Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 128
Filtrar
1.
Trends Immunol ; 42(11): 960-974, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642094

RESUMO

Responsiveness to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy in cancer is currently predicted by disparate individual measures - with varying degrees of accuracy - including tumor mutation burden, tumor-infiltrating T cell densities, dendritic cell frequencies, and the expression of checkpoint ligands. We propose that many of these individual parameters are linked, forming two distinct 'reactive' immune archetypes - collections of cells and gene expression - in ICB-responsive patients. We hypothesize that these are 'seeds' of antitumor immunity and are supported by specific elements of the tumor microenvironment (TME) and by actions of the microbiome. Although removing 'immunosuppressive' factors in the TME is important, understanding and parsing reactive immunity is crucial for optimal prognosis and for engaging this biology with candidate therapies to increase tumor cure rates.

2.
Cell Rep ; 37(3): 109844, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686340

RESUMO

Converting checkpoint inhibitor (CPI)-resistant individuals to being responsive requires identifying suppressive mechanisms. We identify TREM2+ tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) as being correlated with exhausted CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in mouse syngeneic tumor models and human solid tumors of multiple histological types. Fc domain-enhanced anti-TREM2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy promotes anti-tumor immunity by elimination and modulation of TAM populations, which leads to enhanced CD8+ TIL infiltration and effector function. TREM2+ TAMs are most enriched in individuals with ovarian cancer, where TREM2 expression corresponds to disease grade accompanied by worse recurrence-free survival. In an aggressive orthotopic ovarian cancer model, anti-TREM2 mAb therapy drives potent anti-tumor immunity. These results highlight TREM2 as a highly attractive target for immunotherapy modulation in individuals who are refractory to CPI therapy and likely have a TAM-rich tumor microenvironment.

3.
Gastroenterology ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) have not yet benefitted from the revolution in cancer immunotherapy due in large part to a dominantly immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. MEK inhibition combined with autophagy inhibition leads to transient tumor responses in some patients with PDA. We examined the functional effects of combined MEK and autophagy inhibition on the PDA immune microenvironment and the efficacy of synergizing the combined inhibition of MEK and autophagy with CD40 agonism (aCD40) against PDA using immunocompetent model systems. METHODS: We implanted immunologically "cold" murine PDA cells orthotopically in WT C57BL/6J mice. We administered combinations of inhibitors of MEK1/2, inhibitors of autophagy, and aCD40 and measured anticancer efficacy and immune sequel using mass cytometry (CyTOF) and CODEX multiplexed immunofluorescence imaging analysis to characterize the tumor microenvironment. We also used human and mouse PDA cell lines and human macrophages in vitro to perform functional assays to elucidate the cellular effects induced by the treatments. RESULTS: We find that coinhibition of MEK (using cobimetinib) and autophagy (using mefloquine), but not either treatment alone, activates the STING/type I interferon pathway in tumor cells that in turn activates paracrine tumor associated macrophages toward an immunogenic M1-like phenotype. This switch is further augmented by an aCD40. Triple therapy (cobimetinib + mefloquine + aCD40) achieved cytotoxic T-cell activation in an immunologically "cold" mouse PDA model, leading to enhanced antitumor immunity. CONCLUSIONS: MEK and autophagy coinhibition coupled with aCD40 invokes immuno-repolarization and is an attractive therapeutic approach for PDA immunotherapy development.

4.
J Immunol ; 207(7): 1763-1775, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470859

RESUMO

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) reside in nonlymphoid tissues where they carry out unique functions. The molecular mechanisms responsible for Treg accumulation and maintenance in these tissues are relatively unknown. Using an unbiased discovery approach, we identified LAYN (layilin), a C-type lectin-like receptor, to be preferentially and highly expressed on a subset of activated Tregs in healthy and diseased human skin. Expression of layilin on Tregs was induced by TCR-mediated activation in the presence of IL-2 or TGF-ß. Mice with a conditional deletion of layilin in Tregs had reduced accumulation of these cells in tumors. However, these animals somewhat paradoxically had enhanced immune regulation in the tumor microenvironment, resulting in increased tumor growth. Mechanistically, layilin expression on Tregs had a minimal effect on their activation and suppressive capacity in vitro. However, expression of this molecule resulted in a cumulative anchoring effect on Treg dynamic motility in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest a model whereby layilin facilitates Treg adhesion in skin and, in doing so, limits their suppressive capacity. These findings uncover a unique mechanism whereby reduced Treg motility acts to limit immune regulation in nonlymphoid organs and may help guide strategies to exploit this phenomenon for therapeutic benefit.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Receptores de Retorno de Linfócitos/metabolismo , Pele/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Movimento Celular , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Ativação Linfocitária , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Modelos Imunológicos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Receptores de Retorno de Linfócitos/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
5.
EClinicalMedicine ; 40: 101099, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490415

