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1.
Nanoscale ; 2020 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555828

RESUMO

Silicon oxycarbide (SiOC) has recently regained attention in the field of Li-ion batteries, owing to its effectiveness as a host matrix for nanoscale anode materials alloying with Li. The SiOC matrix, itself providing a high Li-ion storage capacity of 600 mA h g-1, assists in buffering volumetric changes upon lithiation and largely suppresses the formation of an unstable solid-electrolyte interface. Herein, we present the synthesis of homogeneously embedded Sb nanoparticles in a SiOC matrix with the size of 5-40 nm via the pyrolysis of a preceramic polymer. The latter is obtained through the Pt-catalyzed gelation reaction of Sb 2-ethylhexanoate and a poly(methylhydrosiloxane)/divinylbenzene mixture. The complete miscibility of these precursors was achieved by the functionalization of poly(methylhydrosiloxane) with apolar divinyl benzene side-chains. We show that anodes composed of SiOC/Sb exhibit a high rate capability, delivering charge storage capacity in the range of 703-549 mA h g-1 at a current density of 74.4-2232 mA g-1. The impact of Sb on the Si-O-C bonding and on free carbon content of SiOC matrix, along with its concomitant influence on Li-ion storage capacity of SiOC was assessed by Raman and 29Si and 7Li solid-state NMR spectroscopies.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579755

RESUMO

Hydrodesulphurization, the removal of sulphur from crude oils, is an essential catalytic process in the petroleum industry safeguarding the production of clean hydrocarbons. Sulphur removal is critical for the functionality of downstream processes and vital to the elimination of environmental pollutants. The effectiveness of such an endeavour is among other factors determined by the structural arrangement of the heterogeneous catalyst. Namely, the accessibility of the catalytically active molybdenum disulphide (MoS 2 ) slabs located on the surfaces of a porous alumina carrier. Here, we examined a series of pristine sulfided Mo and NiMo hydrodesulphurization catalysts of increasing metal loading prepared on commercial alumina carriers using ptychographic X-ray computed nanotomography. Structural analysis revealed a build consisting of two interwoven support matrix elements differing in nanoporosity. With increasing metal loading, approaching that of industrial catalysts, these matrix elements exhibit a progressively dissimilar MoS 2 surface coverage as well as MoS 2 cluster formation at the matrix element boundaries. This is suggestive of metal deposition limitations and/ or catalyst activation and following prohibitive of optimal catalytic utilization. These results will allow for diffusivity calculations, a better rationale of current generation catalyst performance as well as a better distribution of the active phase in next-generation hydrodesulphurization catalysts.

3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2409, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415106

RESUMO

In spite of numerous works in the field of chemical valorization of carbon dioxide into methanol, the nature of high activity of Cu/ZnO catalysts, including the reaction mechanism and the structure of the catalyst active site, remains the subject of intensive debate. By using high-pressure operando techniques: steady-state isotope transient kinetic analysis coupled with infrared spectroscopy, together with time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction, and supported by electron microscopy and theoretical modeling, we present direct evidence that zinc formate is the principal observable reactive intermediate, which in the presence of hydrogen converts into methanol. Our results indicate that the copper-zinc alloy undergoes oxidation under reaction conditions into zinc formate, zinc oxide and metallic copper. The intimate contact between zinc and copper phases facilitates zinc formate formation and its hydrogenation by hydrogen to methanol.

4.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(21): 8138-8142, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212224

RESUMO

The assembly of protein and inorganic nanoparticles represents an attractive approach to generate composite materials with multiple functions. Herein, we functionalize inorganic nanoparticles with intrinsically disordered protein domains associated with the formation of membraneless compartments in cells. These protein sequences, defined as low complexity domains (LCDs), encode intermolecular interactions that drive highly controlled, dynamic self-assembly in response to environmental changes. We show that the properties of the LCDs can be transferred to inorganic nanoparticles, inducing controlled phase separation that is dynamic and responsive to ionic strength and pH. Specifically, we hybridize magnetic nanoparticles with multi-domain proteins consisting of LCD domains and a globular enzyme, generating dynamic protein-composite compartments that locally confine hybrid chemoenzymatic reactions and respond to external magnetic fields and changes in solution conditions.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216306

