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1.
Oncotarget ; 9(24): 16634-16647, 2018 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29682174

RESUMO

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) presents poor prognosis, and patients diagnosed with this tumor currently lack target treatments. Therefore, in order to identify potential targets for ESCC treatment, we carried out a transcriptome analysis with ESCC and paired nonmalignant surrounding mucosa samples, followed by a master regulator analysis, and further explored the role of the identified central regulatory genes through in vivo and in vitro assays. Among the transcription factors deregulated/enriched in ESCC, we focused on FOXM1 because of its involvement in the regulation of critical biological processes. A new transcriptome analysis performed with ESCC cell lineage TE-1 showed that the modulation of FOXM1 expression resulted in PIK3R3 expression changes, whereas chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that FOXM1 was capable of binding onto PIK3R3 promoter, thus demonstrating that PIK3R3 is a new FOXM1 target. Furthermore, FOXM1 overexpression resulted in the activation of PIK3/AKT signaling pathway through PIK3R3-mediated AKT phosphorylation. Finally, the analysis of the clinic-pathological data of ESCC patients revealed that overexpression of both FOXM1 and PIK3R3 was associated with poor prognosis, but only the latter was an independent prognosis factor for ESCC patients. In conclusion, our results show that FOXM1 seems to play a central role in ESCC carcinogenesis by upregulating many oncogenes found overexpressed in this tumor. Furthermore, PIK3R3 is a novel FOXM1 target that triggers the activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway in ESCC cells.

2.
Am Heart J ; 184: 88-96, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27892891

RESUMO

Preliminary evidence suggests that statins may prevent major perioperative vascular complications. METHODS: We randomized 648 statin-naïve patients who were scheduled for noncardiac surgery and were at risk for a major vascular complication. Patients were randomized to a loading dose of atorvastatin or placebo (80 mg anytime within 18hours before surgery), followed by a maintenance dose of 40 mg (or placebo), started at least 12hours after the surgery, and then 40 mg/d (or placebo) for 7days. The primary outcome was a composite of all-cause mortality, nonfatal myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery, and stroke at 30days. RESULTS: The primary outcome was observed in 54 (16.6%) of 326 patients in the atorvastatin group and 59 (18.7%) of 316 patients in the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR] 0.87, 95% CI 0.60-1.26, P=.46). No significant effect was observed on the 30-day secondary outcomes of all-cause mortality (4.3% vs 4.1%, respectively; HR 1.14, 95% CI 0.53-2.47, P=.74), nonfatal myocardial infarction (3.4% vs 4.4%, respectively; HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.35-1.68, P=.50), myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (13.2% vs 16.5%; HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.53-1.19, P=.26), and stroke (0.9% vs 0%, P=.25). CONCLUSION: In contrast to the prior observational and trial data, the LOAD trial has neutral results and did not demonstrate a reduction in major cardiovascular complications after a short-term perioperative course of statin in statin-naïve patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. We demonstrated, however, that a large multicenter blinded perioperative statin trial for high-risk statin-naïve patients is feasible and should be done to definitely establish the efficacy and safety of statin in this patient population.


Assuntos
Atorvastatina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Idoso , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Isquemia Miocárdica/sangue , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco , Troponina/sangue
3.
Biomed Res Int ; 2015: 435120, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26413523

RESUMO

Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and transarterial embolization (TAE) have improved the survival rates of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, the optimal TACE/TAE embolic agent has not yet been identified. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two different embolic agents such as microspheres (ME) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) on survival, tumor response, and complications in patients with HCC submitted to transarterial embolization (TAE). Eighty HCC patients who underwent TAE between June 2008 and December 2012 at a single center were retrospectively studied. A total of 48 and 32 patients were treated with PVA and ME, respectively. There were no significant differences in survival (P = 0.679) or tumoral response (P = 0.369) between groups (PVA or ME). Overall survival rates at 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 months were 97.9, 88.8, 78.9, 53.4, and 21.4% in the PVA-TAE group and 100, 92.9, 76.6, 58.8, and 58% in the ME-TAE group (P = 0.734). Patients submitted to TAE with ME presented postembolization syndrome more frequently when compared with the PVA group (P = 0.02). According to our cohort, the choice of ME or PVA as embolizing agent had no significant impact on overall survival.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Quimioembolização Terapêutica/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Microesferas , Álcool de Polivinil/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
World J Hepatol ; 7(3): 628-32, 2015 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25848487