RESUMO

Background: Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there has been increasing urgency to identify pathophysiological characteristics leading to severe clinical course in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Human leukocyte antigen alleles (HLA) have been suggested as potential genetic host factors that affect individual immune response to SARS-CoV-2. We sought to evaluate this hypothesis by conducting a multicenter study using HLA sequencing. Methods: We analyzed the association between COVID-19 severity and HLAs in 435 individuals from Germany (n = 135), Spain (n = 133), Switzerland (n = 20) and the United States (n = 147), who had been enrolled from March 2020 to August 2020. This study included patients older than 18 years, diagnosed with COVID-19 and representing the full spectrum of the disease. Finally, we tested our results by meta-analysing data from prior genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Findings: We describe a potential association of HLA-C*04:01 with severe clinical course of COVID-19. Carriers of HLA-C*04:01 had twice the risk of intubation when infected with SARS-CoV-2 (risk ratio 1.5 [95% CI 1.1-2.1], odds ratio 3.5 [95% CI 1.9-6.6], adjusted p-value = 0.0074). These findings are based on data from four countries and corroborated by independent results from GWAS. Our findings are biologically plausible, as HLA-C*04:01 has fewer predicted bindings sites for relevant SARS-CoV-2 peptides compared to other HLA alleles. Interpretation: HLA-C*04:01 carrier state is associated with severe clinical course in SARS-CoV-2. Our findings suggest that HLA class I alleles have a relevant role in immune defense against SARS-CoV-2. Funding: Funded by Roche Sequencing Solutions, Inc.

7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5152, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446707

RESUMO

The immunological features that distinguish COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) from other causes of ARDS are incompletely understood. Here, we report the results of comparative lower respiratory tract transcriptional profiling of tracheal aspirate from 52 critically ill patients with ARDS from COVID-19 or from other etiologies, as well as controls without ARDS. In contrast to a "cytokine storm," we observe reduced proinflammatory gene expression in COVID-19 ARDS when compared to ARDS due to other causes. COVID-19 ARDS is characterized by a dysregulated host response with increased PTEN signaling and elevated expression of genes with non-canonical roles in inflammation and immunity. In silico analysis of gene expression identifies several candidate drugs that may modulate gene expression in COVID-19 ARDS, including dexamethasone and granulocyte colony stimulating factor. Compared to ARDS due to other types of viral pneumonia, COVID-19 is characterized by impaired interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression. The relationship between SARS-CoV-2 viral load and expression of ISGs is decoupled in patients with COVID-19 ARDS when compared to patients with mild COVID-19. In summary, assessment of host gene expression in the lower airways of patients reveals distinct immunological features of COVID-19 ARDS.


Assuntos
COVID-19/genética , RNA/genética , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/genética , Traqueia/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Estado Terminal , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA/metabolismo , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/imunologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA
9.
J Clin Invest ; 131(18)2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292884

RESUMO

Intratumoral T cells that might otherwise control tumors are often identified in an "exhausted" state, defined by specific epigenetic modifications and upregulation of genes such as CD38, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4), and programmed cell death 1 (PD1). Although the term might imply inactivity, there has been little study of this state at the phenotypic level in tumors to understand the extent of their incapacitation. Starting with the observation that T cells move more quickly through mouse tumors the longer they reside there and progress toward exhaustion, we developed a nonstimulatory, live-biopsy method for the real-time study of T cell behavior within individual patient tumors. Using 2-photon microscopy, we studied native CD8+ T cell interaction with antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and cancer cells in different microniches of human tumors and found that T cell speed was variable by region and by patient and was inversely correlated with local tumor density. Across a range of tumor types, we found a strong relationship between CD8+ T cell motility and the exhausted T cell state that corresponded with our observations made in mouse models in which exhausted T cells moved faster. Our study demonstrates T cell dynamic states in individual human tumors and supports the existence of an active program in "exhausted" T cells that extends beyond incapacitating them.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Movimento Celular/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/imunologia , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/patologia , Camundongos , Neoplasias/patologia
10.
J Cell Biol ; 220(8)2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096975

