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1.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(14): 5756-5764, 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860759

RESUMO

Magnetic hysteresis is demonstrated for monolayers of the single-molecule magnet (SMM) Dy2 ScN@C80 deposited on Au(111), Ag(100), and MgO|Ag(100) surfaces by vacuum sublimation. The topography and electronic structure of Dy2 ScN@C80 adsorbed on Au(111) were studied by STM. X-ray magnetic CD studies show that the Dy2 ScN@C80 monolayers exhibit similarly broad magnetic hysteresis independent on the substrate used, but the orientation of the Dy2 ScN cluster depends strongly on the surface. DFT calculations show that the extent of the electronic interaction of the fullerene molecules with the surface is increasing dramatically from MgO to Au(111) and Ag(100). However, the charge redistribution at the fullerene-surface interface is fully absorbed by the carbon cage, leaving the state of the endohedral cluster intact. This Faraday cage effect of the fullerene preserves the magnetic bistability of fullerene-SMMs on conducting substrates and facilitates their application in molecular spintronics.

2.
Acc Chem Res ; 52(10): 2981-2993, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571482

RESUMO

A characteristic phenomenon of lanthanide-fullerene interactions is the transfer of metal valence electrons to the carbon cage. With early lanthanides such as La, a complete transfer of six valence electrons takes place for the metal dimers encapsulated in the fullerene cage. However, the low energy of the σ-type Ln-Ln bonding orbital in the second half of the lanthanide row limits the Ln2 → fullerene transfer to only five electrons. One electron remains in the Ln-Ln bonding orbital, whereas the fullerene cage with a formal charge of -5 is left electron-deficient. Such Ln2@C80 molecules are unstable in the neutral form but can be stabilized by substitution of one carbon atom by nitrogen to give azafullerenes Ln2@C79N or by quenching the unpaired electron on the fullerene cage by reacting it with a chemical such as benzyl bromide, transforming one sp2 carbon into an sp3 carbon and yielding the monoadduct Ln2@C80(CH2Ph). Because of the presence of the Ln-Ln bonding molecular orbital with one electron, the Ln2@C79N and Ln2@C80(R) molecules feature a unique single-electron Ln-Ln bond and an unconventional +2.5 oxidation state of the lanthanides. In this Account, which brings together metallofullerenes, molecular magnets, and lanthanides in unconventional valence states, we review the progress in the studies of dimetallofullerenes with single-electron Ln-Ln bonds and highlight the consequences of the unpaired electron residing in the Ln-Ln bonding orbital for the magnetic interactions between Ln ions. Usually, Ln···Ln exchange coupling in polynuclear lanthanide compounds is weak because of the core nature of 4f electrons. However, when interactions between Ln centers are mediated by a radical bridge, stronger coupling may be achieved because of the diffuse nature of radical-based orbitals. Ultimately, when the role of a radical bridge is played by a single unpaired electron in the Ln-Ln bonding orbital, the strength of the exchange coupling is increased dramatically. Giant exchange coupling in endohedral Ln2 dimers is combined with a rather strong axial ligand field exerted on the lanthanide ions by the fullerene cage and the excess electron density localized between two Ln ions. As a result, Ln2@C79N and Ln2@C80(CH2Ph) compounds exhibit slow relaxation of magnetization and exceptionally high blocking temperatures for Ln = Dy and Tb. At low temperatures, the [Ln3+-e-Ln3+] fragment behaves as a single giant spin. Furthermore, the Ln-Ln bonding orbital in dimetallofullerenes is redox-active, which allows its population to be changed by electrochemical reactions, thus changing the magnetic properties because the change in the number of electrons residing in the Ln-Ln orbital affects the magnetic structure of the molecule.

3.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(18): 5891-5896, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30786125

RESUMO

The azafullerene Tb2 @C79 N is found to be a single-molecule magnet with a high 100-s blocking temperature of magnetization of 24 K and large coercivity. Tb magnetic moments with an easy-axis single-ion magnetic anisotropy are strongly coupled by the unpaired spin of the single-electron Tb-Tb bond. Relaxation of magnetization in Tb2 @C79 N below 15 K proceeds via quantum tunneling of magnetization with the characteristic time τQTM =16 462±1230 s. At higher temperature, relaxation follows the Orbach mechanism with a barrier of 757±4 K, corresponding to the excited states, in which one of the Tb spins is flipped.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 571, 2019 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718550

RESUMO

Engineering intramolecular exchange interactions between magnetic metal atoms is a ubiquitous strategy for designing molecular magnets. For lanthanides, the localized nature of 4f electrons usually results in weak exchange coupling. Mediating magnetic interactions between lanthanide ions via radical bridges is a fruitful strategy towards stronger coupling. In this work we explore the limiting case when the role of a radical bridge is played by a single unpaired electron. We synthesize an array of air-stable Ln2@C80(CH2Ph) dimetallofullerenes (Ln2 = Y2, Gd2, Tb2, Dy2, Ho2, Er2, TbY, TbGd) featuring a covalent lanthanide-lanthanide bond. The lanthanide spins are glued together by very strong exchange interactions between 4f moments and a single electron residing on the metal-metal bonding orbital. Tb2@C80(CH2Ph) shows a gigantic coercivity of 8.2 Tesla at 5 K and a high 100-s blocking temperature of magnetization of 25.2 K. The Ln-Ln bonding orbital in Ln2@C80(CH2Ph) is redox active, enabling electrochemical tuning of the magnetism.