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the survival rates after transarterial embolization (TAE). METHODS: One hundred third six hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients [90 barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) B] were submitted to TAE between August 2008 and December 2013 in a single center were retrospectively studied. TAE was performed via superselective catheterization followed by embolization with polyvinyl alcohol or microspheres. The date of the first embolization until death or the last follow-up date was used for the assessment of survival. The survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the groups were compared using the log-rank test. RESULTS: The overall mean survival was 35.8 mo (95%CI: 25.1-52.0). The survival rates of the BCLC A patients (33.7%) were 98.9%, 79.0% and 58.0% at 12, 24 and 36 mo, respectively, and the mean survival was 38.1 mo (95%CI: 27.5-52.0). The survival rates of the BCLC B patients (66.2%) were 89.0%, 69.0% and 49.5% at 12, 24 and 36 mo, respectively, and the mean survival was 29.0 mo (95%CI: 17.2-34). The survival rates according to the BCLC B sub-staging showed significant differences between the groups, with mean survival rates in the B1, B2, B3 and B4 groups of 33.5 mo (95%CI: 32.8-34.3), 28.6 mo (95%CI: 27.5-29.8), 19.0 mo (95%CI: 17.2-20.9) and 13 mo, respectively (P = 0.013). CONCLUSION: The BCLC sub-staging system could add additional prognosis information for post-embolization survival rates in HCC patients.

7.
Arq Bras Cir Dig ; 26(1): 2-6, 2013 Jan-Mar.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23702862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Brazil, gastric cancer is the fourth most common malignancy among men and sixth among women. The cause is multivariate and the risks are well known. It has prognosis and treatment defined by the location and staging of the tumor and number of lymph nodes resected and involved. AIM: The Brazilian Consensus on Gastric Cancer promoted by ABCG was designed with the intention to issue guidelines that can guide medical professionals to care for patients with this disease. METHODS: Were summarized and answered 43 questions reflecting consensus or not on diagnosis and treatment that may be used as guidance for its multidisciplinary approach. The method involved three steps. Initially, 56 digestive surgeons and related medical specialties met to formulate the questions that were sent to participants for answers on scientific evidence and personal experience. Summaries were presented, discussed and voted in plenary in two other meetings. They covered 53 questions involving: diagnosis and staging (six questions); surgical treatment (35 questions); chemotherapy and radiotherapy (seven questions) and anatomopathology, immunohistochemistry and perspective (five questions). It was considered consensus agreement on more than 70% of the votes in each item. RESULTS: All the answers were presented and voted upon, and in 42 there was consensus. CONCLUSION: It could be developed consensus on most issues that come with the care of patients with gastric cancer and they can be transformed in guidelines.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/terapia , Brasil , Humanos
10.
Nutr. hosp ; 28(1): 142-147, ene.-feb. 2013. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-123121

