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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e2037748, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616664

RESUMO

Importance: Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices, including intravascular microaxial left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) and intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABPs), are used in patients who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by cardiogenic shock despite limited evidence of their clinical benefit. Objective: To examine trends in the use of MCS devices among patients who underwent PCI for AMI with cardiogenic shock, hospital-level use variation, and factors associated with use. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used the CathPCI and Chest Pain-MI Registries of the American College of Cardiology National Cardiovascular Data Registry. Patients who underwent PCI for AMI complicated by cardiogenic shock between October 1, 2015, and December 31, 2017, were identified from both registries. Data were analyzed from October 2018 to August 2020. Exposures: Therapies to provide hemodynamic support were categorized as intravascular microaxial LVAD, IABP, TandemHeart, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, LVAD, other devices, combined IABP and intravascular microaxial LVAD, combined IABP and other device (defined as TandemHeart, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, LVAD, or another MCS device), or medical therapy only. Main Outcomes and Measures: Use of MCS devices overall and specific MCS devices, including intravascular microaxial LVAD, at both patient and hospital levels and variables associated with use. Results: Among the 28 304 patients included in the study, the mean (SD) age was 65.4 (12.6) years and 18 968 were men (67.0%). The overall MCS device use was constant from the fourth quarter of 2015 to the fourth quarter of 2017, although use of intravascular microaxial LVADs significantly increased (from 4.1% to 9.8%; P < .001), whereas use of IABPs significantly decreased (from 34.8% to 30.0%; P < .001). A significant hospital-level variation in MCS device use was found. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) proportion of patients who received MCS devices was 42% (30%-54%), and the median proportion of patients who received intravascular microaxial LVADs was 1% (0%-10%). In multivariable analyses, cardiac arrest at first medical contact or during hospitalization (odds ratio [OR], 1.82; 95% CI, 1.58-2.09) and severe left main and/or proximal left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.20-1.54) were patient characteristics that were associated with higher odds of receiving intravascular microaxial LVADs only compared with IABPs only. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that, among patients who underwent PCI for AMI complicated by cardiogenic shock, overall use of MCS devices was constant, and a 2.5-fold increase in intravascular microaxial LVAD use was found along with a corresponding decrease in IABP use and a significant hospital-level variation in MCS device use. These trends were observed despite limited clinical trial evidence of improved outcomes associated with device use.

2.
Am J Med ; 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infection fatality rate and infection hospitalization rate, defined as the proportion of deaths and hospitalizations, respectively, of the total infected individuals, can estimate the actual toll of COVID-19 on a community as the denominator is ideally based on a representative sample of a population, which captures the full spectrum of illness, including asymptomatic and untested individuals. OBJECTIVE: To determine the COVID-19 infection hospitalization rate and infection fatality rate among the non-congregate population in Connecticut between March 1 and June 1, 2020. METHODS: The infection hospitalization rate and infection fatality rate were calculated for adults residing in non-congregate settings in Connecticut before June 2020. Individuals with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were estimated using the seroprevalence estimates from the recently conducted Post-Infection Prevalence study. Information on total hospitalizations and deaths was obtained from the Connecticut Hospital Association and the Connecticut Department of Public Health. RESULTS: Before June 1, 2020, nearly 113,515 (90% CI 56,758-170,273) individuals were estimated to have SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and there were 7792 hospitalizations and 1079 deaths among the non-congregate population. The overall COVID-19 infection hospitalization rate and infection fatality rate was 6.86% (90% CI, 4.58%-13.72%) and 0.95% (90% CI, 0.63%-1.90%) and there was variation in these rate estimates across subgroups; older individuals, men, non-Hispanic Black individuals, and those belonging to 2 of the counties had a higher burden of adverse outcomes, though the differences between most subgroups were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Using representative seroprevalence estimates, the overall COVID-19 infection hospitalization rate and infection fatality rate were estimated to be 6.86% and 0.95%, respectively, among community residents in Connecticut.