RESUMO

In this study, the synergistic behavior of Ni species and bimodal mesoporous undoped SnO2 is investigated in oxygen evolution reactions (OERs) under alkaline conditions without any other modification of the compositional phases or using noble metals. An efficient and environmentally friendly hydrothermal method to prepare bimodal mesoporous undoped SnO2 with a very high surface area (>130 m2 g-1) and a general deposition-precipitation method for the synthesis of well-dispersed Ni species on undoped SnO2 are reported. The powders were characterized by adsorption-desorption isotherms, TG-DTA, XRD, SEM, TEM, Raman, TPR-H2, and XPS. The best NiSn composite generates, under certain experimental conditions, a very high TOF value of 1.14 s-1 and a mass activity higher than 370 A g-1, which are remarkable results considering the low amount of Ni deposited on the electrode (3.78 ng). Moreover, in 1 M NaOH electrolyte, this material produces more than 24 mA cm-2 at an overpotential value of approximately +0.33 V, with only 5 wt % Ni species. This performance stems from the dual role of undoped SnO2, on the one hand, as a support for active and well-dispersed Ni species and on the other hand as an active player through the oxygen vacancies generated upon Ni deposition.

6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 387, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959755

RESUMO

Miniaturized photonic sources based on semiconducting two-dimensional (2D) materials offer new technological opportunities beyond the modern III-V platforms. For example, the quantum-confined 2D electronic structure aligns the exciton transition dipole moment parallel to the surface plane, thereby outcoupling more light to air which gives rise to high-efficiency quantum optics and electroluminescent devices. It requires scalable materials and processes to create the decoupled multi-quantum-well superlattices, in which individual 2D material layers are isolated by atomically thin quantum barriers. Here, we report decoupled multi-quantum-well superlattices comprised of the colloidal quantum wells of lead halide perovskites, with unprecedentedly ultrathin quantum barriers that screen interlayer interactions within the range of 6.5 Å. Crystallographic and 2D k-space spectroscopic analysis reveals that the transition dipole moment orientation of bright excitons in the superlattices is predominantly in-plane and independent of stacking layer and quantum barrier thickness, confirming interlayer decoupling.

7.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(2): 734-739, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832632

RESUMO

ZSM-5 zeolites attract considerable attention owing to their wide range of applications in catalysis and separation. The crystals that are synthesized with tetrapropylammonium ions (TPA+) as the template show aluminum-zoning, i.e. aluminum being concentrated in the rim part of the crystal. Here, we study the aluminum distribution within individual crystals as a function of synthesis time and find that the degree of aluminum-zoning evolves. Crystals with inhomogeneous aluminum distribution persist since their emergence from the early stages of hydrothermal treatment. The degree of aluminum-zoning in the crystals increases with the synthesis time, accompanied by an increase in the crystal size and subsequently the formation of a well-defined crystal morphology. This indicates a gradual aluminum migration toward the crystal surface during the course of crystallization. Moreover, the addition of high-aluminum-containing species to the existing crystals preferentially takes place at the late stages of synthesis, which contributes to the inhomogeneous aluminum distribution within a crystal. As a result, the finally formed crystals have not only the largest crystal size but also the highest degree of aluminum-zoning. The insight into the origin of aluminum-zoning that our work provides advances our understanding of the relationship between aluminum distribution in zeolites and the synthesis time to design better catalysts.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(50): 19839-19849, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763836

RESUMO

Attaining thermodynamic stability of colloids in a broad range of concentrations has long been a major thrust in the field of colloidal ligand-capped semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs). This challenge is particularly pressing for the novel NCs of cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3; X = Cl, Br) owing to their highly dynamic and labile surfaces. Herein, we demonstrate that soy lecithin, a mass-produced natural phospholipid, serves as a tightly binding surface-capping ligand suited for a high-reaction yield synthesis of CsPbX3 NCs (6-10 nm) and allowing for long-term retention of the colloidal and structural integrity of CsPbX3 NCs in a broad range of concentrations-from a few ng/mL to >400 mg/mL (inorganic core mass). The high colloidal stability achieved with this long-chain zwitterionic ligand can be rationalized with the Alexander-De Gennes model that considers the increased particle-particle repulsion due to branched chains and ligand polydispersity. The versatility and immense practical utility of such colloids is showcased by the single NC spectroscopy on ultradilute samples and, conversely, by obtaining micrometer-thick, optically homogeneous dense NC films in a single spin-coating step from ultraconcentrated colloids.

