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1.
J Pers ; 2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35929351

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Loneliness represents a public health threat given its central role in predicting adverse mental and physical health outcomes. Prior research has established four of the Big Five personality traits as consistent cross-sectional predictors of loneliness in largely western, White samples. However, it is not clear if the personality predictors of loneliness vary across cultures. METHOD: The present study estimates associations between the Big Five traits and loneliness across distinct samples of White American, Black American, and Japanese adults (n = 6051 at T1). Confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling were used to examine measurement invariance properties of the Big Five and loneliness across these groups. The factor structures were then carried forward to estimate associations between personality and loneliness across two assessments waves using structural equation modeling. RESULTS: While Neuroticism was a strong predictor across groups, low Extraversion was more predictive of loneliness in Japan than in the U.S., and low Conscientiousness was only a significant predictor in the U.S. CONCLUSIONS: Previous literature offers a framework for interpreting these findings in that loneliness may be shaped comparatively more through interconnectedness in Japanese culture, while, in the U.S., individual goals and personal romantic expectations are more salient.

2.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931810

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study tested the interactive effects of childhood adversity and polygenic risk scores for waist circumference (PRS-WC) on waist circumference (WC). Consistent with a diathesis-stress model, we hypothesize that the relationship between PRS-WC and WC will be magnified by increasing levels of childhood adversity. METHODS: Observational study of 7976 adults (6347 European Americans and 1629 African Americans) in the Health and Retirement Study with genotyped data. PRS-WC were calculated by the HRS administrative core using the weighted sum of risk alleles based on a genome-wide association study conducted by the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) consortium. Childhood adversity was operationalized using a sum score of three traumatic events that occurred before the age of 18 years. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant interaction between PRS-WC and childhood adversity for European Americans, whereby the magnitude of PRS-WC predicting WC increased as the number of adverse events increased. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the idea of the interactive effects of genetic risks and childhood adversity on obesity. More epidemiological studies, particularly with understudied populations, are needed to better understand the roles that genetics and childhood adversity play on the development and progression of obesity.

3.
J Psychopathol Clin Sci ; 131(6): 696-703, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35901397

RESUMO

As evidenced by our exchange with Bader and Moshagen (2022), the degree to which model fit indices can and should be used for the purpose of model selection remains a contentious topic. Here, we make three core points. First, we discuss the common misconception about fit statistics' abilities to identify the "best model," arguing that mechanical application of model fit indices contributes to faulty inferences in the field of quantitative psychopathology. We illustrate the consequences of this practice through examples in the literature. Second, we highlight the parsimony-adjacent concept of fitting propensity, which is not accounted for by commonly used fit statistics. Finally, we present specific strategies to overcome interpretative bias and increase generalizability of study results and stress the importance of carefully balancing substantive and statistical criteria in model selection scenarios. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Psicopatologia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico
4.
Personal Ment Health ; 2022 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35770737

RESUMO

To examine the hierarchical structure of psychopathology and dysfunctional personality domains, 2416 Italian community-dwelling adult volunteers were administered a set of psychometrically sound psychopathology measures and the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 Brief Form+ (PID-5-BF+). Parallel analysis, minimum average partial, and very simple structure results suggested that 1-6 principal components (PCs) should be retained. Goldberg's bass-ackwards model of the joint psychopathology measure and PID-5-BF+ ipsatized domain scale correlation matrix evidenced a hierarchical structure that was consistent with the working model proposed by the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) consortium. Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis around latent variables of the psychopathology indicators and PID-5-BF+ domain scales recovered four latent dimensions, which were akin to the corresponding bass-ackwards components and nicely reproduced the HiTOP Internalizing, Externalizing, Thought Disorder, and Eating Pathology dimensions.