RESUMO

Background: Determination of Basal Energy Expenditure (BEE) is essential for planning nutritional therapy in patients with esophageal cancer. Aims: The objective of this study was to determine BEE through indirect calorimetry (IC) in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (SCC). Methods: Cross-sectional study involving 30 patients admitted with a diagnosis of SCC who underwent IC before starting cancer therapy. The BEE was evaluated using IC and also estimated by means of the Harris-Benedict Equation (HBE). Nutritional assessment was conducted using anthropometric parameters (body mass index, arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, arm muscle circumference, and weight loss), biochemical parameters (albumin, transferrin and C-reactive protein) and tetrapolar bioimpedance to assess body composition (fat free mass). Additionally, lung capacity was measured and clinical staging of the cancer established by the TNM method. Results: The mean of the BEE for IC and Harris-Benedict Equation were 1421.8 ± 348.2 kcal/day and 1310.6 ± 215.1 kcal/day, respectively. No association was found between BEE measured by IC and clinical staging (p=0.255) or the Tiffeneau Index (p=0.946). There were no significant associations between BEE measured by IC and altered dosages of transferrin, albumin and C-reactive protein (p=0.364, 0.309 and 0.780 respectively). The factors most associated with BEE were BMI and fat free mass. Conclusion: The BEE of patients with SCC was underestimated when using the HBE, and the result overestimated when incorporating an injury factor with the HBE. Therefore, despite the practical difficulties of implementing IC, its use should be considered (AU)


Antecedentes: La determinación del gasto energético basal (GEB) es esencial para la planificación de la terapia nutricional en pacientes con cáncer de esófago. Objetivos: El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar GEB por calorimetría indirecta (CI) en pacientes con carcinoma de células escamosas del esófago (CCS). Métodos: Estudio transversal con 30 pacientes ingresados con el diagnóstico de CCS que se sometieron CI antes de iniciar la terapia contra el cáncer. La abeja se evaluó con CI y estimó por medio de la ecuación de Harris-Benedict (EHB). La evaluación nutricional se realizó utilizando los parámetros antropométricos (índice de masa corporal, circunferencia del brazo, el pliegue del tríceps, circunferencia muscular del brazo y pérdida de peso), parámetros bioquímicos (albúmina, transferrina y la proteína C-reactiva) y bioimpedancia tetrapolar para evaluar la composición corporal (grasa masa). Además, la capacidad pulmonar se midió y la estadificación clínica del cáncer establecido por el método TNM. Resultados: La media de la abeja para la ecuación CI y Harris-Benedict fueron 1421,8 ± 348,2 kcal / día y 1310,6 ± 215,1 kcal / día, respectivamente. No se encontró asociación entre GEB medido por CI y la estadificación clínica (p = 0,255) o el Índice Tiffeneau (p = 0,946). No se encontraron asociaciones significativas entre GEB medidos por dosis de CI y alteración de la transferrina, albúmina y proteína C reactiva (p = 0,364, 0,309 y 0,780, respectivamente). Los factores más asociados con GEB fueron el IMC y la masa libre de grasa. Conclusión: La abeja de los pacientes con CCS fue subestimada cuando se utiliza el EHB, y el resultado sobreestimado cuando se incorpora un factor de daño con el EHB. Por lo tanto, a pesar de las dificultades de aplicación práctica de CI, su uso debe ser considerado (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Metabolismo Energético , Calorimetria/métodos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/fisiopatologia , Composição Corporal , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/métodos
11.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-835591

RESUMO

Botryomycosis is a rare chronic granulomatous bacterial infection affecting mostly the skin and subcutaneous tissues. The nomenclature is a misnomer as the disease is caused by bacteria, not by fungus. This uncommon infection sometimes mimics neoplasia and actinomycosis. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common agent in botryomycosis, followed by Pseudomonas sp. strains. We report an unusual case of invasive umbilical botriomycosis mimicking an acute abdomen. The patient recovered fully after being treated with surgery and antibiotics. This is the first report of umbilical Botryomycosis, which usually affects the skin.


Botriomicose é uma infecção bacteriana granulomatosa crônica rara que afeta principalmente a pele e tecidos subcutâneos. A nomenclatura é imprópria, uma vez que a infecção é causada por bactérias e não por fungos. Esta infecção incomum simula por vezes uma neoplasia ou actinomicose. O Staphylococcus aureus é o agente mais comum na botriomicose, seguido por cepas de Pseudomonas sp. Relatamosum caso incomum de botriomicose umbilical invasiva simulando um abdome agudo. A paciente recuperou-se totalmente após ser tratada com cirurgia e t antibióticos. Essa doença é mais frequente na pele, e este é o primeiro relato deBotriomicose umbilical.


