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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 964, 2021 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574263

RESUMO

Metabolite levels in urine may provide insights into genetic mechanisms shaping their related pathways. We therefore investigate the cumulative contribution of rare, exonic genetic variants on urine levels of 1487 metabolites and 53,714 metabolite ratios among 4864 GCKD study participants. Here we report the detection of 128 significant associations involving 30 unique genes, 16 of which are known to underlie inborn errors of metabolism. The 30 genes are strongly enriched for shared expression in liver and kidney (odds ratio = 65, p-FDR = 3e-7), with hepatocytes and proximal tubule cells as driving cell types. Use of UK Biobank whole-exome sequencing data links genes to diseases connected to the identified metabolites. In silico constraint-based modeling of gene knockouts in a virtual whole-body, organ-resolved metabolic human correctly predicts the observed direction of metabolite changes, highlighting the potential of linking population genetics to modeling. Our study implicates candidate variants and genes for inborn errors of metabolism.


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/genética , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/urina , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Doenças Raras/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477827

RESUMO

Massive parallel sequencing technologies are promising a highly sensitive detection of low-level mutations, especially in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) studies. However, processes from DNA extraction and library construction to bioinformatic analysis include several varying tasks. Further, there is no validated recommendation for the comprehensive procedure. In this study, we examined potential pitfalls on the sequencing results based on two-person mtDNA mixtures. Therefore, we compared three DNA polymerases, six different variant callers in five mixtures between 50% and 0.5% variant allele frequencies generated with two different amplification protocols. In total, 48 samples were sequenced on Illumina MiSeq. Low-level variant calling at the 1% variant level and below was performed by comparing trimming and PCR duplicate removal as well as six different variant callers. The results indicate that sensitivity, specificity, and precision highly depend on the investigated polymerase but also vary based on the analysis tools. Our data highlight the advantage of prior standardization and validation of the individual laboratory setup with a DNA mixture model. Finally, we provide an artificial heteroplasmy benchmark dataset that can help improve somatic variant callers or pipelines, which may be of great interest for research related to cancer and aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/genética , /genética , Benchmarking , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mutação/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
4.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517383
5.
Genome Res ; 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452015

RESUMO

Within-species contamination is a major issue in sequencing studies, especially for mitochondrial studies. Contamination can be detected by analyzing the nuclear genome or by inspecting polymorphic sites in the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). Existing methods using the nuclear genome are computationally expensive, and no appropriate tool for detecting sample contamination in large-scale mtDNA data sets is available. Here we present haplocheck, a tool that requires only the mtDNA to detect contamination in both targeted mitochondrial and whole-genome sequencing studies. Our in silico simulations and amplicon mixture experiments indicate that haplocheck detects mtDNA contamination accurately and is independent of the phylogenetic distance within a sample mixture. By applying haplocheck to The 1000 Genomes Project Consortium data, we further evaluate the application of haplocheck as a fast proxy tool for nDNA-based contamination detection using the mtDNA and identify the mitochondrial copy number within a mixture as a critical component for the overall accuracy. The haplocheck tool is available both as a command-line tool and as a cloud web service producing interactive reports that facilitates the navigation through the phylogeny of contaminated samples.

6.
Clin Chem ; 67(3): 478-489, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331636

RESUMO

Current dyslipidemia management in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is based on traditional serum lipids. Yet, there is some indication from basic research that serum apolipoproteins A-I, (a), B, C-I, C-II, C-III, and E may give better pathophysiological insight into the root causes of dyslipidemia. To facilitate the future adoption of clinical serum apolipoprotein (apo) profiling for precision medicine, strategies for accurate testing should be developed in advance. Recent discoveries in basic science and translational medicine set the stage for the IFCC Working Group on Apolipoproteins by Mass Spectrometry. Main drivers were the convergence of unmet clinical needs in cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients with enabling technology and metrology. First, the residual cardiovascular risk after accounting for established risk factors demonstrates that the current lipid panel is too limited to capture the full complexity of lipid metabolism in patients. Second, there is a need for accurate test results in highly polymorphic and atherogenic apolipoproteins such as apo(a). Third, sufficient robustness of mass spectrometry technology allows reproducible protein quantification at the molecular level. Fourth, several calibration hierarchies in the revised ISO 17511:2020 guideline facilitate metrological traceability of test results, the highest achievable standard being traceability to SI. This article outlines the conceptual approach aimed at achieving a novel, multiplexed Reference Measurement System (RMS) for seven apolipoproteins based on isotope dilution mass spectrometry and peptide-based calibration. This RMS should enable standardization of existing and emerging apolipoprotein assays to SI, within allowable limits of measurement uncertainty, through a sustainable network of Reference Laboratories.

