likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 (adjusted OR 1·19, 95% CI 1·03-1·40; p=0·026), severe COVID-19 outcomes (1·26, 1·02-1·59; p=0·041), and COVID-19-related death (1·69, 1·01-2·84; p=0·046). Similar results were observed in patients with connective tissue disease and inflammatory arthritis. Treatment with any dose of systemic corticosteroids or disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) were not associated with COVID-19-related outcomes, but those receiving high dose (≥10 mg per day) of systemic corticosteroids had an increased likelihood of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test (adjusted OR 1·47, 95% CI 1·05-2·03; p=0·022), severe COVID-19 outcomes (1·76, 1·06-2·96; p=0·031), and COVID-19-related death (3·34, 1·23-8·90; p=0·017). Interpretation: Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases were associated with an increased likelihood of a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test, worse clinical outcomes of COVID-19, and COVID-19-related deaths in South Korea. A high dose of systemic corticosteroid, but not DMARDs, showed an adverse effect on SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19-related clinical outcomes. Funding: National Research Foundation of Korea.

19.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(8): 2112-2123, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131410

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract that mainly affects young people. IBD is associated with various gastrointestinal symptoms, and thus, affects the quality of life of patients. Currently, the pathogenesis of IBD is poorly understood. Although intestinal bacteria and host immune response are thought to be major factors in its pathogenesis, a sufficient explanation of their role in its pathophysiologic mechanism has not been presented. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which are small RNA molecules that regulate gene expression, have gained attention as they are known to participate in the molecular interactions of IBD. Recent studies have confirmed the important role of miRNAs in targeting certain molecules in signaling pathways that regulate the homeostasis of the intestinal barrier, inflammatory reactions, and autophagy of the intestinal epithelium. Several studies have identified the specific miRNAs associated with IBD from colon tissues or serum samples of IBD patients and have attempted to use them as useful diagnostic biomarkers. Furthermore, some studies have attempted to treat IBD through intracolonic administration of specific miRNAs in the form of nanoparticle. This review summarizes the latest findings on the role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of IBD.

20.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 19(9): 1970-1972.e3, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940227

RESUMO

Remdesivir has demonstrated clinical benefits in randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)1-4 and was first approved for COVID-19 patients.5 However, whether remdesivir causes gastrointestinal adverse drug reaction (GI-ADRs) including hepatotoxicity is less clear.1-4,6 Therefore, we aimed to detect a diverse spectrum of GI-ADRs associated with remdesivir using VigiBase, the World Health Organization's international pharmacovigilance database of individual case safety reports.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos , Alanina/análogos & derivados , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Farmacovigilância , SARS-CoV-2 , Organização Mundial da Saúde
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