Assuntos
Abdome Agudo , Infecções Bacterianas , Staphylococcus aureus , Tela Subcutânea
12.
BMC Cancer ; 12: 569, 2012 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23207070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) shows a 5-year survival rate below 10%, demonstrating the urgency in improving its treatment. Alterations in epidermal growth factor receptors are closely related to malignancy transformation in a number of tumors and recent successful targeted therapies have been directed to these molecules. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the expression of EGFR and HER2 and evaluated EGFR mutation profile as well as the presence of mutations in hotspots of KRAS and BRAF in ESCC patients. METHODS: We performed RT-qPCR, immunohistochemistry and Fluorescent in situ hybridization to determine EGFR and HER2 expression in ESCC patients, and direct sequencing and PCR-RFLP for mutations and polymorphism analysis. RESULTS: Our results showed an increased EGFR mRNA expression in tumors compared to surrounding tissue (p <0.05), with 11% of the cases presenting at least a four-fold difference between tumor and paired adjacent mucosa. EGFR protein overexpression was present only in 4% of the cases. The median expression of HER2 mRNA was not different between tumors and adjacent mucosa. Still, 7% of the tumors presented at least a 25-fold higher expression of this gene when compared to its paired counterpart. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that 21% of the tumors were positive for HER2 (scores 2+ and 3+), although only 3+ tumors presented amplification of this gene. Mutation analysis for EGFR (exons 18-21), KRAS (codons 12 and 13) and BRAF (V600E) showed no mutations in any of the hotspots of these genes in almost 100 patients analyzed. EGFR presented synonymous polymorphisms at codon 836 (C>T) in 2.1% of the patients, and at codon 787 (G>A) in 79.2% of the cases. This last polymorphism was also evaluated in 304 healthy controls, which presented a similar frequency (73.7%) in comparison with ESCC patients. The absence of mutations of EGFR, KRAS and BRAF as well as the overexpression of EGFR and HER2 in less than 10% of the patients suggest that this signaling pathway is altered in only a small proportion of patients with ESCC. CONCLUSION: HER receptors target therapies may have the potential to be effective in only a minor fraction of patients with ESCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Receptores ErbB/genética , Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Neoplasias Esofágicas/metabolismo , Feminino , Genes erbB-1 , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras) , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Receptor ErbB-2/biossíntese , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Proteínas ras/genética
13.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 25(4): 216-223, out.-dez. 2012.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-665753