5.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(76): 10683-10686, 2018 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30087957

RESUMO

Carbide clusterfullerene DyYTiC@C80-Ih with three different metal atoms in the endohedral cluster is obtained by arc-discharge synthesis with methane as reactive gas and is successfully isolated by HPLC. The compound shows single-molecule magnetism (SMM) with magnetic hysteresis below 8 K. The SMM properties of DyYTiC@C80 are compared to those of DySc2N@C80 and the influence of the central atom in the endohedral cluster is analyzed.

6.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(1): 277-281, 2018 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29119650

RESUMO

The endohedral fullerene Y3 N@C80 exhibits luminescence with reasonable quantum yield and extraordinary long lifetime. By variable-temperature steady-state and time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy, it is demonstrated that above 60 K the Y3 N@C80 exhibits thermally activated delayed fluorescence with maximum emission at 120 K and a negligible prompt fluorescence. Below 60 K, a phosphorescence with a lifetime of 192±1 ms is observed. Spin distribution and dynamics in the triplet excited state is investigated with X- and W-band EPR and ENDOR spectroscopies and DFT computations. Finally, electroluminescence of the Y3 N@C80 /PFO film is demonstrated opening the possibility for red-emitting fullerene-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs).

7.
Chem Sci ; 8(9): 6451-6465, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29263779

RESUMO

A method for the selective synthesis of sulfide clusterfullerenes Dy2S@C2n is developed. Addition of methane to the reactive atmosphere reduces the formation of empty fullerenes in the arc-discharge synthesis, whereas the use of Dy2S3 as a source of metal and sulfur affords sulfide clusterfullerenes as the main fullerene products along with smaller amounts of carbide clusterfullerenes. Two isomers of Dy2S@C82 with Cs(6) and C3v(8) cage symmetry, Dy2S@C72-Cs(10528), and a carbide clusterfullerene Dy2C2@C82-Cs(6) were isolated. The molecular structure of both Dy2S@C82 isomers was elucidated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. SQUID magnetometry demonstrates that all of these clusterfullerenes exhibit hysteresis of magnetization, with Dy2S@C82-C3v(8) being the strongest single molecule magnet in the series. DC- and AC-susceptibility measurements were used to determine magnetization relaxation times in the temperature range from 1.6 K to 70 K. Unprecedented magnetization relaxation dynamics with three consequent Orbach processes and energy barriers of 10.5, 48, and 1232 K are determined for Dy2S@C82-C3v(8). Dy2S@C82-Cs(6) exhibits faster relaxation of magnetization with two barriers of 15.2 and 523 K. Ab initio calculations were used to interpret experimental data and compare the Dy-sulfide clusterfullerenes to other Dy-clusterfullerenes. The smallest and largest barriers are ascribed to the exchange/dipolar barrier and relaxation via crystal-field states, respectively, whereas an intermediate energy barrier of 48 K in Dy2S@C82-C3v(8) is assigned to the local phonon mode, corresponding to the librational motion of the Dy2S cluster inside the carbon cage.

8.
Nat Commun ; 8: 16098, 2017 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28706223

RESUMO

Increasing the temperature at which molecules behave as single-molecule magnets is a serious challenge in molecular magnetism. One of the ways to address this problem is to create the molecules with strongly coupled lanthanide ions. In this work, endohedral metallofullerenes Y2@C80 and Dy2@C80 are obtained in the form of air-stable benzyl monoadducts. Both feature an unpaired electron trapped between metal ions, thus forming a single-electron metal-metal bond. Giant exchange interactions between lanthanide ions and the unpaired electron result in single-molecule magnetism of Dy2@C80(CH2Ph) with a record-high 100 s blocking temperature of 18 K. All magnetic moments in Dy2@C80(CH2Ph) are parallel and couple ferromagnetically to form a single spin unit of 21 µB with a dysprosium-electron exchange constant of 32 cm-1. The barrier of the magnetization reversal of 613 K is assigned to the state in which the spin of one Dy centre is flipped.

9.
Nanoscale ; 9(23): 7977-7990, 2017 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28574078

RESUMO

Lanthanide-lanthanide bonds are exceptionally rare, and dimetallofullerenes provide a unique possibility to stabilize and study these unusual bonding patterns. The presence of metal-metal bonds and consequences thereof for the electronic properties of M2@C82 (M = Sc, Er, Lu) are addressed by electrochemistry, electron paramagnetic resonance, SQUID magnetometry and other spectroscopic techniques. A simplified non-chromatographic separation procedure is developed for the isolation of Er2@C82 (Cs(6) and C3v(8) cage isomers) and Sc2@C82 (C3v(8) isomer) from fullerene mixtures. Sulfide clusterfullerenes Er2S@C82 with Cs(6) and C3v(8) fullerene cages are synthesized for the first time. The metal-metal bonding orbital of the spd hybrid character in M2@C82 is shown to be the highest occupied molecular orbital, which undergoes reversible single-electron oxidation with a metal-dependent oxidation potential. Sulfide clusterfullerenes with a fullerene-based HOMO have more positive oxidation potentials. The metal-based oxidation of Sc2@C82-C3v is confirmed by the EPR spectrum of the cation radical [Sc2@C82-C3v]+ generated by chemical oxidation in solution. The spectrum exhibits an exceptionally large a(45Sc) hyperfine coupling constant of 199.2 G, indicating a substantial 4s contribution to the metal-metal bonding orbital. The cationic salt [Er2@C82-C3v]+SbCl6- is prepared, and its magnetization behavior is compared to that of pristine Er2@C82-C3v and Er2S@C82-C3v. The formation of the single-electron Er-Er bond in the cation dramatically changes the coupling between magnetic moments of Er ions.

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