5.
Psychol Med ; 52(9): 1666-1678, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35650658

RESUMO

The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) has emerged out of the quantitative approach to psychiatric nosology. This approach identifies psychopathology constructs based on patterns of co-variation among signs and symptoms. The initial HiTOP model, which was published in 2017, is based on a large literature that spans decades of research. HiTOP is a living model that undergoes revision as new data become available. Here we discuss advantages and practical considerations of using this system in psychiatric practice and research. We especially highlight limitations of HiTOP and ongoing efforts to address them. We describe differences and similarities between HiTOP and existing diagnostic systems. Next, we review the types of evidence that informed development of HiTOP, including populations in which it has been studied and data on its validity. The paper also describes how HiTOP can facilitate research on genetic and environmental causes of psychopathology as well as the search for neurobiologic mechanisms and novel treatments. Furthermore, we consider implications for public health programs and prevention of mental disorders. We also review data on clinical utility and illustrate clinical application of HiTOP. Importantly, the model is based on measures and practices that are already used widely in clinical settings. HiTOP offers a way to organize and formalize these techniques. This model already can contribute to progress in psychiatry and complement traditional nosologies. Moreover, HiTOP seeks to facilitate research on linkages between phenotypes and biological processes, which may enable construction of a system that encompasses both biomarkers and precise clinical description.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Psiquiatria , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Fenótipo , Psicopatologia , Projetos de Pesquisa
6.
Clin Psychol Sci ; 10(2): 279-284, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35444863

RESUMO

This commentary discusses questions and misconceptions about HiTOP raised by Haeffel et al. (2021). We explain what the system classifies and why it is descriptive and atheoretical, highlighting benefits and limitations of this approach. We clarify why the system is organized according to patterns of covariation or comorbidity among signs and symptoms of psychopathology, and we discuss how it is designed to be falsifiable and revised in a manner that is responsive to data. We refer to the body of evidence for HiTOP's external validity and for its scientific and clinical utility. We further describe how the system is currently used in clinics. In sum, many of Haeffel et al.'s concerns about HiTOP are unwarranted, and for those concerns that reflect real current limitations of HiTOP, our consortium is working to address them, with the aim of creating a nosology that is comprehensive and useful to both scientists and clinicians.

7.
Brain Behav Immun ; 102: 333-337, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35307502

RESUMO

Socioeconomic status (SES) and discrimination have been implicated as social determinants of health and health disparities. Yet, very little research has been done to assess their contributing role in Black-White disparities in inflammation. Using data from the Midlife in the United States (2004-2006), we conducted Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis to quantify the extent to which three indicators of SES (i.e., education, household income, and employment status) and three forms of discrimination exposures (i.e., everyday, lifetime, and workplace discrimination) explained Black-White differences in inflammation. Education, particularly having a college degree or more, explained 16.88% of the differences between Blacks and Whites. There was no evidence that household income and employment status explained Black-White inflammation differences. Lifetime discrimination significantly explained 18.18% of Black-White difference in inflammation burden. There was no evidence that everyday and workplace discrimination explained Black-White difference in inflammation burden. Together, the predictors explained 44.16% of inflammation differences between Black and White participants. Education and lifetime exposure to discrimination may play a role in inflammation disparities. Further research is needed to examine other dimensions of SES (e.g., wealth) and discrimination (e.g., racial segregation) that are associated with health to better understand the contributions of these key social determinants of Black-White inflammation disparities.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Brancos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Inflamação , Grupos Raciais , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
8.
Annu Rev Clin Psychol ; 18: 43-70, 2022 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35216523

RESUMO

The central goal of clinical psychology is to reduce the suffering caused by mental health conditions. Anxiety, mood, psychosis, substance use, personality, and other mental disorders impose an immense burden on global public health and the economy. Tackling this burden will require the development and dissemination of intervention strategies that are more effective, sustainable, and equitable. Clinical psychology is uniquely poised to serve as a transdisciplinary hub for this work. But rising to this challengerequires an honest reckoning with the strengths and weaknesses of current training practices. Building on new data, we identify the most important challenges to training the next generation of clinical scientists. We provide specific recommendations for the full spectrum of stakeholders-from funders, accreditors, and universities to program directors, faculty, and students-with an emphasis on sustainable solutions that promote scientific rigor and discovery and enhance the mental health of clinical scientists and the public alike.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos , Saúde Global , Humanos , Saúde Mental
9.
Biodemography Soc Biol ; 67(1): 58-70, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35156881

RESUMO

Data from the Interplay of Genes and Environment across Multiple Studies (IGEMS) consortium were used to examine predictions of different models of gene-by-environment interaction to understand how genetic variance in self-rated health (SRH) varies at different levels of financial strain. A total of 11,359 individuals from 10 twin studies in Australia, Sweden, and the United States contributed relevant data, including 2,074 monozygotic and 2,623 dizygotic twin pairs. Age ranged from 22 to 98 years, with a mean age of 61.05 (SD = 13.24). A factor model was used to create a harmonized measure of financial strain across studies and items. Twin analyses of genetic and environmental variance for SRH incorporating age, age2, sex, and financial strain moderators indicated significant financial strain moderation of genetic influences on self-rated health. Moderation results did not differ across sex or country. Genetic variance for SRH increased as financial strain increased, matching the predictions of the diathesis-stress and social comparison models for components of variance. Under these models, environmental improvements would be expected to reduce genetically based health disparities.