RESUMO

How local interactions of actin regulators yield large-scale organization of cell shape and movement is not well understood. Here we investigate how the WAVE complex organizes sheet-like lamellipodia. Using super-resolution microscopy, we find that the WAVE complex forms actin-independent 230-nm-wide rings that localize to regions of saddle membrane curvature. This pattern of enrichment could explain several emergent cell behaviors, such as expanding and self-straightening lamellipodia and the ability of endothelial cells to recognize and seal transcellular holes. The WAVE complex recruits IRSp53 to sites of saddle curvature but does not depend on IRSp53 for its own localization. Although the WAVE complex stimulates actin nucleation via the Arp2/3 complex, sheet-like protrusions are still observed in ARP2-null, but not WAVE complex-null, cells. Therefore, the WAVE complex has additional roles in cell morphogenesis beyond Arp2/3 complex activation. Our work defines organizing principles of the WAVE complex lamellipodial template and suggests how feedback between cell shape and actin regulators instructs cell morphogenesis.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Forma Celular , Pseudópodes/metabolismo , Família de Proteínas da Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/metabolismo , Citoesqueleto de Actina/genética , Citoesqueleto de Actina/metabolismo , Complexo 2-3 de Proteínas Relacionadas à Actina/genética , Complexo 2-3 de Proteínas Relacionadas à Actina/metabolismo , Animais , Membrana Celular/genética , Membrana Celular/ultraestrutura , Movimento Celular , Células HEK293 , Células HL-60 , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/ultraestrutura , Melanoma Experimental/genética , Melanoma Experimental/metabolismo , Melanoma Experimental/ultraestrutura , Camundongos , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico , Pseudópodes/genética , Pseudópodes/ultraestrutura , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Tempo , Família de Proteínas da Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/genética
11.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(5)2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conventional type 1 dendritic cells (cDC1s) are central to antitumor immunity and their presence in the tumor microenvironment associates with improved outcomes in patients with cancer. DNGR-1 (CLEC9A) is a dead cell-sensing receptor highly restricted to cDC1s. DNGR-1 has been involved in both cross-presentation of dead cell-associated antigens and processes of disease tolerance, but its role in antitumor immunity has not been clarified yet. METHODS: B16 and MC38 tumor cell lines were inoculated subcutaneously into wild-type (WT) and DNGR-1-deficient mice. To overexpress Flt3L systemically, we performed gene therapy through the hydrodynamic injection of an Flt3L-encoding plasmid. To characterize the immune response, we performed flow cytometry and RNA-Seq of tumor-infiltrating cDC1s. RESULTS: Here, we found that cross-presentation of tumor antigens in the steady state was DNGR-1-independent. However, on Flt3L systemic overexpression, tumor growth was delayed in DNGR-1-deficient mice compared with WT mice. Of note, this protection was recapitulated by anti-DNGR-1-blocking antibodies in mice following Flt3L gene therapy. This improved antitumor immunity was associated with Batf3-dependent enhanced accumulation of CD8+ T cells and cDC1s within tumors. Mechanistically, the deficiency in DNGR-1 boosted an Flt3L-induced specific inflammatory gene signature in cDC1s, including Ccl5 expression. Indeed, the increased infiltration of cDC1s within tumors and their protective effect rely on CCL5/CCR5 chemoattraction. Moreover, FLT3LG and CCL5 or CCR5 gene expression signatures correlate with an enhanced cDC1 signature and a favorable overall survival in patients with cancer. Notably, cyclophosphamide elevated serum Flt3L levels and, in combination with the absence of DNGR-1, synergized against tumor growth. CONCLUSION: DNGR-1 limits the accumulation of tumor-infiltrating cDC1s promoted by Flt3L. Thus, DNGR-1 blockade may improve antitumor immunity in tumor therapy settings associated to high Flt3L expression.

12.
medRxiv ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791731

RESUMO

Secondary bacterial infections, including ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), lead to worse clinical outcomes and increased mortality following viral respiratory infections. Critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) face an elevated risk of VAP, although susceptibility varies widely. Because mechanisms underlying VAP predisposition remained unknown, we assessed lower respiratory tract host immune responses and microbiome dynamics in 36 patients, including 28 COVID-19 patients, 15 of whom developed VAP, and eight critically ill controls. We employed a combination of tracheal aspirate bulk and single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq). Two days before VAP onset, a lower respiratory transcriptional signature of bacterial infection was observed, characterized by increased expression of neutrophil degranulation, toll-like receptor and cytokine signaling pathways. When assessed at an earlier time point following endotracheal intubation, more than two weeks prior to VAP onset, we observed a striking early impairment in antibacterial innate and adaptive immune signaling that markedly differed from COVID-19 patients who did not develop VAP. scRNA-seq further demonstrated suppressed immune signaling across monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils and T cells. While viral load did not differ at an early post-intubation timepoint, impaired SARS-CoV-2 clearance and persistent interferon signaling characterized the patients who later developed VAP. Longitudinal metatranscriptomic analysis revealed disruption of lung microbiome community composition in patients who developed VAP, providing a connection between dysregulated immune signaling and outgrowth of opportunistic pathogens. Together, these findings demonstrate that COVID-19 patients who develop VAP have impaired antibacterial immune defense weeks before secondary infection onset. One sentence summary: COVID-19 patients with secondary bacterial pneumonia have impaired immune signaling and lung microbiome changes weeks before onset.

