Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 9 de 9
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(8)2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30072594

RESUMO

DNA double strand breaks (DSB) are the most severe damages in chromatin induced by ionizing radiation. In response to such environmentally determined stress situations, cells have developed repair mechanisms. Although many investigations have contributed to a detailed understanding of repair processes, e.g., homologous recombination repair or non-homologous end-joining, the question is not sufficiently answered, how a cell decides to apply a certain repair process at a certain damage site, since all different repair pathways could simultaneously occur in the same cell nucleus. One of the first processes after DSB induction is phosphorylation of the histone variant H2AX to γH2AX in the given surroundings of the damaged locus. Since the spatial organization of chromatin is not random, it may be conclusive that the spatial organization of γH2AX foci is also not random, and rather, contributes to accessibility of special repair proteins to the damaged site, and thus, to the following repair pathway at this given site. The aim of this article is to demonstrate a new approach to analyze repair foci by their topology in order to obtain a cell independent method of categorization. During the last decade, novel super-resolution fluorescence light microscopic techniques have enabled new insights into genome structure and spatial organization on the nano-scale in the order of 10 nm. One of these techniques is single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) with which the spatial coordinates of single fluorescence molecules can precisely be determined and density and distance distributions can be calculated. This method is an appropriate tool to quantify complex changes of chromatin and to describe repair foci on the single molecule level. Based on the pointillist information obtained by SMLM from specifically labeled heterochromatin and γH2AX foci reflecting the chromatin morphology and repair foci topology, we have developed a new analytical methodology of foci or foci cluster characterization, respectively, by means of persistence homology. This method allows, for the first time, a cell independent comparison of two point distributions (here the point distributions of two γH2AX clusters) with each other of a selected ensample and to give a mathematical measure of their similarity. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach, cells were irradiated by low LET (linear energy transfer) radiation with different doses and the heterochromatin and γH2AX foci were fluorescently labeled by antibodies for SMLM. By means of our new analysis method, we were able to show that the topology of clusters of γH2AX foci can be categorized depending on the distance to heterochromatin. This method opens up new possibilities to categorize spatial organization of point patterns by parameterization of topological similarity.


Assuntos
Histonas/análise , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Linhagem Celular , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Reparo do DNA , Heterocromatina/química , Heterocromatina/genética , Histonas/genética , Humanos , Família Multigênica , Fosforilação
2.
Nanoscale ; 10(9): 4320-4331, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29443341

RESUMO

Ionizing radiation (IR)-induced damage confers functional and conformational changes to nuclear chromatin associated with DNA single and double strand breaks. This leads to the activation of complex DNA repair machineries that aim to preserve the integrity of the DNA molecule. Since hetero- and euchromatin are differentially accessible to DNA repair pathways, local chromatin re-arrangements and structural changes are among the consequences of an activated DNA damage response. Using super-resolution localization microscopy (SRLM), we investigated the X-ray-induced repositioning of γ-H2AX and histone H3K9me3 heterochromatin marks in the nuclei of HeLa cells. Aliquots of cells exposed to different IR doses (0.5, 1 and 2 Gy) were fixed at certain repair times for SRLM imaging. The number and size of nano-scale γ-H2AX molecule signal clusters detected increased with rising irradiation doses, with the number and size being the highest 0.5 h after irradiation. With growing repair time both the number and size of γ-H2AX nano-clusters decreased. Eight hours after irradiation, the number of clusters reached control levels, in agreement with the disappearance of most IR-induced foci seen by conventional microscopy. SRLM investigation of heterochromatin marks in spatial relation to γ-H2AX clusters showed that on average the heterochromatin density was high in the vicinity of γ-H2AX, which is in agreement with the observation that DSBs seem to relocate to the surface of heterochromatin clusters for DNA repair. The data demonstrate the potential of pointillist images obtained by SRLM for quantitative investigations of chromatin conformation changes and repair-protein recruitment on the nanoscale as measures for a radiation response.


Assuntos
Reparo do DNA , Heterocromatina/química , Histonas/química , Radiação Ionizante , Dano ao DNA , Células HeLa , Humanos , Metilação , Microscopia , Fosforilação
3.
PLoS One ; 13(1): e0190183, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29346397

RESUMO

Localization microscopy has shown to be capable of systematic investigations on the arrangement and counting of cellular uptake of gold nanoparticles (GNP) with nanometer resolution. In this article, we show that the application of specially modified RNA targeting gold nanoparticles ("SmartFlares") can result in ring like shaped GNP arrangements around the cell nucleus. Transmission electron microscopy revealed GNP accumulation in vicinity to the intracellular membrane structures including them of the endoplasmatic reticulum. A quantification of the radio therapeutic dose enhancement as a proof of principle was conducted with γH2AX foci analysis: The application of both-SmartFlares and unmodified GNPs-lead to a significant dose enhancement with a factor of up to 1.2 times the dose deposition compared to non-treated breast cancer cells. This enhancement effect was even more pronounced for SmartFlares. Furthermore, it was shown that a magnetic field of 1 Tesla simultaneously applied during irradiation has no detectable influence on neither the structure nor the dose enhancement dealt by gold nanoparticles.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas , RNA Neoplásico/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química
4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 10(1)2018 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29361783

