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1.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224608, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682633

RESUMO

PURPOSE AND METHODS: A meta-analysis using data from seven German population-based cohorts was performed by the German Epidemiological consortium of Peripheral Arterial Disease (GEPArD) to investigate whether one question about claudication is more efficient for PAD screening than established questionnaires. Claudication was defined on the basis of the answer to one question asking for pain in the leg during normal walking. This simple question was compared with established questionnaires, including the Edinburgh questionnaire. The associations of claudication with continuous ABI values and decreased ABI were analyzed by linear and logistic regression analysis, respectively. The results of the studies were pooled in a random effect meta-analysis, which included data from 27,945 individuals (14,052 women, age range 20-84 years). RESULTS: Meta-analysis revealed a significant negative association between claudication and ABI, which was stronger in men (ß = -0.07; 95%CI -0.10, -0.04) than in women (ß = -0.02; 95%CI -0.02, -0.01). Likewise, the presence of claudication symptoms was related to an increased odds of a decreased ABI in both men (Odds ratio = 5.40; 95%CI 4.20, 6.96) and women (Odds ratio = 1.99; 95%CI 1.58, 2.51). CONCLUSIONS: Asking only one question about claudication was able to identify many individuals with a high likelihood of a reduced ABI with markedly higher sensitivity and only slightly reduced specificity compared to more complex questionnaires. At least in men, this question should be established as first screening step.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582260

RESUMO

Genome sequencing and gene-based therapies appear poised to advance the management of rare lipoprotein disorders and associated dyslipidaemias. However, in practice, underdiagnosis and undertreatment of these disorders are common, in large part due to interindividual variability in the genetic causes and phenotypic presentation of these conditions. To address these challenges, the European Atherosclerosis Society formed a task force to provide practical clinical guidance focusing on patients with extreme concentrations (either low or high) of plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The task force also recognises the scarcity of quality information regarding the prevalence and outcomes of these conditions. Collaborative registries are needed to improve health policy for the care of patients with rare dyslipidaemias.

3.
Atherosclerosis ; 289: 181-183, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495537
4.
Atherosclerosis ; 288: 163-165, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327477
5.
Atherosclerosis ; 289: 201-205, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the effect of statin treatment initiation on lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels in patients with dyslipidemia, and the interactions with the apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] phenotype, LPA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and change in LDL cholesterol. METHODS: The study population consisted of patients with dyslipidemia, predominantly familial hypercholesterolemia, who first initiated statin treatment (initiation group; n = 39) or were already on stable statin treatment for at least 4 months (control group; n = 42). Plasma Lp(a) levels were determined with a particle-enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay before and at least 2 months after start of statin treatment in individuals of the initiation group, and at two time points with an interval of at least 2 months in the control group. High and low molecular weight (HMW and LMW, respectively) apo(a) phenotype was determined by immunoblotting, and the common LPA SNPs rs10455872, rs3798220 and rs41272110 by Taqman assay. RESULTS: Plasma Lp(a) levels did not increase significantly in the initiation group (median 20.5 (IQR 10.9-80.7) to 23.3 (10.8-71.8) mg/dL; p = 0.09) nor in the control group (30.9 (IQR 9.2-147.0) to 31.7 (IQR 10.9-164.0) mg/dL; p = 0.61). In patients with the LMW apo(a) phenotype, Lp(a) levels increased significantly from 66.4 (IQR 23.5-148.3) to 97.4 (IQR 24.9-160.4) mg/dL (p = 0.026) in the initiation group, but not in the control group and not in patients characterized by the HMW apo(a) phenotype. Interactions with common LPA SNPs and change in LDL cholesterol were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Statins affect Lp(a) levels differently in patients with dyslipidemia depending on the apo(a) phenotype. Statins increase Lp(a) levels exclusively in patients with the LMW apo(a) phenotype.