13.
bioRxiv ; 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758859

RESUMO

Type I interferon (IFN-I) neutralizing autoantibodies have been found in some critical COVID-19 patients; however, their prevalence and longitudinal dynamics across the disease severity scale, and functional effects on circulating leukocytes remain unknown. Here, in 284 COVID-19 patients, we found IFN-I autoantibodies in 19% of critical, 6% of severe and none of the moderate cases. Longitudinal profiling of over 600,000 peripheral blood mononuclear cells using multiplexed single-cell epitope and transcriptome sequencing from 54 COVID-19 patients, 15 non-COVID-19 patients and 11 non-hospitalized healthy controls, revealed a lack of IFN-I stimulated gene (ISG-I) response in myeloid cells from critical cases, including those producing anti-IFN-I autoantibodies. Moreover, surface protein analysis showed an inverse correlation of the inhibitory receptor LAIR-1 with ISG-I expression response early in the disease course. This aberrant ISG-I response in critical patients with and without IFN-I autoantibodies, supports a unifying model for disease pathogenesis involving ISG-I suppression via convergent mechanisms.

14.
Sci Immunol ; 6(57)2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771888

RESUMO

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) that promote tumor immune evasion are enriched in certain tumors and correlate with poor prognosis. However, mechanisms for Treg enrichment remain incompletely understood. We described a mechanism for Treg enrichment in mouse and human tumors mediated by the αvß8 integrin. Tumor cell αvß8 bound to latent transforming growth factor-ß (L-TGF-ß) presented on the surface of T cells, resulting in TGF-ß activation and immunosuppressive Treg differentiation in vitro. In vivo, tumor cell αvß8 expression correlated with Treg enrichment, immunosuppressive Treg gene expression, and increased tumor growth, which was reduced in mice by αvß8 inhibition or Treg depletion. Structural modeling and cell-based studies suggested a highly geometrically constrained complex forming between αvß8-expressing tumor cells and L-TGF-ß-expressing T cells, facilitating TGF-ß activation, independent of release and diffusion, and providing limited access to TGF-ß inhibitors. These findings suggest a highly localized tumor-specific mechanism for Treg enrichment.

15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1916, 2021 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772022

RESUMO

Multiphoton microscopy is a powerful technique for deep in vivo imaging in scattering samples. However, it requires precise, sample-dependent increases in excitation power with depth in order to generate contrast in scattering tissue, while minimizing photobleaching and phototoxicity. We show here how adaptive imaging can optimize illumination power at each point in a 3D volume as a function of the sample's shape, without the need for specialized fluorescent labeling. Our method relies on training a physics-based machine learning model using cells with identical fluorescent labels imaged in situ. We use this technique for in vivo imaging of immune responses in mouse lymph nodes following vaccination. We achieve visualization of physiologically realistic numbers of antigen-specific T cells (~2 orders of magnitude lower than previous studies), and demonstrate changes in the global organization and motility of dendritic cell networks during the early stages of the immune response. We provide a step-by-step tutorial for implementing this technique using exclusively open-source hardware and software.


Assuntos
Imunidade/imunologia , Linfonodos/imunologia , Microscopia de Fluorescência por Excitação Multifotônica/métodos , Vacinação/métodos , Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Algoritmos , Animais , Antígenos/imunologia , Feminino , Linfonodos/metabolismo , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microscopia de Fluorescência por Excitação Multifotônica/instrumentação , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
16.
Cell ; 184(3): 566-570, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545032

RESUMO

Complex datasets provide opportunities for discoveries beyond their initial scope. Effective and rapid data sharing and management practices are crucial to realize this potential; however, they are harder to implement than post-publication access. Here, we introduce the concept of a "data sharing trust" to maximize the value of large datasets.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Disseminação de Informação , Modelos Teóricos , Confiança , Autoria , Humanos , Pesquisadores
17.
Nature ; 591(7848): 124-130, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494096