RESUMO

RACIONAL: Tromboembolismo venoso é complicação frequente após tratamento cirúrgico em geral e, de um modo especial, na condução terapêutica do câncer. A cirurgia do aparelho digestivo tem sido referida como potencialmente indutora desta complicação. Os pacientes com câncer digestivo, têm risco substancialmente aumentado de iniciarem ou de terem recorrência de processo tromboembólico. OBJETIVO: Oferecer aos cirurgiões que atuam na cirurgia digestiva e geral orientação segura sobre como efetuar a tromboprofilaxia dos pacientes que necessitam de operações no tratamento de doenças malignas digestivas. MÉTODOS: A Diretriz foi baseada a partir da elaboração de 15 questões clínicas relevantes e relacionadas ao risco, tratamento e prognóstico do paciente submetido ao tratamento cirúrgico do câncer do aparelho digestivo. Elas focaram tanto os eventos tromboembólicos associados às operações quanto os aspectos relacionados à sua profilaxia. As questões foram estruturadas por meio do P.I.C.O. (Paciente, Intervenção ou Indicador, Comparação e Outcome), permitindo gerar estratégias de busca da evidência nas principais bases primárias de informação científica (Medline/Pubmed, Embase, Lilacs/Scielo, Cochrane Library, Premedline via OVID). Também foi realizada busca manual da evidência e de teses (BDTD e IBICT). A evidência recuperada foi selecionada a partir da avaliação crítica utilizando instrumentos (escores) discriminatórios de acordo com a categoria da questão: risco, terapêutica e prognóstico (JADAD para Ensaios Clínicos Randomizados e New Castle Otawa Scale para estudos não randômicos). Após definir os estudos potenciais para sustento das recomendações, eles foram selecionados pela força da evidência e grau de recomendação segundo a classificação de Oxford, incluindo a evidência disponível de maior força. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 53.555 trabalhos pelo título e/ou resumo. Deste total foram selecionados (1ª seleção) 478 trabalhos avaliados pelo texto completo. A partir deles, para sustentar as recomendações, foram incluídos neste consenso 132 trabalhos. As 15 perguntas formuladas puderam ser respondidas com artigos com grau de evidência correspondentes à 31 A, 130 B, 1 C e 0 D. CONCLUSÃO: Esta revisão possibilitou elaborar orientação segura para a profilaxia do tromboembolismo nas operações sobre o câncer do aparelho digestivo, abordando os tópicos mais frequentes do quotidiano do trabalho dos cirurgiões gerais e do aparelho digestivo.


BACKGROUND: The venous thromboembolism is a common complication after surgical treatment in general and, in particular, on the therapeutic management on cancer. Surgery of the digestive tract has been reported to induce this complication. Patients with digestive cancer have substantial increased risk of initial or recurrent thromboembolism. AIM: To provide to surgeons working in digestive surgery and general surgery guidance on how to make safe thromboprophylaxis for patients requiring operations in the treatment of their gastrointestinal malignancies. METHODS: The guideline was based on 15 relevant clinical issues and related to the risk factors, treatment and prognosis of the patient undergoing surgical treatment of cancer on digestive tract. They focused thromboembolic events associated with operations and thromboprophylaxis. The questions were structured using the PICO (Patient, Intervention or Indicator, Comparison and Outcome), allowing strategies to generate evidence on the main primary bases of scientific information (Medline / Pubmed, Embase, Lilacs / Scielo, Cochrane Library, PreMedline via OVID). Evidence manual search was also conducted (BDTD and IBICT). The evidence was recovered from the selected critical evaluation using discriminatory instruments (scores) according to the category of the question: risk, prognosis and therapy (JADAD Randomized Clinical Trials and New Castle Ottawa Scale for studies not randomized). After defining potential studies to support the recommendations, they were selected by the strength of evidence and grade of recommendation according to the classification of Oxford, including the available evidence of greater strength. RESULTS: A total of 53,555 papers by title and / or abstract related to issue were found. Of this total were selected (1st selection) 478 studies that were evaluated as full-text. From them to support the recommendations were included in the consensus 132 papers. The 15 questions could be answered with evidence grade of articles with 31 A, 130 B, 1 C and 0 D. CONCLUSION: It was possible to prepare safe recommendations as guidance for thromboembolism prophylaxis in operations on the digestive tract malignancies, addressing the most frequent topics of everyday work of digestive and general surgeons.


Assuntos
Humanos , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
14.
Cancer Lett ; 326(1): 52-8, 2012 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22819941