8.
Atherosclerosis ; 316: 41-47, 2020 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33302043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) affects more than 200 million people worldwide. Increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)levels are a risk factor for PAD and the concentrations are influenced by proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9). PCSK9 regulates the recycling of the LDL receptors to the cell membrane surface. Only a limited number of mostly small studies investigated the association between serum PCSK9 concentrations and PAD of different definition, which revealed contrasting results. METHODS: Serum PCSK9, lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] and other lipoprotein concentrations were measured in male participants of the CAVASIC study, a case-control study of 248 patients with intermittent claudication and 251 age and diabetes-matched controls. RESULTS: PAD patients had significantly higher PCSK9 concentrations when compared to controls (250 ± 77 vs. 222 ± 68 ng/mL, p < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age revealed that an increase in PCSK9 concentrations of 100 ng/mL was associated with a 1.78-fold higher risk for PAD (95%CI 1.38-2.33, p = 1.43 × 10-5). The association attenuated, but was still significant when adjusting additionally for age, Lp(a)-corrected LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, high-sensitivity-CRP, statin treatment, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and smoking (OR = 1.49, 95%CI 1.03-2.18, p = 0.035). The strongest association was observed when both PCSK9 concentrations were above the median and Lp(a) concentrations were above 30 mg/dL (OR = 3.35, 95%CI 1.49-7.71, p = 0.0038). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest an association of higher PCSK9 concentrations with PAD, which was independent of other lipid parameters and classical cardiovascular risk factors.

9.
Eur Respir J ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After the 2002/2003 SARS outbreak, 30% of survivors exhibited persisting structural pulmonary abnormalities. The long-term pulmonary sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are yet unknown, and comprehensive clinical follow-up data are lacking. METHODS: In this prospective, multicentre, observational study, we systematically evaluated the cardiopulmonary damage in subjects recovering from COVID-19 at 60 and 100 days after confirmed diagnosis. We conducted a detailed questionnaire, clinical examination, laboratory testing, lung function analysis, echocardiography, and thoracic low-dose computed tomography (CT). RESULTS: Data from 145 COVID-19 patients were evaluated, and 41% of all subjects exhibited persistent symptoms 100 days after COVID-19 onset, with dyspnea being most frequent (36%). Accordingly, patients still displayed an impaired lung function, with a reduced diffusing capacity in 21% of the cohort being the most prominent finding. Cardiac impairment, including a reduced left ventricular function or signs of pulmonary hypertension, was only present in a minority of subjects. CT scans unveiled persisting lung pathologies in 63% of patients, mainly consisting of bilateral ground-glass opacities and/or reticulation in the lower lung lobes, without radiological signs of pulmonary fibrosis. Sequential follow-up evaluations at 60 and 100 days after COVID-19 onset demonstrated a vast improvement of both, symptoms and CT abnormalities over time. CONCLUSION: A relevant percentage of post-COVID-19 patients presented with persisting symptoms and lung function impairment along with pulmonary abnormalities more than 100 days after the diagnosis of COVID-19. However, our results indicate a significant improvement in symptoms and cardiopulmonary status over time.