Assuntos
Gêmeos Dizigóticos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suécia , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/genética , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2022 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35125124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most psychiatric disorders are associated with several risk factors, but a few underlying psychopathological dimensions account for the common co-occurrence of disorders. If these underlying psychopathological dimensions mediate associations of the risk factors with psychiatric disorders, it would support a trans-diagnostic orientation to etiological research and treatment development. METHOD: An analysis was performed of the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III (NESARC-III), a US nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized civilian adults, focusing on respondents who were aged ⩾21 (n = 34 712). Structural equation modeling was used to identify the psychopathological dimensions underlying psychiatric disorders; to examine associations between risk factors, psychopathological dimensions and individual disorders; and to test whether associations of risk factors occurring earlier in life were mediated by risk factors occurring later in life. RESULTS: A bifactor model of 13 axis I disorders provided a good fit (CFI = 0.987, TLI = 0.982, and RMSEA = 0.011) including an overall psychopathology factor as measured by all 13 disorders and 2 specific factors, one for externalizing disorders and one for fear-related disorders. A substantial proportion of the total effects of the risk factors occurring early in life were indirectly mediated through factors occurring later in life. All risk factors showed a significant total effect on the general psychopathology, externalizing and fear-related factors. Only 23 of 325 direct associations of risk factors with psychiatric disorders achieved statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Most risk factors for psychiatric disorders are mediated through broad psychopathological dimensions. The central role of these dimensions supports trans-diagnostic etiological and intervention research.

11.
World Psychiatry ; 21(1): 26-54, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015357

RESUMO

The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) is a quantitative nosological system that addresses shortcomings of traditional mental disorder diagnoses, including arbitrary boundaries between psychopathology and normality, frequent disorder co-occurrence, substantial heterogeneity within disorders, and diagnostic unreliability over time and across clinicians. This paper reviews evidence on the validity and utility of the internalizing and somatoform spectra of HiTOP, which together provide support for an emotional dysfunction superspectrum. These spectra are composed of homogeneous symptom and maladaptive trait dimensions currently subsumed within multiple diagnostic classes, including depressive, anxiety, trauma-related, eating, bipolar, and somatic symptom disorders, as well as sexual dysfunction and aspects of personality disorders. Dimensions falling within the emotional dysfunction superspectrum are broadly linked to individual differences in negative affect/neuroticism. Extensive evidence establishes that dimensions falling within the superspectrum share genetic diatheses, environmental risk factors, cognitive and affective difficulties, neural substrates and biomarkers, childhood temperamental antecedents, and treatment response. The structure of these validators mirrors the quantitative structure of the superspectrum, with some correlates more specific to internalizing or somatoform conditions, and others common to both, thereby underlining the hierarchical structure of the domain. Compared to traditional diagnoses, the internalizing and somatoform spectra demonstrated substantially improved utility: greater reliability, larger explanatory and predictive power, and greater clinical applicability. Validated measures are currently available to implement the HiTOP system in practice, which can make diagnostic classification more useful, both in research and in the clinic.

12.
Psychol Methods ; 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990188

RESUMO

Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and its bifactor models are popular in empirical investigations of the factor structure of psychological constructs. CFA offers straightforward hypothesis testing but has notable pitfalls, such as the imposition of strict assumptions (i.e., simple structure) that obscure unmodeled complexity. Due to the limitations of bifactor CFAs, they have yielded anomalous results across samples and studies that suggest model misspecification (e.g., evaporating specific factors and unexpected loadings). We propose the use of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to evaluate the structural validity of CFA solutions-either before or after the estimation of more restrictive CFA models-to (a) identify model misspecifications that may drive anomalous estimates and (b) confirm CFA models by examining whether hypothesized structures emerge with limited researcher input. We evaluated the degree to which predominant factor structures were invariant across contexts along the exploratory-confirmatory continuum and demonstrate how poor methodological choices can distort results and impede theory development. All CFA models fit well, but there were numerous differences in replicability and substantive interpretability. Several similarities emerged between bifactor CFA and EFA models, including evidence of overextraction, the collapse of specific factors onto the general factor, and subsequent shifts in how the general factor was defined. We situate these methodological shortcomings within the broader literature on structural models of psychopathology, articulate implications for theories (such as the p-factor) that are borne out of factor analysis, outline several remedies for problems encountered when performing exploratory bifactor analysis, and propose alternative specifications for confirmatory bifactor models. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).