6.
Kidney Int ; 96(2): 480-488, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248648

RESUMO

Damage of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) with reduction in copy number has been proposed as a biomarker for mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased mortality and risk of cardiovascular disease, but the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here we investigated the prognostic role of mtDNA copy number for cause-specific mortality in 4812 patients from the German Chronic Kidney Disease study, an ongoing prospective observational national cohort study of patients with CKD stage G3 and A1-3 or G1-2 with overt proteinuria (A3) at enrollment. MtDNA was quantified in whole blood using a plasmid-normalized PCR-based assay. At baseline, 1235 patients had prevalent cardiovascular disease. These patients had a significantly lower mtDNA copy number than patients without cardiovascular disease (fully-adjusted model: odds ratio 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.05 per 10 mtDNA copies decrease). After four years of follow-up, we observed a significant inverse association between mtDNA copy number and all-cause mortality, adjusted for kidney function and cardiovascular disease risk factors (hazard ratio 1.37, 95% CI 1.09-1.73 for quartile 1 compared to quartiles 2-4). When grouped by causes of death, estimates pointed in the same direction for all causes but in a fully-adjusted model decreased copy numbers were significantly lower only in infection-related death (hazard ratio 1.82, 95% CI 1.08-3.08). A similar association was observed for hospitalizations due to infections in 644 patients (hazard ratio 1.19, 95% CI 1.00-1.42 in the fully-adjusted model). Thus, our data support a role of mitochondrial dysfunction in increased cardiovascular disease and mortality risks as well as susceptibility to infections in patients with CKD.

7.
Eur Respir J ; 54(1)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073081

RESUMO

Previous reports link differential DNA methylation (DNAme) to environmental exposures that are associated with lung function. Direct evidence on lung function DNAme is, however, limited. We undertook an agnostic epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) on pre-bronchodilation lung function and its change in adults.In a discovery-replication EWAS design, DNAme in blood and spirometry were measured twice, 6-15 years apart, in the same participants of three adult population-based discovery cohorts (n=2043). Associated DNAme markers (p<5×10-7) were tested in seven replication cohorts (adult: n=3327; childhood: n=420). Technical bias-adjusted residuals of a regression of the normalised absolute ß-values on control probe-derived principle components were regressed on level and change of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and their ratio (FEV1/FVC) in the covariate-adjusted discovery EWAS. Inverse-variance-weighted meta-analyses were performed on results from discovery and replication samples in all participants and never-smokers.EWAS signals were enriched for smoking-related DNAme. We replicated 57 lung function DNAme markers in adult, but not childhood samples, all previously associated with smoking. Markers not previously associated with smoking failed replication. cg05575921 (AHRR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor)) showed the statistically most significant association with cross-sectional lung function (FEV1/FVC: pdiscovery=3.96×10-21 and pcombined=7.22×10-50). A score combining 10 DNAme markers previously reported to mediate the effect of smoking on lung function was associated with lung function (FEV1/FVC: p=2.65×10-20).Our results reveal that lung function-associated methylation signals in adults are predominantly smoking related, and possibly of clinical utility in identifying poor lung function and accelerated decline. Larger studies with more repeat time-points are needed to identify lung function DNAme in never-smokers and in children.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is little information in haemodialysis (HD) patients on whether temporal changes in serum calcium, phosphate or intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) are associated with mortality. METHODS: We analysed associations of phosphate, total calcium and iPTH with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in 8817 incident HD patients from the European second Analyzing Data, Recognizing Excellence and Optimizing Outcomes (AROii) cohort enrolled in 2007-09, which were prospectively followed for a median of 3 years, using time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models. We evaluated changes in risk over time depending on changes in phosphate, calcium or iPTH. RESULTS: The association of phosphate and iPTH with all-cause mortality was U-shaped, with the lowest risk ranges between 1.20 and 1.89 mmol/L for phosphate and between 239 and 710 ng/L for iPTH. For total calcium, the associations were J-shaped, with an increased risk for all-cause mortality at levels >2.36 mmol/L. Lowest risk ranges for cardiovascular mortality did not change markedly for all three parameters. If iPTH was below the lowest risk range at baseline (iPTH <239 ng/L), a subsequent increase in levels was associated with improved survival. For phosphate, an increase or decrease out of the lowest risk range was associated with increased mortality risk. For calcium, this was only the case when the values increased above the lowest risk range. CONCLUSION: In the AROii cohort, the ranges of bone mineral biomarkers associated with the lowest mortality ranges were largely consistent with the current Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder guideline recommendations. Allowing a suppressed iPTH to increase was associated with a lower mortality, whereas shifts of phosphate or calcium outside the lowest risk range increased mortality.