10.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; : ATVBAHA120315446, 2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes is linked to elevated levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and their remnants. The metabolic effects of PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9) inhibitors on this dyslipidemia were investigated using stable-isotope-labeled tracers. Approach and Results: Triglyceride transport and the metabolism of apos (apolipoproteins) B48, B100, C-III, and E after a fat-rich meal were investigated before and on evolocumab treatment in 13 subjects with type 2 diabetes. Kinetic parameters were determined for the following: apoB48 in chylomicrons; triglyceride in VLDL1 (very low-density lipoprotein) and VLDL2; and apoB100 in VLDL1, VLDL2, IDL (intermediate-density lipoprotein), and LDL (low-density lipoprotein). Evolocumab did not alter the kinetics of apoB48 in chylomicrons or apoB100 or triglyceride in VLDL1. In contrast, the fractional catabolic rates of VLDL2-apoB100 and VLDL2-triglyceride were both increased by about 45%, which led to a 28% fall in the VLDL2 plasma level. LDL-apoB100 was markedly reduced by evolocumab, which was linked to metabolic heterogeneity in this fraction. Evolocumab increased clearance of the more rapidly metabolized LDL by 61% and decreased production of the more slowly cleared LDL by 75%. ApoC-III kinetics were not altered by evolocumab, but the apoE fractional catabolic rates increased by 45% and the apoE plasma level fell by 33%. The apoE fractional catabolic rates was associated with the decrease in VLDL2- and IDL-apoB100 concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Evolocumab had only minor effects on lipoproteins that are involved in triglyceride transport (chylomicrons and VLDL1) but, in contrast, had a profound impact on lipoproteins that carry cholesterol (VLDL2, IDL, LDL). Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02948777.

11.
Genome Med ; 12(1): 74, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The concentrations of the highly atherogenic lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] are mainly genetically determined by the LPA gene locus. However, up to 70% of the coding sequence is located in the complex so-called kringle IV type 2 (KIV-2) copy number variation, a region hardly accessible by common genotyping and sequencing technologies. Despite its size, little is known about genetic variants in this complex region. The R21X variant is a functional variant located in this region, but it has never been analyzed in large cohorts. METHODS: We typed R21X in 10,910 individuals from three European populations using a newly developed high-throughput allele-specific qPCR assay. R21X allelic location was determined by separating the LPA alleles using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and typing them separately. Using GWAS data, we identified a proxy SNP located outside of the KIV-2. Linkage disequilibrium was determined both statistically and by long-range haplotyping using PFGE. Worldwide frequencies were determined by reanalyzing the sequencing data of the 1000 Genomes Project with a dedicated pipeline. RESULTS: R21X carriers (frequency 0.016-0.021) showed significantly lower mean Lp(a) concentrations (- 11.7 mg/dL [- 15.5; - 7.82], p = 3.39e-32). The variant is located mostly on medium-sized LPA alleles. In the 1000 Genome data, R21X mostly occurs in Europeans and South Asians, is absent in Africans, and shows varying frequencies in South American populations (0 to 0.022). Of note, the best proxy SNP was another LPA null mutation (rs41272114, D' = 0.958, R2 = 0.281). D' was very high in all 1000G populations (0.986-0.996), although rs41272114 frequency varies considerably (0-0.182). Co-localization of both null mutations on the same allele was confirmed by PFGE-based long-range haplotyping. CONCLUSIONS: We performed the largest epidemiological study on an LPA KIV-2 variant so far, showing that it is possible to assess LPA KIV-2 mutations on a large scale. Surprisingly, in all analyzed populations, R21X was located on the same haplotype as the splice mutation rs41272114, creating "double-null" LPA alleles. Despite being a nonsense variant, the R21X status does not provide additional information beyond the rs41272114 genotype. This has important implications for studies using LPA loss-of-function mutations as genetic instruments and emphasizes the complexity of LPA genetics.

13.
Kidney Int ; 98(2): 488-497, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641227

RESUMO

Telomere length is known to be inversely associated with aging and has been proposed as a marker for aging-related diseases. Telomere attrition can be accelerated by oxidative stress and inflammation, both commonly present in patients with chronic kidney disease. Here, we investigated whether relative telomere length is associated with mortality in a large cohort of patients with chronic kidney disease stage G3 and A1-3 or G1-2 with overt proteinuria (A3) at enrollment. Relative telomere length was quantified in peripheral blood by a quantitative PCR method in 4,955 patients from the GCKD study, an ongoing prospective observational cohort. Complete four-year follow-up was available from 4,926 patients in whom we recorded 354 deaths. Relative telomere length was a strong and independent predictor of all-cause mortality. Each decrease of 0.1 relative telomere length unit was highly associated with a 14% increased risk of death (hazard ratio1.14 [95% confidence interval 1.06-1.22]) in a model adjusted for age, sex, baseline eGFR, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, diabetes mellitus, prevalent cardiovascular disease, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, smoking, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, C-reactive protein and serum albumin. This translated to a 75% higher risk for those in the lowest compared to the highest quartile of relative telomere length. The association was mainly driven by 117 cardiovascular deaths (1.20 [1.05-1.35]) as well as 67 deaths due to infections (1.27 [1.07-1.50]). Thus, our findings support an association of shorter telomere length with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and death due to infections in patients with moderate chronic kidney disease.