RESUMO

The role of HPV in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCCs) is controversial. Therefore, we determined, through different methodologies, the prevalence of HPV in 264 ESCC samples from Brazil, and correlated it with the presence of surrogate markers and clinicopathological characteristics. HPV is present in 13% of ESCC, and with a 3-fold variation between high and medium incidence areas. Most HPV positive tumors were infected with HPV16, but this was not associated with p16 expression, TP53 mutation status, patient age, amount of tobacco or alcohol consumption, or overall survival. We conclude that HPV infection may not have a role in ESCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/virologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/virologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Brasil/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Feminino , Genes p16 , Genes p53 , Papillomavirus Humano 16/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Prevalência , Fumar
15.
Arq Bras Cir Dig ; 25(4): 216-23, 2012 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23411918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The venous thromboembolism is a common complication after surgical treatment in general and, in particular, on the therapeutic management on cancer. Surgery of the digestive tract has been reported to induce this complication. Patients with digestive cancer have substantial increased risk of initial or recurrent thromboembolism. AIM: To provide to surgeons working in digestive surgery and general surgery guidance on how to make safe thromboprophylaxis for patients requiring operations in the treatment of their gastrointestinal malignancies. METHODS: The guideline was based on 15 relevant clinical issues and related to the risk factors, treatment and prognosis of the patient undergoing surgical treatment of cancer on digestive tract. They focused thromboembolic events associated with operations and thromboprophylaxis. The questions were structured using the PICO (Patient, Intervention or Indicator, Comparison and Outcome), allowing strategies to generate evidence on the main primary bases of scientific information (Medline / Pubmed, Embase, Lilacs / Scielo, Cochrane Library, PreMedline via OVID). Evidence manual search was also conducted (BDTD and IBICT). The evidence was recovered from the selected critical evaluation using discriminatory instruments (scores) according to the category of the question: risk, prognosis and therapy (JADAD Randomized Clinical Trials and New Castle Ottawa Scale for studies not randomized). After defining potential studies to support the recommendations, they were selected by the strength of evidence and grade of recommendation according to the classification of Oxford, including the available evidence of greater strength. RESULTS: A total of 53,555 papers by title and / or abstract related to issue were found. Of this total were selected (1st selection) 478 studies that were evaluated as full-text. From them to support the recommendations were included in the consensus 132 papers. The 15 questions could be answered with evidence grade of articles with 31 A, 130 B, 1 C and 0 D. CONCLUSION: It was possible to prepare safe recommendations as guidance for thromboembolism prophylaxis in operations on the digestive tract malignancies, addressing the most frequent topics of everyday work of digestive and general surgeons.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
17.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 24(4): 296-304, out.-dez. 2011. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-610375

RESUMO

RACIONAL: O refluxo duodenogástrico tem sido implicado como potencial carcinógeno para o estômago e esôfago e é um dos fatores que podem explicar o desenvolvimento de câncer no coto gástrico. Modelos experimentais de carcinogênese no estômago ressecado ou nas gastrojejunoanastomoses estão bem definidos. OBJETIVOS: Desenvolver um modelo experimental de carcinogênese gástrica através de piloroplastia à Finney, avaliar a influência da ingestão de nitrito de sódio nesse modelo, analisar as concentrações de ácidos biliares e o valor do pH gástrico. MÉTODOS: Foram operados 110 ratos Wistar divididos em quatro grupos: Grupo I (15 ratos) submetidos à laparotomia (grupo Sham); Grupo II (15 ratos) submetidos à laparotomia (Sham) e à ingestão de nitrito de sódio na água de beber; Grupo III (40 ratos) submetidos à piloroplastia à Finney; Grupo IV (40 ratos) submetidos à piloroplastia à Finney e à ingestão de nitrito de sódio na água de beber. Após 50 semanas da operação, os ratos foram sacrificados, coletadas amostras de suco gástrico para análise do pH, dosagem dos ácidos biliares, e realizada análise histológica. RESULTADOS: A mortalidade pós-operatória imediata foi de 9 por cento e, ao longo do experimento, 10 ratos morreram. O grupo controle (I) não apresentou lesões gástricas; o grupo controle com nitrito de sódio (II) desenvolveu papilomas no pré-estômago em 16.6 por cento; os grupos operados com piloroplastia apresentaram adenomas em 10,3 por cento no Grupo III e 14,2 por cento no Grupo IV, e adenocarcinoma em 55,1 por cento, no grupo III e 14,2 por cento no Grupo IV. A implantação de glândulas para dentro da submucosa e muscular, na zona de anastomose (implantação mucosa), não foi critério suficiente para decidir sobre a malignidade das lesões, sendo necessária a presença simultânea de atipias celulares. A concentração de ácidos biliares do suco gástrico foi maior nos Grupos III e IV. A medida do pH gástrico não foi diferente nos grupos estudados. CONCLUSÃO: 1) A piloroplastia à Finney é modelo experimental adequado de carcinogênese gástrica; 2) ela induziu refluxo duodenogástrico; 3) o refluxo duodenogástrico atuou como carcinógeno para o estômago; 4) não houve relação entre o pH gástrico e o desenvolvimento de carcinoma; 5) o nitrito de sódio não atuou como carcinógeno para o estômago dos ratos.