9.
JAMA Cardiol ; 4(6): 575-579, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017618

RESUMO

Importance: Genetic and epidemiologic data suggest that lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) is one of the strongest genetically determined risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). Specific therapies to lower Lp(a) are on the horizon, but the required reduction of Lp(a) to translate into clinically relevant lowering of CHD outcomes is a matter of debate. Objective: To estimate the required Lp(a)-lowering effect size that may be associated with a reduction of CHD outcomes compared with the effect size of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)-lowering therapies. Design, Setting, and Participants: Genetic epidemiologic study using a mendelian randomization analysis to estimate the required Lp(a)-lowering effect size for a clinically meaningful effect on outcomes. We used the effect estimates for Lp(a) from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and meta-analysis on Lp(a) published in 2017 of 5 different primarily population-based studies of European ancestry. All Lp(a) measurements were performed in 1 laboratory. Genetic estimates for 27 single-nucleotide polymorphisms on Lp(a) concentrations were used. Odds ratios for these 27 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with CHD risk were retrieved from a subsample of the CHD Exome+ consortium. Exposures: Genetic LPA score, plasma Lp(a) concentrations, and observations of statin therapies on CHD outcomes. Main Outcomes and Measures: Coronary heart disease. Results: The study included 13 781 individuals from the Lp(a)-GWAS-Consortium from 5 primarily population-based studies and 20 793 CHD cases and 27 540 controls from a subsample of the CHD Exome+ consortium. Four of the studies were similar in age distribution (means between 51 and 59 years), and 1 cohort was younger; mean age, 32 years. The frequency of women was similar between 51% and 55%. We estimated that the required reduction in Lp(a) effect size would be 65.7 mg/dL (95% CI, 46.3-88.3) to reach the same potential effect on clinical outcomes that can be reached by lowering LDL-C by 38.67 mg/dL (to convert to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.0259). Conclusions and Relevance: This mendelian randomization analysis estimated a required Lp(a)-lowering effect size of 65.7 mg/dL to reach the same effect as a 38.67-mg/dL lowering of LDL-C. However, this estimate is determined by the observed effect estimates of single-nucleotide polymorphisms on Lp(a) concentrations and is therefore influenced by the standardization of the Lp(a) assay used. As a consequence, calculations of the required Lp(a)-lowering potential of a drug to be clinically effective might have been overestimated in the past.

10.
Clin Res Cardiol Suppl ; 14(Suppl 1): 5-12, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859385

RESUMO

In the middle of the 1990s the interest in Lp(a) vanished after a few badly performed studies almost erased Lp(a) from the map of biological targets. However, since roughly 10 years the interest has begun to grow again mainly for two reasons: first, genetic studies using easily accessible and high-throughput techniques for genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have allowed large studies in patients with cardiovascular disease and controls to be performed. This strengthened the earlier findings on a copy number variation in the LPA gene and its association with cardiovascular outcomes. Second, new therapies are on the horizon raising strong and justified hope that in a few years drugs will become available which tremendously lower Lp(a) concentrations. This review article should provide an introduction to the genetic determination of Lp(a) concentrations and considerations whether Lp(a) concentrations or genetic variants are important for the prediction of cardiovascular risk.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30791383