14.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(7)2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708892

RESUMO

While a shift in energy metabolism is essential to cancers, the knowledge about the involvement of the mitochondrial genome in tumorigenesis and progression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is still very limited. In this study, we evaluated 37 OSCC tumors and the corresponding benign mucosa tissue pairs by deep sequencing of the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). After extensive quality control, we identified 287 variants, 137 in tumor and 150 in benign samples exceeding the 1% threshold. Variant heteroplasmy levels were significantly increased in cancer compared to benign tissues (p = 0.0002). Furthermore, pairwise high heteroplasmy frequency difference variants (∆HF% > 20) with potential functional impact were increased in the cancer tissues (p = 0.024). Fourteen mutations were identified in the protein-coding region, out of which thirteen were detected in cancer and only one in benign tissue. After eight years of follow-up, the risk of mortality was higher for patients who harbored at least one ∆HF% > 20 variant in mtDNA protein-coding regions relative to those with no mutations (HR = 4.6, (95%CI = 1.3-17); p = 0.019 in primary tumor carriers). Haplogroup affiliation showed an impact on survival time, which however needs confirmation in a larger study. In conclusion, we observed a significantly higher accumulation of somatic mutations in the cancer tissues associated with a worse prognosis.

15.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 218, 2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The extension of the interdialytic interval due to due to dialysis session non-attendance varies according to which session of the week the patient misses. The impact of this on subsequent hospitalization and mortality is unknown. METHODS: The ARO cohort study prospectively collected data from hemodialysis patients across 15 European countries on demography, comorbidity, laboratory, hospitalisation, mortality and individual hemodialysis sessions from 2007 to 2014. Event rates for death and hospitalisation according to dialysis day of the week were calculated for patients who attended the three previous scheduled hemodialysis sessions, who then on the next scheduled dialysis day either attended or did not attend. The hazard ratio for these events following non-attendance for the first compared to the second dialysis session of the week was estimated using Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for patient demographics. RESULTS: 3.8 million hemodialysis sessions in 9397 patients were analysed. The non-attendance rates for Monday/Wednesday/Friday sessions were 0.8, 0.9% & 1.4% respectively, and for Tuesday/Thursday/Saturday sessions were 0.6, 1.0% & 1.2% respectively. Compared to those who attended, for the 48-72 h between non-attendance and the next scheduled haemodialysis session, mortality significantly increased from 4.86 to 51.9/100 pt-yrs and hospitalisation increased from 0.58 to 2.1/yr. As time from the two-day break increased, the risk associated with non-attendance lessened: compared to missing the second hemodialysis session, missing the first session had a hazard ratio for mortality of 2.04 (95% CI 1.27-3.29), and for hospitalisation 1.78 (95% CI 1.29-2.47). In patients who attended their scheduled dialysis session and the three preceding, after the two-day break there were absolute increases in mortality (8.3 vs. 4.9/100 pt-yrs) and hospitalisation (1.0 vs. 0.6/yr for the rest of the week) comparable to previous studies. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to hospitalisation and mortality increases seen after the two-day break, additional harm may be manifested in the greater increases in mortality and hospitalisation observed after non-attendance for the first hemodialysis session after the two-day break compared to missing other sessions.