9.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 6(19): 1901220, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592424

RESUMO

Tin-based materials are an emerging class of Li-ion anodes with considerable potential for use in high-energy-density Li-ion batteries. However, the long-lasting electrochemical performance of Sn remains a formidable challenge due to the large volume changes occurring upon its lithiation. The prevailing approaches toward stabilization of such electrodes involve embedding Sn in the form of nanoparticles (NPs) in an active/inactive matrix. The matrix helps to buffer the volume changes of Sn, impart better electronic connectivity and prevent particle aggregation upon lithiation/delithiation. Herein, facile synthesis of Sn NPs embedded in a SiOC matrix via the pyrolysis of a preceramic polymer as a single-source precursor is reported. This polymer contains Sn 2-ethyl-hexanoate (Sn(Oct)2) and poly(methylhydrosiloxane) as sources of Sn and Si, respectively. Upon functionalization with apolar divinyl benzene sidechains, the polymer is rendered compatible with Sn(Oct)2. This approach yields a homogeneous dispersion of Sn NPs in a SiOC matrix with sizes on the order of 5-30 nm. Anodes of the SiOC/Sn nanocomposite demonstrate high capacities of 644 and 553 mAh g-1 at current densities of 74.4 and 2232 mA g-1 (C/5 and 6C rates for graphite), respectively, and show superior rate capability with only 14% capacity decay at high currents.

10.
ACS Nano ; 13(10): 11642-11652, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585035

RESUMO

The conventional strategy of synthetic colloidal chemistry for bright and stable quantum dots has been the production of epitaxially matched core/shell heterostructures to mitigate the presence of deep trap states. This mindset has been shown to be incompatible with lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (LHP NCs) due to their dynamic surface and low melting point. Nevertheless, enhancements to their chemical stability are still in great demand for the deployment of LHP NCs in light-emitting devices. Rather than contend with their attributes, we propose a method in which we can utilize their dynamic, ionic lattice and uniquely defect-tolerant band structure to prepare non-epitaxial salt-shelled heterostructures that are able to stabilize these materials against their environment, while maintaining their excellent optical properties and increasing scattering to improve out-coupling efficiency. To do so, anchored LHP NCs are first synthesized through the heterogeneous nucleation of LHPs onto the surface of microcrystalline carriers, such as alkali halides. This first step stabilizes the LHP NCs against further merging, and this allows them to be coated with an additional inorganic shell through the surface-mediated reaction of amphiphilic Na and Br precursors in apolar media. These inorganically shelled NC@carrier composites offer significantly improved chemical stability toward polar organic solvents, such as γ-butyrolactone, acetonitrile, N-methylpyrrolidone, and trimethylamine, demonstrate high thermal stability with photoluminescence intensity reversibly dropping by no more than 40% at temperatures up to 120 °C, and improve compatibility with various UV-curable resins. This mindset for LHP NCs creates opportunities for their successful integration into next-generation light-emitting devices.

11.
Chemistry ; 25(69): 15879-15886, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553090

RESUMO

Hollow ZSM-5 zeolites of size below one micrometer can be produced by desilication of crystals with aluminium zoning. The parent crystals have a core-shell structure: the core part has nearly no aluminium, whereas the aluminium content in the shell increases when extending to exterior surface. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the preservation of the crystalline shell after base leaching, but could not identify its subtle change. An increase of the Si/Al ratio of the surface was detected upon leaching the parent material to form the hollow zeolite by using ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy of substituted alkylpyridines. 27 Al MAS NMR showed that base leaching results in a reduced percentage of distorted tetrahedrally coordinated aluminium. The reprecipitation of dissolved species occurs and tetrahedrally coordinated tin atoms can thus be introduced to the shell framework. Overall, the formation of hollow ZSM-5 zeolites by desilication involves not only the removal of silicon-rich core, but also a reduced percentage of exterior aluminium-related acid sites, which should be considered while using hollow zeolites in acid-catalyzed reactions.