13.
Assessment ; : 10731911211070623, 2022 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35098736

RESUMO

Dimensional models of obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms, as seen in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), are instrumental in explaining the heterogeneity observed in this condition and for informing cutting-edge assessments. Prior structural work in this area finds that OC symptoms cross-load under both Negative Affectivity and Psychoticism traits within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) Alternative Model of Personality Disorder (AMPD). However, tests of OC symptoms in conjunction with assessments of the full AMPD structure and its 25 lower-level facets representing narrower symptom content are lacking. We applied joint exploratory factor analysis to an AMPD measure (Personality Inventory for DSM-5; PID-5) and OC symptom data from two separate samples (total N = 1,506) to locate OC symptoms within AMPD space. OC symptoms cross-loaded on Negative Affectivity, Psychoticism, and on the low end of Disinhibition. We also report exploratory analyses of OC symptom subscales with PID-5 variables. Results are discussed in the context OC symptoms' location in PID-5 space, implications for assessment, and placement of OCD within the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology.

14.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 28(1): 259-269, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606456

RESUMO

Inspection of tissues using a light microscope is the primary method of diagnosing many diseases, notably cancer. Highly multiplexed tissue imaging builds on this foundation, enabling the collection of up to 60 channels of molecular information plus cell and tissue morphology using antibody staining. This provides unique insight into disease biology and promises to help with the design of patient-specific therapies. However, a substantial gap remains with respect to visualizing the resulting multivariate image data and effectively supporting pathology workflows in digital environments on screen. We, therefore, developed Scope2Screen, a scalable software system for focus+context exploration and annotation of whole-slide, high-plex, tissue images. Our approach scales to analyzing 100GB images of 109 or more pixels per channel, containing millions of individual cells. A multidisciplinary team of visualization experts, microscopists, and pathologists identified key image exploration and annotation tasks involving finding, magnifying, quantifying, and organizing regions of interest (ROIs) in an intuitive and cohesive manner. Building on a scope-to-screen metaphor, we present interactive lensing techniques that operate at single-cell and tissue levels. Lenses are equipped with task-specific functionality and descriptive statistics, making it possible to analyze image features, cell types, and spatial arrangements (neighborhoods) across image channels and scales. A fast sliding-window search guides users to regions similar to those under the lens; these regions can be analyzed and considered either separately or as part of a larger image collection. A novel snapshot method enables linked lens configurations and image statistics to be saved, restored, and shared with these regions. We validate our designs with domain experts and apply Scope2Screen in two case studies involving lung and colorectal cancers to discover cancer-relevant image features.


Assuntos
Gráficos por Computador , Neoplasias , Humanos , Microscopia , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Software
15.
Personal Ment Health ; 16(1): 47-58, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34240811

RESUMO

To assess the relationships between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) components, Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) spectra, and dysfunctional personality domains, the Post-Traumatic Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5); the Personality Inventory for DSM-5-Brief Form+ (PID-5BF+); and self-report measures of HiTOP Internalizing, Thought Disorders, and Externalizing spectra were administered to 387 trauma-exposed Italian community-dwelling women. Before structural equation modeling (SEM), measurement components of models were assessed using confirmatory factor analyses. Both taxometric and Gaussian mixture analysis results were consistent with a dimensional representation of the PCL-5 scores. SEM results showed that PTSD components, at least as they were operationalized by the PCL-5 scores, were positively, significantly, and substantially associated with HiTOP Internalizing and Thought Disorder Spectra latent dimensions, as well as with Negative Affectivity, Detachment, and Psychoticism personality domains.