RESUMO

A high body mass (BMI) index has repeatedly been associated with non-atopic asthma, but the biological mechanism linking obesity to asthma is still poorly understood. We aimed to test the hypothesis that inflammation and/or innate immunity plays a role in the obesity-asthma link. DNA methylome was measured in blood samples of 61 non-atopic participants with asthma and 146 non-atopic participants without asthma (non-smokers for at least 10 years) taking part in the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA) study. Modification by DNA methylation of the association of BMI or BMI change over 10 years with adult-onset asthma was examined at each CpG site and differentially methylated region. Pathway enrichment tests were conducted for genes in a priori curated inflammatory pathways and the NLRP3-IL1B-IL17 axis. The latter was chosen on the basis of previous work in mice. Inflammatory pathways including glucocorticoid/PPAR signaling (p = 0.0023), MAPK signaling (p = 0.013), NF-κB signaling (p = 0.031), and PI3K/AKT signaling (p = 0.031) were enriched for the effect modification of BMI, while NLRP3-IL1B-IL17 axis was enriched for the effect modification of BMI change over 10 years (p = 0.046). DNA methylation measured in peripheral blood is consistent with inflammation as a link between BMI and adult-onset asthma and with the NLRP3-IL1B-IL17 axis as a link between BMI change over 10 years and adult-onset asthma in non-atopic participants.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Metilação de DNA , Inflamação/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Masculino , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Obesidade/complicações , PPAR gama/metabolismo
12.
Environ Int ; 125: 107-116, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30716571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence on the influence of long-term exposure to traffic-related particulate matter (TPM10) on heart rate variability (HRV) is weak. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of long-term exposure (10 years) with TPM10 on the regulation of the autonomic cardiovascular system and heart rate dynamics (HRD) in an aging general population, as well as potential modifying effects by the a priori selected factors sex, smoking status, obesity, and gene variation in selected glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). METHODS: We analyzed data from 1593 SAPALDIA cohort participants aged ≥ 50 years. For each participant, various HRV and HRD parameters were derived from 24-hour electrocardiogram recordings. Each parameter obtained was then used as the outcome variable in multivariable mixed linear regression models in order to evaluate the association with TPM10. Potential modifying effects were assessed using interaction terms. RESULTS: No association between long-term exposure to TPM10 and HRV/HRD was observed in the entire study population. However, HRD changes were found in subjects without cardiovascular morbidity and both HRD and HRV changes in non-obese subjects without cardiovascular morbidity. Subjects without cardiovascular morbidity with homozygous GSTM1 gene deletion appeared to be more susceptible to the effects of TPM10. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that long-term exposure to TPM10 triggers adverse changes in the regulation of the cardiovascular system. These adverse effects were more visible in the subjects without cardiovascular disease, in whom the overall relationship between TPM10 and HRV/HRD could not be masked by underlying morbidities and the potential counteracting effects of related drug treatments.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Material Particulado/análise , Fumar
13.
BMJ ; 364: k5301, 2019 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30630856

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the associations between adiposity measures (body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio) with decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and with all cause mortality. DESIGN: Individual participant data meta-analysis. SETTING: Cohorts from 40 countries with data collected between 1970 and 2017. PARTICIPANTS: Adults in 39 general population cohorts (n=5 459 014), of which 21 (n=594 496) had data on waist circumference; six cohorts with high cardiovascular risk (n=84 417); and 18 cohorts with chronic kidney disease (n=91 607). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: GFR decline (estimated GFR decline ≥40%, initiation of kidney replacement therapy or estimated GFR <10 mL/min/1.73 m2) and all cause mortality. RESULTS: Over a mean follow-up of eight years, 246 607 (5.6%) individuals in the general population cohorts had GFR decline (18 118 (0.4%) end stage kidney disease events) and 782 329 (14.7%) died. Adjusting for age, sex, race, and current smoking, the hazard ratios for GFR decline comparing body mass indices 30, 35, and 40 with body mass index 25 were 1.18 (95% confidence interval 1.09 to 1.27), 1.69 (1.51 to 1.89), and 2.02 (1.80 to 2.27), respectively. Results were similar in all subgroups of estimated GFR. Associations weakened after adjustment for additional comorbidities, with respective hazard ratios of 1.03 (0.95 to 1.11), 1.28 (1.14 to 1.44), and 1.46 (1.28 to 1.67). The association between body mass index and death was J shaped, with the lowest risk at body mass index of 25. In the cohorts with high cardiovascular risk and chronic kidney disease (mean follow-up of six and four years, respectively), risk associations between higher body mass index and GFR decline were weaker than in the general population, and the association between body mass index and death was also J shaped, with the lowest risk between body mass index 25 and 30. In all cohort types, associations between higher waist circumference and higher waist-to-height ratio with GFR decline were similar to that of body mass index; however, increased risk of death was not associated with lower waist circumference or waist-to-height ratio, as was seen with body mass index. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio are independent risk factors for GFR decline and death in individuals who have normal or reduced levels of estimated GFR.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Falência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estatura , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura
14.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(4): 409-422, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30599058