RESUMO

In radiation biophysics, it is a subject of nowadays research to investigate DNA strand break repair in detail after damage induction by ionizing radiation. It is a subject of debate as to what makes up the cell's decision to use a certain repair pathway and how the repair machinery recruited in repair foci is spatially and temporarily organized. Single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) allows super-resolution analysis by precise localization of single fluorescent molecule tags, resulting in nuclear structure analysis with a spatial resolution in the 10 nm regime. Here, we used SMLM to study MRE11 foci. MRE11 is one of three proteins involved in the MRN-complex (MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 complex), a prominent DNA strand resection and broken end bridging component involved in homologous recombination repair (HRR) and alternative non-homologous end joining (a-NHEJ). We analyzed the spatial arrangements of antibody-labelled MRE11 proteins in the nuclei of a breast cancer and a skin fibroblast cell line along a time-course of repair (up to 48 h) after irradiation with a dose of 2 Gy. Different kinetics for cluster formation and relaxation were determined. Changes in the internal nano-scaled structure of the clusters were quantified and compared between the two cell types. The results indicate a cell type-dependent DNA damage response concerning MRE11 recruitment and cluster formation. The MRE11 data were compared to H2AX phosphorylation detected by γH2AX molecule distribution. These data suggested modulations of MRE11 signal frequencies that were not directly correlated to DNA damage induction. The application of SMLM in radiation biophysics offers new possibilities to investigate spatial foci organization after DNA damaging and during subsequent repair.

5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1663: 1-13, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28924654

RESUMO

Fluorescence microscopy is an essential tool for imaging tagged biological structures. Due to the wave nature of light, the resolution of a conventional fluorescence microscope is limited laterally to about 200 nm and axially to about 600 nm, which is often referred to as the Abbe limit. This hampers the observation of important biological structures and dynamics in the nano-scaled range ~10 nm to ~100 nm. Consequentially, various methods have been developed circumventing this limit of resolution. Super-resolution microscopy comprises several of those methods employing physical and/or chemical properties, such as optical/instrumental modifications and specific labeling of samples. In this article, we will give a brief insight into a variety of selected optical microscopy methods reaching super-resolution beyond the Abbe limit. We will survey three different concepts in connection to biological applications in radiation research without making a claim to be complete.


Assuntos
Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Imagem Individual de Molécula/métodos , Biofísica , Aumento da Imagem
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 18(10)2017 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28956810

RESUMO

Understanding molecular interactions and regulatory mechanisms in tumor initiation, progression, and treatment response are key requirements towards advanced cancer diagnosis and novel treatment procedures in personalized medicine. Beyond decoding the gene expression, malfunctioning and cancer-related epigenetic pathways, investigations of the spatial receptor arrangements in membranes and genome organization in cell nuclei, on the nano-scale, contribute to elucidating complex molecular mechanisms in cells and tissues. By these means, the correlation between cell function and spatial organization of molecules or molecular complexes can be studied, with respect to carcinogenesis, tumor sensitivity or tumor resistance to anticancer therapies, like radiation or antibody treatment. Here, we present several new applications for bio-molecular nano-probes and super-resolution, laser fluorescence localization microscopy and their potential in life sciences, especially in biomedical and cancer research. By means of a tool-box of fluorescent antibodies, green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagging, or specific oligonucleotides, we present tumor relevant re-arrangements of Erb-receptors in membranes, spatial organization of Smad specific ubiquitin protein ligase 2 (Smurf2) in the cytosol, tumor cell characteristic heterochromatin organization, and molecular re-arrangements induced by radiation or antibody treatment. The main purpose of this article is to demonstrate how nano-scaled distance measurements between bio-molecules, tagged by appropriate nano-probes, can be applied to elucidate structures and conformations of molecular complexes which are characteristic of tumorigenesis and treatment responses. These applications open new avenues towards a better interpretation of the spatial organization and treatment responses of functionally relevant molecules, at the single cell level, in normal and cancer cells, offering new potentials for individualized medicine.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Imagem Molecular , Nanopartículas , Pesquisa , Biomarcadores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Microscopia de Fluorescência/normas , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Nanotecnologia , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 18(8)2017 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28786938