12.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(35): 12297-12304, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278846

RESUMO

The potential implementation of ruthenium-based catalysts in polyvinyl chloride production via acetylene hydrochlorination is hindered by their inferior activity and stability compared to gold-based systems, despite their 4-fold lower price. Combining in-depth characterization and kinetic analysis we reveal the superior activity of ruthenium nanoparticles with an optimal size of 1.5 nm hosted on nitrogen-doped carbon (NC) and identify their deactivation modes: 1) nanoparticle redispersion into inactive single atoms and 2) coke formation at the metal sites. Tuning the density of the NC carrier enables a catalytic encapsulation of the ruthenium nanoparticles into single layer graphene shells at 1073 K that prevent the undesired metal redispersion. Finally, we show that feeding O2 during acetylene hydrochlorination limits coke formation over the nanodesigned ruthenium catalyst, while the graphene layer is preserved, resulting in a stability increase of 20 times, thus rivalling the performance of gold-based systems.

13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7988, 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142752

RESUMO

Rechargeable magnesium batteries are appealing as safe, low-cost systems with high-energy-density storage that employ predominantly dendrite-free magnesium metal as the anode. While significant progress has been achieved with magnesium electrolytes in recent years, the further development of Mg-ion batteries, however, is inherently limited by the lack of suitable cathode materials, mainly due to the slow diffusion of high-charge-density Mg-ions in the intercalation-type host structures and kinetic limitations of conversion-type cathodes that often causes poor cyclic stability. Nanostructuring the cathode materials offers an effective means of mitigating these challenges, due to the reduced diffusion length and higher surface areas. In this context, we present the highly reversible insertion of Mg-ions into nanostructured conversion-type CuS cathode, delivering high capacities of 300 mAh g-1 at room temperature and high cyclic stability over 200 cycles at a current density of 0.1 A g-1 with a high coulombic efficiency of 99.9%. These materials clearly outperform bulk CuS, which is electrochemically active only at an elevated temperature of 50 °C. Our results not only point to the important role of nanomaterials in the enhancement of the kinetics of conversion reactions but also suggest that nanostructuring should be used as an integral tool in the exploration of new cathodes for multivalent, i.e., (Mg, Ca, Al)-ion batteries.

14.
Chemistry ; 25(32): 7689-7694, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942917

RESUMO

Acid or base leaching are well-established tools in the synthesis of mesoporous zeolites. Previous studies suggest an inherent link between the structure-property relationship of mesoporous zeolites, that is, chemical resistance, pore diameter and distribution, with zeolite synthesis or crystallization conditions. The exact nature and/or origin of this link is currently however, poorly established. Here, we provide evidence how zeolite crystallization conditions influence the leaching behavior and thus structure of mesoporous zeolites. Electron microscopy and in situ small angle X-ray scattering both confirmed the crystallization of ZSM-5 to utilize both nanoparticles and oligomers as elemental building blocks. Utilization of these species is highly depended on supersaturation. The precursor solution of decreased water content favored a faster consumption of nanoparticles compared to its oligomers at the early stage of crystallization. Then the addition of oligomers can heal the surface imperfections and thus the resulting zeolite showed a higher resistance against acid leaching. In contrast, within the precursor solution of increased water content the slower consumption of nanoparticles led to crystals with a less robust rim. Defects existed in the rim due to limited healing by oligomers and, as such, mesopores can be created by the following post-treatment. Precise control over selected crystallization conditions can therefore further aid the design of optimized mesoporous zeolites.

15.
Chem Mater ; 31(6): 2121-2129, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930536

RESUMO

Hybrid organic-inorganic main-group metal halide compounds are the subject of intense research owing to their unique optoelectronic characteristics. In this work, we report the synthesis, structure, and electronic and optical properties of a family of hybrid tin (II) bromide compounds comprising guanidinium [G, C(NH2)3 +] and mixed cesium-guanidinium cations: G2SnBr4, CsGSnBr4, and Cs2GSn2Br7. G2SnBr4 has a one-dimensional structure that consists of chains of corner-sharing [SnBr5]2- square pyramids and G cations situated in between the chains. Cs+ exhibits a pronounced structure-directing effect where a mixture of Cs+ and G cations forms mono- and bilayered two-dimensional perovskites: CsGSnBr4 and Cs2GSn2Br7. Furthermore, the flat shapes of the guanidinium cations induce anisotropic out-of-plane tilts of the [SnBr6]4- octahedra in the CsGSnBr4 and Cs2GSn2Br7 compounds. In G2SnBr4, the Sn lone pair is highly stereoactive and favors non-octahedral, that is, square pyramidal coordination of Sn(II). G2SnBr4 exhibits bright broad-band emission from self-trapped excitonic states, owing to its soft lattice and electronic localization. This emission in G2SnBr4 is characterized by a photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield of 2% at room temperature (RT; 75 ± 5% at 77 K) and a fast PL lifetime of 18 ns at room temperature.