3.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 14(2): e006644, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is a focus of bundled and alternate payment models that capture outcomes up to 90 days postsurgery. While clinical registry risk models perform well, measures encompassing mortality beyond 30 days do not currently exist. We aimed to develop a risk-adjusted hospital-level 90-day all-cause mortality measure intended for assessing hospital performance in payment models of CABG surgery using administrative data. METHODS: Building upon Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services hospital-level 30-day all-cause CABG mortality measure specifications, we extended the mortality timeframe to 90 days after surgery and developed a new hierarchical logistic regression model to calculate hospital risk-standardized 90-day all-cause mortality rates for patients hospitalized for isolated CABG. The model was derived from Medicare claims data for a 3-year cohort between July 2014 to June 2017. The data set was randomly split into 50:50 development and validation samples. The model performance was evaluated with C statistics, overfitting indices, and calibration plot. The empirical validity of the measure result at the hospital level was evaluated against the Society of Thoracic Surgeons composite star rating. RESULTS: Among 137 819 CABG procedures performed in 1183 hospitals, the unadjusted mortality rate within 30 and 90 days were 3.1% and 4.7%, respectively. The final model included 27 variables. Hospital-level 90-day risk-standardized mortality rates ranged between 2.04% and 11.26%, with a median of 4.67%. C statistics in the development and validation samples were 0.766 and 0.772, respectively. We identified a strong positive correlation between 30- and 90-day risk-standardized mortality rates, with a regression slope of 1.09. Risk-standardized mortality rates also showed a stepwise trend of lower 90-day mortality with higher Society of Thoracic Surgeons composite star ratings. CONCLUSIONS: We present a measure of hospital-level 90-day risk-standardized mortality rates following isolated CABG. This measure complements Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' existing 30-day CABG mortality measure by providing greater insight into the postacute recovery period. It offers a balancing measure to ensure efforts to reduce costs associated with CABG recovery and rehabilitation do not result in unintended consequences.

4.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 21(1): 61, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The electronic health record (EHR) holds the prospect of providing more complete and timely access to clinical information for biomedical research, quality assessments, and quality improvement compared to other data sources, such as administrative claims. In this study, we sought to assess the completeness and timeliness of structured diagnoses in the EHR compared to computed diagnoses for hypertension (HTN), hyperlipidemia (HLD), and diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS: We determined the amount of time for a structured diagnosis to be recorded in the EHR from when an equivalent diagnosis could be computed from other structured data elements, such as vital signs and laboratory results. We used EHR data for encounters from January 1, 2012 through February 10, 2019 from an academic health system. Diagnoses for HTN, HLD, and DM were computed for patients with at least two observations above threshold separated by at least 30 days, where the thresholds were outpatient blood pressure of ≥ 140/90 mmHg, any low-density lipoprotein ≥ 130 mg/dl, or any hemoglobin A1c ≥ 6.5%, respectively. The primary measure was the length of time between the computed diagnosis and the time at which a structured diagnosis could be identified within the EHR history or problem list. RESULTS: We found that 39.8% of those with HTN, 21.6% with HLD, and 5.2% with DM did not receive a corresponding structured diagnosis recorded in the EHR. For those who received a structured diagnosis, a mean of 389, 198, and 166 days elapsed before the patient had the corresponding diagnosis of HTN, HLD, or DM, respectively, recorded in the EHR. CONCLUSIONS: We found a marked temporal delay between when a diagnosis can be computed or inferred and when an equivalent structured diagnosis is recorded within the EHR. These findings demonstrate the continued need for additional study of the EHR to avoid bias when using observational data and reinforce the need for computational approaches to identify clinical phenotypes.