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to identify proteins that contribute to pathophysiology and allow prediction of incident type 2 diabetes or incident prediabetes. We quantified 14 candidate proteins using targeted mass spectrometry in plasma samples of the prospective, population-based German KORA F4/FF4 study (6.5-year follow-up). 892 participants aged 42-81 years were selected using a case-cohort design, including 123 persons with incident type 2 diabetes and 255 persons with incident WHO-defined prediabetes. Prospective associations between protein levels and diabetes, prediabetes as well as continuous fasting and 2 h glucose, fasting insulin and insulin resistance were investigated using regression models adjusted for established risk factors. The best predictive panel of proteins on top of a non-invasive risk factor model or on top of HbA1c, age, and sex was selected. Mannan-binding lectin serine peptidase (MASP) levels were positively associated with both incident type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. Adiponectin was inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes. MASP, adiponectin, apolipoprotein A-IV, apolipoprotein C-II, C-reactive protein, and glycosylphosphatidylinositol specific phospholipase D1 were associated with individual continuous outcomes. The combination of MASP, apolipoprotein E (apoE) and adiponectin improved diabetes prediction on top of both reference models, while prediabetes prediction was improved by MASP plus CRP on top of the HbA1c model. In conclusion, our mass spectrometric approach revealed a novel association of MASP with incident type 2 diabetes and incident prediabetes. In combination, MASP, adiponectin and apoE improved type 2 diabetes prediction beyond non-invasive risk factors or HbA1c, age and sex.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Apolipoproteínas E/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Serina Proteases Associadas a Proteína de Ligação a Manose/metabolismo , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteômica , Fatores de Risco
15.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 108(3): 453-475, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30535086

RESUMO

Background: Even before the onset of age-related diseases, obesity might be a contributing factor to the cumulative burden of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation throughout the life course. Obesity may therefore contribute to accelerated shortening of telomeres. Consequently, obese persons are more likely to have shorter telomeres, but the association between body mass index (BMI) and leukocyte telomere length (TL) might differ across the life span and between ethnicities and sexes. Objective: A collaborative cross-sectional meta-analysis of observational studies was conducted to investigate the associations between BMI and TL across the life span. Design: Eighty-seven distinct study samples were included in the meta-analysis capturing data from 146,114 individuals. Study-specific age- and sex-adjusted regression coefficients were combined by using a random-effects model in which absolute [base pairs (bp)] and relative telomere to single-copy gene ratio (T/S ratio) TLs were regressed against BMI. Stratified analysis was performed by 3 age categories ("young": 18-60 y; "middle": 61-75 y; and "old": >75 y), sex, and ethnicity. Results: Each unit increase in BMI corresponded to a -3.99 bp (95% CI: -5.17, -2.81 bp) difference in TL in the total pooled sample; among young adults, each unit increase in BMI corresponded to a -7.67 bp (95% CI: -10.03, -5.31 bp) difference. Each unit increase in BMI corresponded to a -1.58 × 10(-3) unit T/S ratio (0.16% decrease; 95% CI: -2.14 × 10(-3), -1.01 × 10(-3)) difference in age- and sex-adjusted relative TL in the total pooled sample; among young adults, each unit increase in BMI corresponded to a -2.58 × 10(-3) unit T/S ratio (0.26% decrease; 95% CI: -3.92 × 10(-3), -1.25 × 10(-3)). The associations were predominantly for the white pooled population. No sex differences were observed. Conclusions: A higher BMI is associated with shorter telomeres, especially in younger individuals. The presently observed difference is not negligible. Meta-analyses of longitudinal studies evaluating change in body weight alongside change in TL are warranted.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Encurtamento do Telômero/fisiologia , Telômero/ultraestrutura , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Leucócitos/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/patologia , Fatores Sexuais
16.
J Lipid Res ; 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30413653

RESUMO

Lipoprotein(a) concentrations are among the strongest genetic risk factors for cardiovascular disease and present pronounced inter-ethnic and inter-individual differences. About 90% of lipoprotein(a) variance is controlled by the LPA gene, which contains a 5.6 kb large copy number variation (KIV-2 repeat) that generates >40 protein isoforms. Variants within the KIV-2 region are not called in common sequencing projects, leaving up to 70% of the LPA coding region currently unaddressed. To allow a complete assessment of the variability in LPA, we developed a sequencing strategy for this region and report here the first map of genetic variation in the KIV-2 region, a comprehensively evaluated ultra-deep sequencing protocol and an easy-to-use variant analysis pipeline (https://github.com/genepi/lpa-pipeline). We sequenced 123 Central-European individuals and additionally reanalyzed public data of 2,504 individuals from 26 populations. We found dozens of loss-of-function and splice site mutations, as well as >100, partially even common, missense variants. Some coding variants were frequent in one population, but absent in others. This provides novel candidates to explain the large ethnic and individual differences in Lp(a) concentrations. Importantly, our approach and pipeline are applicable also to other similar copy number variable regions, allowing accessing regions, which are not captured by common genome sequencing.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476224

RESUMO

Background: Elevated plasma concentrations of symmetric and asymmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA and ADMA, respectively) and a lower plasma concentration of the structurally related homoarginine are commonly observed in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and independently predict total mortality as well as progression of renal disease. We aimed to identify drugs that may alter this adverse metabolite pattern in a favourable fashion. Methods: Plasma ADMA, SDMA, homoarginine and l-arginine were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in 4756 CKD patients ages 18-74 years with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 30-60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or an eGFR >60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and overt proteinuria who were enrolled in the German Chronic Kidney Disease (GCKD) study. Associations between laboratory, clinical and medication data were assessed. Results: Intake of several commonly used drugs was independently associated with plasma concentrations of homoarginine and/or related metabolites. Among these, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) agonist fenofibrate was associated with the most profound differences in ADMA, SDMA and homoarginine plasma concentrations: 66 patients taking fenofibrate had a multivariable adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 5.83 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.82-12.03, P < 0.001] to have a plasma homoarginine concentration above the median. The median homoarginine plasma concentration in patients taking fenofibrate was 2.30 µmol/L versus 1.55 in patients not taking the drug (P < 0.001). In addition, fibrates were significantly associated with lower plasma SDMA and higher l-arginine concentrations. In contrast, glucocorticoids were associated with lower plasma homoarginine, with adjusted ORs of 0.52 (95% CI 0.40-0.67, P < 0.001) and 0.53 (95% CI 0.31-0.90, P = 0.018) for prednisolone and methylprednisolone, respectively. Conclusions: In a large cohort of CKD patients, intake of fenofibrate and glucocorticoids were independently associated with higher and lower plasma homoarginine concentrations, respectively. Effects on plasma homoarginine and methylarginines warrant further investigation as potential mechanisms mediating beneficial or adverse drug effects.

18.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 2018 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30348535

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is complicated by abnormalities that reflect disruption in filtration, tubular, and endocrine functions of the kidney. Our aim was to explore the relationship of specific laboratory result abnormalities and hypertension with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria CKD staging framework. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional individual participant-level analyses in a global consortium. SETTING & STUDY POPULATIONS: 17 CKD and 38 general population and high-risk cohorts. SELECTION CRITERIA FOR STUDIES: Cohorts in the CKD Prognosis Consortium with data for eGFR and albuminuria, as well as a measurement of hemoglobin, bicarbonate, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, potassium, or calcium, or hypertension. DATA EXTRACTION: Data were obtained and analyzed between July 2015 and January 2018. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: We modeled the association of eGFR and albuminuria with hemoglobin, bicarbonate, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, potassium, and calcium values using linear regression and with hypertension and categorical definitions of each abnormality using logistic regression. Results were pooled using random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: The CKD cohorts (n=254,666 participants) were 27% women and 10% black, with a mean age of 69 (SD, 12) years. The general population/high-risk cohorts (n=1,758,334) were 50% women and 2% black, with a mean age of 50 (16) years. There was a strong graded association between lower eGFR and all laboratory result abnormalities (ORs ranging from 3.27 [95% CI, 2.68-3.97] to 8.91 [95% CI, 7.22-10.99] comparing eGFRs of 15 to 29 with eGFRs of 45 to 59mL/min/1.73m2), whereas albuminuria had equivocal or weak associations with abnormalities (ORs ranging from 0.77 [95% CI, 0.60-0.99] to 1.92 [95% CI, 1.65-2.24] comparing urinary albumin-creatinine ratio > 300 vs < 30mg/g). LIMITATIONS: Variations in study era, health care delivery system, typical diet, and laboratory assays. CONCLUSIONS: Lower eGFR was strongly associated with higher odds of multiple laboratory result abnormalities. Knowledge of risk associations might help guide management in the heterogeneous group of patients with CKD.