16.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(6): 67003, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) on air pollutants exist, and none have been done on transportation noise exposures, which also contribute to environmental burden of disease. OBJECTIVE: We performed mutually independent EWAS on transportation noise and air pollution exposures. METHODS: We used data from two time points of the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA) from 1,389 participants contributing 2,542 observations. We applied multiexposure linear mixed-effects regressions with participant-level random intercept to identify significant Cytosine-phosphate-Guanine (CpG) sites and differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in relation to 1-y average aircraft, railway, and road traffic day-evening-night noise (Lden); nitrogen dioxide (NO2); and particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter <2.5µm (PM2.5). We performed candidate (CpG-based; cross-systemic phenotypes, combined into "allostatic load") and agnostic (DMR-based) pathway enrichment tests, and replicated previously reported air pollution EWAS signals. RESULTS: We found no statistically significant CpGs at false discovery rate <0.05. However, 14, 48, 183, 8, and 71 DMRs independently associated with aircraft, railway, and road traffic Lden; NO2; and PM2.5, respectively, with minimally overlapping signals. Transportation Lden and air pollutants tendentially associated with decreased and increased methylation, respectively. We observed significant enrichment of candidate DNA methylation related to C-reactive protein and body mass index (aircraft, road traffic Lden, and PM2.5), renal function and "allostatic load" (all exposures). Agnostic functional networks related to cellular immunity, gene expression, cell growth/proliferation, cardiovascular, auditory, embryonic, and neurological systems development were enriched. We replicated increased methylation in cg08500171 (NO2) and decreased methylation in cg17629796 (PM2.5). CONCLUSIONS: Mutually independent DNA methylation was associated with source-specific transportation noise and air pollution exposures, with distinct and shared enrichments for pathways related to inflammation, cellular development, and immune responses. These findings contribute in clarifying the pathways linking these exposures and age-related diseases but need further confirmation in the context of mediation analyses. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP6174.

17.
Eur Heart J ; 41(24): 2272-2274, 2020 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445566
18.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232073, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343731

RESUMO

Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a major cardiovascular risk factor, which is largely genetically determined by one major gene locus, the LPA gene. Many aspects of the transcriptional regulation of LPA are poorly understood and the role of epigenetics has not been addressed yet. Therefore, we conducted an epigenome-wide analysis of DNA methylation on Lp(a) levels in two population-based studies (total n = 2208). We identified a CpG site in the LPA promoter which was significantly associated with Lp(a) concentrations. Surprisingly, the identified CpG site was found to overlap the SNP rs76735376. We genotyped this SNP de-novo in three studies (total n = 7512). The minor allele of rs76735376 (1.1% minor allele frequency) was associated with increased Lp(a) values (p = 1.01e-59) and explained 3.5% of the variation of Lp(a). Statistical mediation analysis showed that the effect on Lp(a) is rather originating from the base change itself and is not mediated by DNA methylation levels. This finding is supported by eQTL data from 208 liver tissue samples from the GTEx project, which shows a significant association of the rs76735376 minor allele with increased LPA expression. To evaluate, whether the association signal at rs76735376 may actually be derived from a stronger eQTL signal in LD with this SNP, eQTL association results of all correlated SNPs (r2≥0.1) were integrated with genetic association results. This analysis pinpointed to rs10455872 as the potential trigger of the effect of rs76735376. Furthermore, both SNPs coincide with short apo(a) isoforms. Adjusting for both, rs10455872 and the apo(a) isoforms diminished the effect size of rs76735376 to 5.38 mg/dL (p = 0.0463). This indicates that the effect of rs76735376 can be explained by both an independent effect of the SNP and a strong correlation with rs10455872 and apo(a) isoforms.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Lipoproteína(a)/genética , Lipoproteína(a)/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ilhas de CpG , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
20.
Eur Heart J ; 41(40): 3949-3959, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227235

RESUMO

AIMS: Imbalances of iron metabolism have been linked to the development of atherosclerosis. However, subjects with hereditary haemochromatosis have a lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease. The aim of our study was to understand the underlying mechanisms by combining data from genome-wide association study analyses in humans, CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, and loss-of-function studies in mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Our analysis of the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium (GLGC) dataset revealed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the haemochromatosis gene HFE associate with reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in human plasma. The LDL-C lowering effect could be phenocopied in dyslipidaemic ApoE-/- mice lacking Hfe, which translated into reduced atherosclerosis burden. Mechanistically, we identified HFE as a negative regulator of LDL receptor expression in hepatocytes. Moreover, we uncovered liver-resident Kupffer cells (KCs) as central players in cholesterol homeostasis as they were found to acquire and transfer LDL-derived cholesterol to hepatocytes in an Abca1-dependent fashion, which is controlled by iron availability. CONCLUSION: Our results disentangle novel regulatory interactions between iron metabolism, KC biology and cholesterol homeostasis which are promising targets for treating dyslipidaemia but also provide a mechanistic explanation for reduced cardiovascular morbidity in subjects with haemochromatosis.

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