5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(1): e2034196, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507257

RESUMO

Importance: Graduate medical education (GME) funding consists of more than $10 billion annual subsidies awarded to academic hospitals to offset the cost of resident training. Critics have questioned the utility of these subsidies and accountability of recipient hospitals. Objective: To determine the association of GME funding with hospital performance by examining 3 domains of hospital operations: financial standing, clinical outcomes, and resident academic performance. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study is an economic evaluation of all academic centers that received GME funding in 2017. GME funding data were acquired from the Hospital Compare Database. Statistical analysis was performed from May 2016 to April 2020. Exposures: GME funding. Main Outcomes and Measures: This study assessed the association between GME funding and each aspect of hospital operations. Publicly available hospital financial data were used to calculate a financial performance score from 0 to 100 for each hospital. Clinical outcomes were defined as 30-day mortality, readmission, and complication rates for a set of predefined conditions. Resident academic performance was determined by Board Certification Examination (BCE) pass rates at 0, 2, and 5 years after GME funding was awarded. Confounder-adjusted linear regression models were used to test association between GME funding data and a hospital's financial standing, clinical outcomes, and resident academic performance. Results: The sample consisted of 1298 GME-funded hospitals, with a median (IQR) of 265 (168-415) beds and 32 (10-101) residents per training site. GME funding was negatively correlated with hospitals' financial scores (ß = -7.9; 95% CI, -10.9 to -4.8, P = .001). Each additional $1 million in GME funding was associated with lower 30-day mortality from myocardial infarction (-2.34%; 95% CI, -3.59% to -1.08%, P < .001), heart failure (-2.59%; 95% CI, -3.93% to -1.24%, P < .001), pneumonia (-2.20%; 95% CI, -3.99% to -0.40%, P = .02), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( -1.20%; 95% CI, -2.35% to -0.05%, P = .04), and stroke (-3.40%; 95% CI, -5.46% to -1.33%, P = .001). There was no association between GME funding and readmission rates. There was an association between higher GME funding and higher internal medicine BCE pass rates (0.066% [95% CI, 0.033% to 0.099%] per $1 million in GME funding; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: This study found a negative linear correlation between GME funding and patient mortality and a positive correlation between GME funding and resident BCE pass rates in adjusted regression models. The findings also suggest that hospitals that receive more GME funding are not more financially stable.

8.
Open Heart ; 8(1)2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452007

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a 180-day readmission risk model for older adults with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) that considered a broad range of clinical, demographic and age-related functional domains. METHODS: We used data from ComprehenSIVe Evaluation of Risk in Older Adults with AMI (SILVER-AMI), a prospective cohort study that enrolled participants aged ≥75 years with AMI from 94 US hospitals. Participants underwent an in-hospital assessment of functional impairments, including cognition, vision, hearing and mobility. Clinical variables previously shown to be associated with readmission risk were also evaluated. The outcome was 180-day readmission. From an initial list of 72 variables, we used backward selection and Bayesian model averaging to derive a risk model (N=2004) that was subsequently internally validated (N=1002). RESULTS: Of the 3006 SILVER-AMI participants discharged alive, mean age was 81.5 years, 44.4% were women and 10.5% were non-white. Within 180 days, 1222 participants (40.7%) were readmitted. The final risk model included 10 variables: history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, history of heart failure, initial heart rate, first diastolic blood pressure, ischaemic ECG changes, initial haemoglobin, ejection fraction, length of stay, self-reported health status and functional mobility. Model discrimination was moderate (0.68 derivation cohort, 0.65 validation cohort), with good calibration. The predicted readmission rate (derivation cohort) was 23.0% in the lowest quintile and 65.4% in the highest quintile. CONCLUSIONS: Over 40% of participants in our sample experienced hospital readmission within 180 days of AMI. Our final readmission risk model included a broad range of characteristics, including functional mobility and self-reported health status, neither of which have been previously considered in 180-day risk models.