RESUMO

Although infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has pleiotropic and systemic effects in some individuals1-3, many others experience milder symptoms. Here, to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the distinction between severe and mild phenotypes in the pathology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its origins, we performed a whole-blood-preserving single-cell analysis protocol to integrate contributions from all major immune cell types of the blood-including neutrophils, monocytes, platelets, lymphocytes and the contents of the serum. Patients with mild COVID-19 exhibit a coordinated pattern of expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs)3 across every cell population, whereas these ISG-expressing cells are systemically absent in patients with severe disease. Paradoxically, individuals with severe COVID-19 produce very high titres of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and have a lower viral load compared to individuals with mild disease. Examination of the serum from patients with severe COVID-19 shows that these patients uniquely produce antibodies that functionally block the production of the ISG-expressing cells associated with mild disease, by activating conserved signalling circuits that dampen cellular responses to interferons. Overzealous antibody responses pit the immune system against itself in many patients with COVID-19, and perhaps also in individuals with other viral infections. Our findings reveal potential targets for immunotherapies in patients with severe COVID-19 to re-engage viral defence.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Interferons/antagonistas & inibidores , Interferons/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Formação de Anticorpos , Sequência de Bases , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Interferons/metabolismo , Masculino , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/patologia , Domínios Proteicos , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/imunologia , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/metabolismo , Receptores de IgG/imunologia , Análise de Célula Única , Carga Viral/imunologia
18.
Cell Metab ; 32(6): 1063-1075.e7, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264598

RESUMO

Energetic metabolism reprogramming is critical for cancer and immune responses. Current methods to functionally profile the global metabolic capacities and dependencies of cells are performed in bulk. We designed a simple method for complex metabolic profiling called SCENITH, for single-cell energetic metabolism by profiling translation inhibition. SCENITH allows for the study of metabolic responses in multiple cell types in parallel by flow cytometry. SCENITH is designed to perform metabolic studies ex vivo, particularly for rare cells in whole blood samples, avoiding metabolic biases introduced by culture media. We analyzed myeloid cells in solid tumors from patients and identified variable metabolic profiles, in ways that are not linked to their lineage or their activation phenotype. SCENITH's ability to reveal global metabolic functions and determine complex and linked immune-phenotypes in rare cell subpopulations will contribute to the information needed for evaluating therapeutic responses or patient stratification.

19.
Res Sq ; 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140041

RESUMO

While SARS-CoV-2 infection has pleiotropic and systemic effects in some patients, many others experience milder symptoms. We sought a holistic understanding of the severe/mild distinction in COVID-19 pathology, and its origins. We performed a wholeblood preserving single-cell analysis protocol to integrate contributions from all major cell types including neutrophils, monocytes, platelets, lymphocytes and the contents of serum. Patients with mild COVID-19 disease display a coordinated pattern of interferonstimulated gene (ISG) expression across every cell population and these cells are systemically absent in patients with severe disease. Severe COVID-19 patients also paradoxically produce very high anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers and have lower viral load as compared to mild disease. Examination of the serum from severe patients demonstrates that they uniquely produce antibodies with multiple patterns of specificity against interferon-stimulated cells and that those antibodies functionally block the production of the mild disease-associated ISG-expressing cells. Overzealous and autodirected antibody responses pit the immune system against itself in many COVID-19 patients and this defines targets for immunotherapies to allow immune systems to provide viral defense.

20.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140050

RESUMO

While SARS-CoV-2 infection has pleiotropic and systemic effects in some patients, many others experience milder symptoms. We sought a holistic understanding of the severe/mild distinction in COVID-19 pathology, and its origins. We performed a whole-blood preserving single-cell analysis protocol to integrate contributions from all major cell types including neutrophils, monocytes, platelets, lymphocytes and the contents of serum. Patients with mild COVID-19 disease display a coordinated pattern of interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression across every cell population and these cells are systemically absent in patients with severe disease. Severe COVID-19 patients also paradoxically produce very high anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers and have lower viral load as compared to mild disease. Examination of the serum from severe patients demonstrates that they uniquely produce antibodies with multiple patterns of specificity against interferon-stimulated cells and that those antibodies functionally block the production of the mild disease-associated ISG-expressing cells. Overzealous and auto-directed antibody responses pit the immune system against itself in many COVID-19 patients and this defines targets for immunotherapies to allow immune systems to provide viral defense. One Sentence Summary: In severe COVID-19 patients, the immune system fails to generate cells that define mild disease; antibodies in their serum actively prevents the successful production of those cells.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...