BACKGROUND: The duodenogastric reflux has been implicated as a potential carcinogen for the stomach and esophagus and is one of the factors that may explain the development of gastric stump cancer. Experimental models of carcinogenesis in the stomach stump or in the duodenogastric anastomosis are well defined. AIM: To develop an experimental model of gastric carcinogenesis through the Finney pyloroplasty, evaluate the influence of ingestion of sodium nitrite in this model, analyze the concentrations of bile acids and the pH of the stomach. METHODS: A hundred and ten Wistar rats were operated and divided into four groups: Group I (15 rats) underwent laparotomy (Sham group); Group II (15 rats) underwent laparotomy (Sham) and ingestion of sodium nitrite in drinking water; Group III (40 rats) submitted to the Finney pyloroplasty and Group IV (40 rats) submitted to the Finney pyloroplasty and ingestion of sodium nitrite in drinking water. After 50 weeks of surgery, the rats were sacrificed and samples collected for analysis of gastric pH, dosing of bile acids and histological analysis. RESULTS: The immediate postoperative mortality was 9 percent, and during the experiment, 10 rats died. The control group (I) did not show gastric lesions; the control group with sodium nitrite (II) developed papillomas in the pre-stomach in 16.6 percent; the operated groups with pyloroplasty had adenomas in 10.3 percent in Group III and 14.2 percent in Group IV, and adenocarcinoma in 55.1 percent in group III and 14.2 percent in Group IV. The implementation of glands into the submucosa and muscle in the area of anastomosis (mucosa deployment) was not sufficient criterion for deciding on the malignancy of the lesions, requiring the simultaneous presence of atypical cells. The concentration of bile acids in gastric juice was higher in Groups III and IV. The measurement of gastric pH was not different in both groups. CONCLUSION: 1) The Finney pyloroplasty is suitable experimental model of gastric carcinogenesis; 2) it induced duodenogastric reflux; 3) the duodenogastric reflux served as a carcinogen for the stomach; 4) there was no relationship between pH and the development of gastric carcinoma; 5 ) sodium nitrite did not act as a carcinogen for the stomach of rats.

18.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 38(5): 343-8, 2011 Sep-Oct.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22124647

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence of safety and effectiveness of endoscopic and surgical treatment of Zenker's diverticulum. METHODS: Searches of MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO by "Zenker's diverticulum" or "pharyngoesophageal diverticulum," and selection of studies for quality assessment and data extraction to a meta-analysis. RESULTS: The study did not find any randomized clinical trial. We found five comparative, non-randomized studies, with a total of 630 patients, 339 in the endoscopic arms and 291 in the surgical ones. The values for safety were a 0.29% mortality and 7% morbidity for the endoscopic treatment, and 0.34% mortality and 5% morbidity for surgical treatment. The values for effectiveness were 84% and 85%, respectively. The effect of endoscopic and surgical approaches for the treatment of Zenker's diverticulum was comparable, the odds ratio for morbidity was 1.24 (0.56 to 2.74), and the odds ratio for success was 0.66 (0.41 -1.05). CONCLUSION: The studies on the treatment of Zenker's diverticulum have a low level of evidence and are not able to establish the best treatment in terms of safety and effectiveness.