19.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 15347, 2018 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30337569

RESUMO

Alterations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number have been associated with a wide variety of phenotypes and diseases. Unfortunately, the literature provides scarce methodical information about duplex targeting of nuclear and mtDNA that meets the quality criteria for qPCR. Therefore, we established a method for mtDNA copy number quantification using a quantitative PCR assay that allows for simultaneous targeting of a single copy nuclear gene (beta-2-microglobulin) and the t-RNALeu gene on the mtDNA. We include a plasmid containing both targets in order to normalize against differences in emission intensities of the fluorescent dyes Yakima Yellow and FAM. Applying the plasmid calibrator on an internal control reduced the intra-assay variability from 21% (uncorrected) to 7% (plasmid-corrected). Moreover, we noted that DNA samples isolated with different methods revealed different numbers of mtDNA copies, thus highlighting an important influence of the pre-analytical procedures. In summary, we developed a precise assay for mitochondrial copy number detection relative to nuclear DNA. Our method is applicable to comparative mitochondrial DNA copy number studies since the use of the dual insert plasmid allows correcting for the unequal emission intensities of the different fluorescent labels of the two targets.

20.
Lancet ; 392(10155): 1311-1320, 2018 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30293769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated lipoprotein(a) is a genetic risk factor for cardiovascular disease in general population studies. However, its contribution to risk for cardiovascular events in patients with established cardiovascular disease or on statin therapy is uncertain. METHODS: Patient-level data from seven randomised, placebo-controlled, statin outcomes trials were collated and harmonised to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for cardiovascular events, defined as fatal or non-fatal coronary heart disease, stroke, or revascularisation procedures. HRs for cardiovascular events were estimated within each trial across predefined lipoprotein(a) groups (15 to <30 mg/dL, 30 to <50 mg/dL, and ≥50 mg/dL, vs <15 mg/dL), before pooling estimates using multivariate random-effects meta-analysis. FINDINGS: Analyses included data for 29 069 patients with repeat lipoprotein(a) measurements (mean age 62 years [SD 8]; 8064 [28%] women; 5751 events during 95 576 person-years at risk). Initiation of statin therapy reduced LDL cholesterol (mean change -39% [95% CI -43 to -35]) without a significant change in lipoprotein(a). Associations of baseline and on-statin treatment lipoprotein(a) with cardiovascular disease risk were approximately linear, with increased risk at lipoprotein(a) values of 30 mg/dL or greater for baseline lipoprotein(a) and 50 mg/dL or greater for on-statin lipoprotein(a). For baseline lipoprotein(a), HRs adjusted for age and sex (vs <15 mg/dL) were 1·04 (95% CI 0·91-1·18) for 15 mg/dL to less than 30 mg/dL, 1·11 (1·00-1·22) for 30 mg/dL to less than 50 mg/dL, and 1·31 (1·08-1·58) for 50 mg/dL or higher; respective HRs for on-statin lipoprotein(a) were 0·94 (0·81-1·10), 1·06 (0·94-1·21), and 1·43 (1·15-1·76). HRs were almost identical after further adjustment for previous cardiovascular disease, diabetes, smoking, systolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol. The association of on-statin lipoprotein(a) with cardiovascular disease risk was stronger than for on-placebo lipoprotein(a) (interaction p=0·010) and was more pronounced at younger ages (interaction p=0·008) without effect-modification by any other patient-level or study-level characteristics. INTERPRETATION: In this individual-patient data meta-analysis of statin-treated patients, elevated baseline and on-statin lipoprotein(a) showed an independent approximately linear relation with cardiovascular disease risk. This study provides a rationale for testing the lipoprotein(a) lowering hypothesis in cardiovascular disease outcomes trials. FUNDING: Novartis Pharma AG.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Lipoproteína(a)/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Lipoproteína(a)/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco
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