16.
Chem Sci ; 10(2): 359-369, 2019 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30746085

RESUMO

Carbon-supported gold catalysts have the potential to replace the toxic mercuric chloride-based system applied industrially for acetylene hydrochlorination, a key technology for the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride. However, the design of an optimal catalyst is essentially hindered by the difficulties in assessing the nature of the active site. Herein, we present a platform of carbon supported gold nanostructures at a fixed metal loading, ranging from single atoms of tunable oxidation state and coordination to metallic nanoparticles, by varying the structure of functionalised carbons and use of thermal activation. While on activated carbon particle aggregation occurs progressively above 473 K, on nitrogen-doped carbon gold single atoms exhibit outstanding stability up to temperatures of 1073 K and under reaction conditions. By combining steady-state experiments, density functional theory, and transient mechanistic studies, we assess the relation between the metal speciation, electronic properties, and catalytic activity. The results indicate that the activity of gold-based catalysts correlates with the population of Au(i)Cl single atoms and the reaction follows a Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. Strong interaction with HCl and thermodynamically favoured acetylene activation were identified as the key features of the Au(i)Cl sites that endow their superior catalytic performance in comparison to N-stabilised Au(iii) counterparts and gold nanoparticles. Finally, we show that the carrier (activated carbon versus nitrogen-doped carbon) does not affect the catalytic response, but determines the deactivation mechanism (gold particle aggregation and pore blockage, respectively), which opens up different options for the development of stable, high-performance hydrochlorination catalysts.

17.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(4): 482-485, 2019 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30548027

RESUMO

Using heavy-atom labeling in conjunction with electron microscopy, we here visualize the distribution of point defects, i.e. internal silanol groups, in silicalite-1 zeolites at the single crystal level.

18.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2545, 2018 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29959324

RESUMO

Increasing the use of natural gas engines is an important step to reduce the carbon footprint of mobility and power generation sectors. To avoid emissions of unburnt methane and the associated severe greenhouse effect of lean-burn engines, the stability of methane oxidation catalysts against steam-induced sintering at low temperatures (<500 °C) needs to be improved. Here we demonstrate how the combination of catalyst development and improved process control yields a highly efficient solution for complete methane oxidation. We design a material based on palladium and hierarchical zeolite with fully sodium-exchanged acid sites, which improves the support stability and prevents steam-induced palladium sintering under reaction conditions by confining the metal within the zeolite. Repeated short reducing pulses enable the use of a highly active transient state of the catalyst, which in combination with its high stability provides excellent performance without deactivation for over 90 h in the presence of steam.

19.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(26): 7697-7702, 2018 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29768706

RESUMO

Bismesitoylphosphinic acid, (HO)PO(COMes)2 (BAPO-OH), is an efficient photoinitiator for free-radical polymerizations of olefins in aqueous phase. Described here are the structures of various copper(II) and copper(I) complexes with BAPO-OH as the ligand. The complex CuII (BAPO-O)2 (H2 O)2 is photoactive, and under irradiation with UV light in aqueous phase, it serves as a source of metallic copper in high purity and yield (>80 %). Simultaneously, the radical polymerization of acrylates can be initiated and allows the preparation of nanoparticle/polymer nanocomposites in which the metallic Cu nanoparticles are protected against oxidation. The determination of the stoichiometry of the photoreductions suggests an almost quantitative conversion from CuII into Cu0 with half an equivalent of BAPO-OH, which serves as a four-electron photoreductant.

20.
Nanoscale ; 10(15): 6827-6831, 2018 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29595199

RESUMO

Nanostructured metal alloys show great promise as replacement materials for graphite anodes, and could improve the energy and power density of present-day lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Herein, we report a facile colloidal synthesis of CoSn2 and FeSn2 nanocrystals (NCs) via the reaction of Co or Fe NCs and SnCl2 in oleylamine under reducing conditions. Among our pure Sn NCs and mixtures of Co or Fe and Sn NCs, monodisperse CoSn2 nanoalloys showed considerably improved cycling stability. In particular, CoSn2 delivered a stable average capacity of 650 mA h g-1 for 5000 cycles at a high current density of 1984 mA g-1, which is among the highest reported cycling stabilities for Sn-based anode materials.

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