9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(3): e016932, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470136

RESUMO

Background Many communities have implemented systems of regionalized care to improve access to timely care for patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. However, patients who are ultimately diagnosed with non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarctions (NSTEMIs) may also be affected, and the impact of regionalization programs on NSTEMI treatment and outcomes is unknown. We set out to determine the effects of ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction regionalization schemes on treatment and outcomes of patients diagnosed with NSTEMIs. Methods and Results The cohort included all patients receiving care in emergency departments diagnosed with an NSTEMI at all nonfederal hospitals in California from January 1, 2005 to September 30, 2015. Data were analyzed using a difference-in-differences approach. The main outcomes were 1-year mortality and angiography within 3 days of the index admission. A total of 293 589 patients with NSTEMIs received care in regionalized and nonregionalized communities. Over the study period, rates of early angiography increased by 0.5 and mortality decreased by 0.9 percentage points per year among the overall population (95% CI, 0.4-0.6 and -1.0 to -0.8, respectively). Regionalization was not associated with early angiography (-0.5%; 95% CI, -1.1 to 0.1) or death (0.2%; 95% CI, -0.3 to 0.8). Conclusions ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction regionalization programs were not statistically associated with changes in guideline-recommended early angiography or changes in risk of death for patients with NSTEMI. Increases in the proportion of patients with NSTEMI who underwent guideline-directed angiography and decreases in risk of mortality were accounted for by secular trends unrelated to regionalization policies.

12.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(2): e98-e114, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have been postulated to affect susceptibility to COVID-19. Observational studies so far have lacked rigorous ascertainment adjustment and international generalisability. We aimed to determine whether use of ACEIs or ARBs is associated with an increased susceptibility to COVID-19 in patients with hypertension. METHODS: In this international, open science, cohort analysis, we used electronic health records from Spain (Information Systems for Research in Primary Care [SIDIAP]) and the USA (Columbia University Irving Medical Center data warehouse [CUIMC] and Department of Veterans Affairs Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership [VA-OMOP]) to identify patients aged 18 years or older with at least one prescription for ACEIs and ARBs (target cohort) or calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and thiazide or thiazide-like diuretics (THZs; comparator cohort) between Nov 1, 2019, and Jan 31, 2020. Users were defined separately as receiving either monotherapy with these four drug classes, or monotherapy or combination therapy (combination use) with other antihypertensive medications. We assessed four outcomes: COVID-19 diagnosis; hospital admission with COVID-19; hospital admission with pneumonia; and hospital admission with pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute kidney injury, or sepsis. We built large-scale propensity score methods derived through a data-driven approach and negative control experiments across ten pairwise comparisons, with results meta-analysed to generate 1280 study effects. For each study effect, we did negative control outcome experiments using a possible 123 controls identified through a data-rich algorithm. This process used a set of predefined baseline patient characteristics to provide the most accurate prediction of treatment and balance among patient cohorts across characteristics. The study is registered with the EU Post-Authorisation Studies register, EUPAS35296. FINDINGS: Among 1 355 349 antihypertensive users (363 785 ACEI or ARB monotherapy users, 248 915 CCB or THZ monotherapy users, 711 799 ACEI or ARB combination users, and 473 076 CCB or THZ combination users) included in analyses, no association was observed between COVID-19 diagnosis and exposure to ACEI or ARB monotherapy versus CCB or THZ monotherapy (calibrated hazard ratio [HR] 0·98, 95% CI 0·84-1·14) or combination use exposure (1·01, 0·90-1·15). ACEIs alone similarly showed no relative risk difference when compared with CCB or THZ monotherapy (HR 0·91, 95% CI 0·68-1·21; with heterogeneity of >40%) or combination use (0·95, 0·83-1·07). Directly comparing ACEIs with ARBs demonstrated a moderately lower risk with ACEIs, which was significant with combination use (HR 0·88, 95% CI 0·79-0·99) and non-significant for monotherapy (0·85, 0·69-1·05). We observed no significant difference between drug classes for risk of hospital admission with COVID-19, hospital admission with pneumonia, or hospital admission with pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute kidney injury, or sepsis across all comparisons. INTERPRETATION: No clinically significant increased risk of COVID-19 diagnosis or hospital admission-related outcomes associated with ACEI or ARB use was observed, suggesting users should not discontinue or change their treatment to decrease their risk of COVID-19. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust, UK National Institute for Health Research, US National Institutes of Health, US Department of Veterans Affairs, Janssen Research & Development, IQVIA, South Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare Republic, Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, and European Health Data and Evidence Network.