Assuntos
Esofagoscopia , Divertículo de Zenker/cirurgia , Humanos
19.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 38(5): 343-348, set.-out. 2011. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-606823

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Revisar a evidência da segurança e efetividade dos tratamentos endoscópico e cirúrgico do divertículo de Zenker. MÉTODOS: pesquisa no MEDLINE, LILACS e SciELO por "Zenker's diverticulum or pharyngoesophageal diverticulum", e seleção de estudos para avaliação da qualidade e extração dos dados para uma metanálise. RESULTADOS: a pesquisa não localizou nenhum ensaio clínico randomizado. Encontramos cinco estudos comparativos não randomizados com grupo controle, com um total de 630 pacientes, 339 no braço endoscópico e 291 no cirúrgico. Os valores para segurança foram uma mortalidade de 0,29 por cento e morbidade 7 por cento para o tratamento endoscópico, e mortalidade 0,34 por cento e morbidade 5 por cento para o tratamento cirúrgico. O valor para efetividade foi 84 por cento e 85 por cento, respectivamente. O efeito das abordagens endoscópica e cirúrgica para o tratamento do divertículo de Zenker foi comparável, a odds ratio para morbidade foi 1,24 (0,56-2,74), e a odds ratio para o sucesso foi 0,66 (0,41-1,05). CONCLUSÃO: os estudos sobre o tratamento do divertículo de Zenker têm baixo nível de evidência e não são capazes de definir qual o melhor tratamento em termos de segurança e efetividade.


OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence of safety and effectiveness of endoscopic and surgical treatment of Zenker's diverticulum. METHODS: Searches of MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO by "Zenker's diverticulum" or "pharyngoesophageal diverticulum," and selection of studies for quality assessment and data extraction to a meta-analysis. RESULTS: The study did not find any randomized clinical trial. We found five comparative, non-randomized studies, with a total of 630 patients, 339 in the endoscopic arms and 291 in the surgical ones. The values for safety were a 0.29 percent mortality and 7 percent morbidity for the endoscopic treatment, and 0.34 percent mortality and 5 percent morbidity for surgical treatment. The values for effectiveness were 84 percent and 85 percent, respectively. The effect of endoscopic and surgical approaches for the treatment of Zenker's diverticulum was comparable, the odds ratio for morbidity was 1.24 (0.56 to 2.74), and the odds ratio for success was 0.66 (0.41 -1.05). CONCLUSION: The studies on the treatment of Zenker's diverticulum have a low level of evidence and are not able to establish the best treatment in terms of safety and effectiveness.


Assuntos
Humanos , Esofagoscopia , Divertículo de Zenker/cirurgia
20.
Epigenetics ; 6(10): 1217-27, 2011 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21946330

RESUMO

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is believed to arise from esophageal mucosa through accumulation of both genetic and epigenetic changes. DNA methylation is a critical epigenetic mechanism involved in key cellular processes and its deregulation has been linked to many human cancers, including ESCC. The aim of this study is to examine the global deregulation of methylation states in ESCC and identify potential early biomarkers. With this purpose, we performed a bead array analysis of more than 800 cancer-related genes in ten ESCC samples, ten matched surrounding tissues and four esophageal mucosa from healthy individuals. Pyrosequencing was used for validation of DNA methylation changes in up to 106 cases and 27 controls. A total of 37 CpG sites were found to be differentially methylated between tumors and surrounding tissues. These CpG sites were significantly enriched in genes related to several pathways including IL-10 anti-inflammatory signaling pathway and cell communication pathway. In addition, by comparing with healthy esophageal mucosa, we identified TFF1 gene as a potential early marker of ESCC. This is the first study to address methylation changes in ESCC in a large set of genes. Methylome analysis is shown as a sensitive and powerful tool to identify molecular players in ESCC. These data should prove to be the reference for future studies identifying potential biomarkers and molecular targets in ESCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Ilhas de CpG , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fator Trefoil-1 , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/química
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