Assuntos
Vida Independente , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Inventário de Personalidade , Psicopatologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico
16.
J Health Econ ; 81: 102554, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34847444

RESUMO

We analyze data from the Minnesota Twin Registry (MTR), combined with the Socioeconomic Survey of Twins (SST), and new mortality data, and contribute to two bodies of literature. First, we demonstrate a beneficial causal effect of education on health and longevity in contrast to other twin-based studies of the US population, which show little or no effect of education on health. Second, we present evidence that is consistent with parental compensation through education for differences in their children's endowments that predict health, but find no evidence that parents reinforce differences in endowments that predict earnings. We argue that there is a bias towards detecting reinforcement both in this paper and in the literature. Despite this bias, we still find statistical evidence of compensating behavior. We account for observed and unobserved confounding factors, sample selection bias, and measurement error in education.


Assuntos
Administração Financeira , Longevidade , Criança , Escolaridade , Humanos , Pais , Gêmeos , Gêmeos Monozigóticos
17.
J Pers ; 90(1): 20-33, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978977

RESUMO

The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) is an empirically and quantitatively derived dimensional classification system designed to describe the features of psychopathology and, ultimately, to replace categorical nosologies. Among the constructs that HiTOP organizes are "symptom components" and "maladaptive traits," but past HiTOP publications have not fully explicated the distinction between symptoms and traits. We propose working definitions of symptoms and traits and explore challenges, exceptions, and remaining questions. Specifically, we propose that the only systematic difference between symptoms and traits in HiTOP is one of time frame. Maladaptive traits are dispositional constructs that describe persistent tendencies to manifest features of psychopathology, whereas symptoms are features of psychopathology as they are manifest during any specific time period (from moments to days to months). This has the consequence that almost every HiTOP dimension, at any level of the hierarchy, can be assessed as either a trait or a symptom dimension, by adjusting the framing of the assessment. We discuss the implications of these definitions for causal models of the relations between symptoms and traits and for distinctions between psychopathology, normal personality variation, and dysfunction.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade , Psicopatologia , Humanos , Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Inventário de Personalidade
18.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 28(1): 1106-1116, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587072

RESUMO

Table2Text systems generate textual output based on structured data utilizing machine learning. These systems are essential for fluent natural language interfaces in tools such as virtual assistants; however, left to generate freely these ML systems often produce misleading or unexpected outputs. GenNI (Generation Negotiation Interface) is an interactive visual system for high-level human-AI collaboration in producing descriptive text. The tool utilizes a deep learning model designed with explicit control states. These controls allow users to globally constrain model generations, without sacrificing the representation power of the deep learning models. The visual interface makes it possible for users to interact with AI systems following a Refine-Forecast paradigm to ensure that the generation system acts in a manner human users find suitable. We report multiple use cases on two experiments that improve over uncontrolled generation approaches, while at the same time providing fine-grained control. A demo and source code are available at https://genni.vizhub.ai.

19.
Assessment ; 29(3): 467-487, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371717

RESUMO

While Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth edition (DSM-5) Section III and ICD-11 (International Classification of Diseases 11th-Revision) both allow for dimensional assessment of personality pathology, the models differ in the definition of maladaptive traits. In this study, we pursued the goal of developing a short and reliable assessment for maladaptive traits, which is compatible with both models, using the item pool of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). To this aim, we applied ant colony optimization algorithms in English- and German-speaking samples comprising a total N of 2,927. This procedure yielded a 34-item measure with a hierarchical latent structure including six maladaptive trait domains and 17 trait facets, the "Personality Inventory for DSM-5, Brief Form Plus" (PID5BF+). While latent structure, reliability, and criterion validity were ascertained in the original and in two separate validation samples (n = 849, n = 493) and the measure was able to discriminate personality disorders from other diagnoses in a clinical subsample, results suggest further modifications for capturing ICD-11 Anankastia.


Assuntos
Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Personalidade , Algoritmos , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Inventário de Personalidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2316: 3-21, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34845680

RESUMO

Biological indexing is based upon the ability of certain plants, referred to as indicator plants or indicators, to produce specific symptoms when inoculated with a pathogen using mechanical means or grafting. In the case of citrus viroids, clonal indicators are grafted on to vigorous rootstocks such as rough lemon (Citrus × granulata Raf.). The 'Arizona-861-S-1' citron clonal indicator (C. medica L.) can detect and bioamplify all citrus viroids; however, for specific citrus variants of the hop stunt viroid (i.e., CVd-IIb and CVd-IIc), the clonal indicator 'Parson's special # 9' mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco) is preferred. Inoculation techniques and symptom expression are described in detail. Other supporting elements, such as greenhouse conditions and propagation techniques, are also presented.


Assuntos
Citrus , Viroides , Doenças das Plantas , Viroides/genética
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