15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e209743, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289843

RESUMO

Importance: Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) is increasing in prevalence among young and middle-aged adults. However, most studies of ISH are limited to older individuals, and a substantial knowledge gap exists regarding younger adults with ISH. Objective: To assess the prevalence, awareness, and characteristics of ISH among younger and middle-aged adults in China. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study was performed as part of the China Patient-Centered Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events Million Persons Project, which enrolled 3.1 million community residents aged 35 to 75 years from all of the 31 provinces in China between December 15, 2014, and May 15, 2019. The present analysis included only participants younger than 50 years. Data were analyzed from May to November 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalence and awareness of ISH (defined as systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher and diastolic blood pressure of less than 90 mm Hg) and individual characteristics of participants with ISH. Results: Among 898 929 participants aged 35 to 49 years, the mean (SD) age was 43.8 (3.9) years; 548 657 participants (61.0%) were women, and 235 138 participants (26.2%) had hypertension. Of those with hypertension, 62 819 participants (26.7%; 95% CI, 26.5%-26.9%) had ISH (mean [SD] age, 45.0 [3.5] years; 41 417 women [65.9%]), and 54 463 of those with ISH (86.7%; 95% CI, 86.4%-87.0%) had not received treatment. The prevalence of ISH was higher among individuals who were older, were female, were farmers, resided in the eastern region of China, and had an educational level of primary school or lower. Women and older individuals were more likely to have ISH than to be normotensive or to have other hypertension subtypes. Participants who were obese, currently used alcohol, had diabetes, and experienced previous cardiovascular events were more likely to have other types of hypertension and less likely to have normotension than to have ISH. Among the 54 463 participants with ISH who had not received treatment, only 3682 individuals (6.8%; 95% CI, 6.6%-7.0%) were aware of having hypertension, and awareness rates remained low even among those with systolic blood pressure of 160 mm Hg or higher (7135 individuals [13.1%; 95% CI, 12.4%-13.9%]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, ISH was identified in 1 of 4 young and middle-aged adults with hypertension in China, most of whom remained unaware of having hypertension. These results highlight the increasing need for better guidance regarding the management of ISH in this population.

16.
Minerva Cardioangiol ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33258563

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The optimal choice of oral P2Y12 receptor inhibitors has the potential to significantly influence outcomes. We seek to compare the safety and efficacy of the three most commonly used oral P2Y12 receptor inhibitors (clopidogrel, prasugrel, and ticagrelor) in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) via a comprehensive systematic review and network meta-analysis. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We will perform a comprehensive search for randomized clinical trials which compared cardiovascular and hemorrhagic outcomes after use of at least two of the distinct oral P2Y12 receptor inhibitors (i.e. clopidogrel, prasugrel, and ticagrelor). In addition, key inclusion criteria will be trial size of at least 100 patients and at least 1 month of follow-up time. Several pre-specified subgroups will be explored, including Asian patients, patients presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction, patients of advanced age, and others. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Exploratory frequentist pairwise meta-analyses will be based primarily on a random-effects method, relying on relative risks (RR) for short-term endpoints and incidence rate ratios (IRR) for long-term endpoints. Inferential frequentist network meta-analysis will be based primarily on a random-effects method, relying on RR and IRR as specified above. Results will be reported as point summary of effect, 95% CI, and p-values for effect, and graphically represented using forest plots. CONCLUSIONS: An international collaborative network meta-analysis has begun to comprehensively analyze the safety and efficacy of prasugrel, ticagrelor and clopidogrel, each on a background of aspirin, for management of patients with ACS. It is our hope that the rigor and breadth of the undertaking described herein will provide novel insights that will inform optimal patient care for patients with ACS treated conservatively, or undergoing revascularization.

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