RESUMO

Folate is an essential water-soluble vitamin in food and nutrition supplements. As a one-carbon source, it is involved in many central regulatory processes, such as DNA, RNA, and protein methylation as well as DNA synthesis and repair. Deficiency in folate is considered to be associated with an increased incidence of several malignancies, including cervical cancer that is etiologically linked to an infection with "high-risk" human papilloma viruses (HPV). However, it is still not known how a recommended increase in dietary folate after its deprivation affects the physiological status of cells. To study the impact of folate depletion and its subsequent reconstitution in single cells, we used quantitative chromatin conformation measurements obtained by super-resolution fluorescence microscopy, i.e., single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM). As a read-out, we examined the levels and the (re)positioning of γ-H2AX tags and histone H3K9me3 heterochromatin tags after immunostaining in three-dimensional (3D)-conserved cell nuclei. As model, we used HPV16 positive immortalized human keratinocytes that were cultivated under normal, folate deficient, and reconstituted conditions for different periods of time. The results were compared to cells continuously cultivated in standard folate medium. After 13 weeks in low folate, an increase in the phosphorylation of the histone H2AX was noted, indicative of an accumulation of DNA double strand breaks. DNA repair activity represented by the formation of those γ-H2AX clusters was maintained during the following 15 weeks of examination. However, the clustered arrangements of tags appeared to relax in a time-dependent manner. Parallel to the repair activity, the chromatin methylation activity increased as detected by H3K9me3 tags. The progress of DNA double strand repair was accompanied by a reduction of the detected nucleosome density around the γ-H2AX clusters, suggesting a shift from hetero- to euchromatin to allow access to the repair machinery. In conclusion, these data demonstrated a folate-dependent repair activity and chromatin re-organization on the SMLM nanoscale level. This offers new opportunities to further investigate folate-induced chromatin re-organization and the associated mechanisms.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Heterocromatina/genética , Heterocromatina/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Microscopia/métodos , Transporte Biológico , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Queratinócitos , Microscopia de Fluorescência
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 18(5)2017 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28481278

RESUMO

Immunostaining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) are well established methods for specific labelling of chromatin in the cell nucleus. COMBO-FISH (combinatorial oligonucleotide fluorescence in situ hybridization) is a FISH method using computer designed oligonucleotide probes specifically co-localizing at given target sites. In combination with super resolution microscopy which achieves spatial resolution far beyond the Abbe Limit, it allows new insights into the nano-scaled structure and organization of the chromatin of the nucleus. To avoid nano-structural changes of the chromatin, the COMBO-FISH labelling protocol was optimized omitting heat treatment for denaturation of the target. As an example, this protocol was applied to ALU elements-dispersed short stretches of DNA which appear in different kinds in large numbers in primate genomes. These ALU elements seem to be involved in gene regulation, genomic diversity, disease induction, DNA repair, etc. By computer search, we developed a unique COMBO-FISH probe which specifically binds to ALU consensus elements and combined this DNA-DNA labelling procedure with heterochromatin immunostainings in formaldehyde-fixed cell specimens. By localization microscopy, the chromatin network-like arrangements of ALU oligonucleotide repeats and heterochromatin antibody labelling sites were simultaneously visualized and quantified. This novel approach which simultaneously combines COMBO-FISH and immunostaining was applied to chromatin analysis on the nanoscale after low-linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation exposure at different doses. Dose-correlated curves were obtained from the amount of ALU representing signals, and the chromatin re-arrangements during DNA repair after irradiation were quantitatively studied on the nano-scale. Beyond applications in radiation research, the labelling strategy of immunostaining and COMBO-FISH with localization microscopy will also offer new potentials for analyses of subcellular elements in combination with other specific chromatin targets.


Assuntos
Elementos Alu , Núcleo Celular/ultraestrutura , Cromatina/química , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/métodos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatina/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/normas , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Microscopia de Fluorescência/normas
9.
PLoS One ; 10(6): e0128555, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26042422

RESUMO

It has been well established that the architecture of chromatin in cell nuclei is not random but functionally correlated. Chromatin damage caused by ionizing radiation raises complex repair machineries. This is accompanied by local chromatin rearrangements and structural changes which may for instance improve the accessibility of damaged sites for repair protein complexes. Using stably transfected HeLa cells expressing either green fluorescent protein (GFP) labelled histone H2B or yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) labelled histone H2A, we investigated the positioning of individual histone proteins in cell nuclei by means of high resolution localization microscopy (Spectral Position Determination Microscopy = SPDM). The cells were exposed to ionizing radiation of different doses and aliquots were fixed after different repair times for SPDM imaging. In addition to the repair dependent histone protein pattern, the positioning of antibodies specific for heterochromatin and euchromatin was separately recorded by SPDM. The present paper aims to provide a quantitative description of structural changes of chromatin after irradiation and during repair. It introduces a novel approach to analyse SPDM images by means of statistical physics and graph theory. The method is based on the calculation of the radial distribution functions as well as edge length distributions for graphs defined by a triangulation of the marker positions. The obtained results show that through the cell nucleus the different chromatin re-arrangements as detected by the fluorescent nucleosomal pattern average themselves. In contrast heterochromatic regions alone indicate a relaxation after radiation exposure and re-condensation during repair whereas euchromatin seemed to be unaffected or behave contrarily. SPDM in combination with the analysis techniques applied allows the systematic elucidation of chromatin re-arrangements after irradiation and during repair, if selected sub-regions of nuclei are investigated.


Assuntos
Cromatina/química , Cromatina/efeitos da radiação , Raios gama , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Estatística como Assunto , Análise por Conglomerados , Eucromatina , Genoma Humano , Células HeLa , Heterocromatina , Humanos , Probabilidade
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA