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1.
Urology ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711982

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study if prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) controlled by Grade Group (GG), PSA, and tumor volume (TV) is an independent predictor of adverse radical prostatectomy (RP) outcomes. MATERIALS: One-hundred-and-twenty-eight PDA and 1,141 acinar continuous RPs were studied. Each tumor nodule (TN) was individually graded, staged, and its TV measured. Univariate analysis (UVA) identified features associated with lymph node metastasis (LN+), extraprostatic extension (EPE), positive surgical margins (SM+), and seminal vesicle invasion (SV+). We then assessed PDA effect on RP outcomes in a multivariate analysis (MVA). RESULTS: In 127 cases PDA was present in 1 TN and no TN was pure PDA. One-hundred-and-twenty-three cases had PDA in TNs with highest grade, stage, and TV. Patients with PDA were older (65 vs. 63 years, p<0.001), had higher GG (p<0.001), and LN+ (6.3% vs 2.7%, p=0.049). Controlling these variables by GG eliminated statistical significance. Overall, there were 3,249 separate TNs (129 PDA and 3,120 acinar). In UVA, PDA predicted EPE (92/124 vs 517/3,045), SV+ (28/1129 vs 116/3,120), and SM+ (51/129 vs 296/3,120), all p<0.001. In MVA, PDA lost its effect on EPE (OR=0.88, p=0.64), SM+ (OR=0.86, p=0.5), and SV+ (OR=0.99, p=0.98). CONCLUSION: Controlled for grade and TV, PDA was not an independent predictor of adverse RP outcomes, but former two were. Hence, higher GG and TV associated with PDA TNs may be predictive of adverse RP outcomes rather than PDA by itself. These conclusions may be used in preoperative risk stratification and definitive therapy planning when PDA is identified on needle biopsy.

2.
Virchows Arch ; 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444626

RESUMO

Renal cell tumors with mixed morphology resembling multiple renal cell carcinoma (RCC) subtypes are generally regarded as unclassified RCC. However, occasionally, papillary adenoma or RCC appears admixed with a larger, different tumor histology. We retrieved 17 renal tumors containing a papillary adenoma or papillary RCC component admixed with another tumor histology and studied them with immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Larger tumors were oncocytomas (n = 10), chromophobe RCCs (n = 5), borderline oncocytic tumor (n = 1), and clear cell RCC (n = 1). The size of papillary component ranged from 1 to 34 mm. One tumor was an oncocytoma encircled by a cyst (2.0 cm) with papillary hyperplasia of the lining. The papillary lesions were diffusely cytokeratin 7 positive (17/17), in contrast to "host" tumors. Alpha-methylacyl-coA-racemase labeling was usually stronger in the papillary lesions (13/15). KIT was negative in all papillary lesions and the clear cell RCC and positive in 16/16 oncocytic or chromophobe tumors. Eight of 15 (53%) collision tumors had differing FISH results in the two components. A papillary renal cell proliferation within another tumor is an uncommon phenomenon with predilection for oncocytoma and chromophobe RCC, possibly related to their common entrapment of benign tubules. When supported by distinct morphology and immunohistochemistry in these two components, this phenomenon should be diagnosed as a collision of two processes. A diagnosis of unclassified RCC should be avoided, due to potential misrepresentation as an aggressive renal cancer.

3.
Prostate ; 79(10): 1090-1098, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels are associated with both increased risk of prostate cancer and prostatic inflammation. The confounding effects of inflammation on the utility of PSA kinetics to predict prostate cancer may be partially mitigated by anti-inflammatory drug use. We investigated the influence of anti-inflammatory drug use on the association of PSA kinetics with prostate cancer risk. METHODS: We studied 488 prostate cancer case-control pairs (290 white, 198 African American (AA)) nested in a retrospective cohort of men with a benign prostate biopsy. A series of multivariable models estimated prostate cancer risk associated with PSA velocity (PSAV) at different levels of anti-inflammatory drug use while adjusting for the presence of both clinical and histologic prostatitis. RESULTS: In men with one, two, or three or more courses of anti-inflammatory drug use, for each ng/mL/year increase in PSAV, prostate cancer risk increased 1.21-fold, 1.83-fold, and 1.97-fold, respectively ( P < 0.0001). In controls with histologic prostatitis, anti-inflammatory drug use was associated with a significantly lower PSAV ( P < 0.0001). This association was not observed in men with histologic prostatitis who were subsequently diagnosed with prostate cancer. A positive interaction between anti-inflammatory drug use and PSAV-associated prostate cancer risk was only observed in AA men, as well as a strong positive association between any anti-inflammatory drug use and clinical prostatitis ( P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: In men with benign prostate biopsy, accounting for the presence of histologic prostatitis and anti-inflammatory drug use, particularly in AA men, may help distinguish between men with rising PSA because of prostatitis vs undiagnosed cancer.

4.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 151(5): 479-485, 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576407

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Rete testis invasion by germ cell tumors is frequently concomitant with lymphovascular or spermatic cord invasion (LVI/SCI); independent implications for staging are uncertain. METHODS: In total, 171 seminomas and 178 nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCTs; 46 had 1%-60% seminoma component) came from five institutions. Metastatic status at presentation, as a proxy for severity, was available for all; relapse data were unavailable for 152. Rete direct invasion (ReteD) and rete pagetoid spread (ReteP) were assessed. RESULTS: ReteP and ReteD were more frequent in seminoma than NSGCT. In seminoma, tumor size bifurcated at 3 cm or more or less than 3 cm predicted metastatic status. Tumors with ReteP or ReteD did not differ in size from those without invasions but were less than with LVI/SCI; metastatic status or relapse did not show differences. In NSGCT, ReteP/ReteD did not correlate with size, metastatic status, or relapse. CONCLUSIONS: Findings support retaining American Joint Committee for Cancer pathologic T1 stage designation for rete testis invasion and pT1a/pT1b substaging of seminoma.

5.
Ann Diagn Pathol ; 38: 11-19, 2018 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380401

RESUMO

Management of malignant urothelial tumors is often associated with extended costly treatments, some with significant morbidity. Advanced tumors are treated with radical cystectomy with neoadjuvant or adjuvant radiation or chemotherapy. Over and under interpretation of histological findings from biopsies and transurethral resections of urothelial lesions may either incur treatments with significant side effects or miss a possible window of cure, respectively. Herein we reflect our approaches and common diagnostic challenges of urothelial tumors and their mimickers, and highlight the diagnostic pitfalls and key histological and immunohistochemical differentiating features. It is useful to separate mimickers of bladder adenocarcinoma and mimics of urothelial carcinoma as the former can involve the muscularis propria, whereas the latter do not. Glandular mimickers discussed herein include cystitis cystica et glandularis with intestinal (colonic) metaplasia, endocervicosis and endometriosis, and nephrogenic adenoma. Common mimickers of urothelial carcinoma include polypoid cystitis, pseudocarcinomatous urothelial neoplasia, inverted urothelial papilloma, florid proliferation of von Brunn nests, and reactive urothelial metaplasia associated with prostatic infarction. We emphasize where clinical impression and history are important for the correct diagnosis. In some entities assessment of the entire histological picture is critical rather than focusing on isolated findings that out of context may be indistinguishable from cancer.

6.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 16801, 2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429515

RESUMO

A procedure for identification of optimal Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) thresholds for automatic delineation of prostatic lesions with restricted diffusion at differing risk for cancer was developed. The relationship between the size of the identified Volumes of Interest (VOIs) and Gleason Score (GS) was evaluated. Patients with multiparametric (mp)MRI, acquired prior to radical prostatectomy (RP) (n = 18), mpMRI-ultrasound fused (MRI-US) (n = 21) or template biopsies (n = 139) were analyzed. A search algorithm, spanning ADC thresholds in 50 µm2/s increments, determined VOIs that were matched to RP tumor nodules. Three ADC thresholds for both peripheral zone (PZ) and transition zone (TZ) were identified for estimation of VOIs at low, intermediate, and high risk of prostate cancer. The determined ADC thresholds for low, intermediate and high risk in PZ/TZ were: 900/800; 1100/850; and 1300/1050 µm2/s. The correlation coefficients between the size of the high/intermediate/low risk VOIs and GS in the three cohorts were 0.771/0.778/0.369, 0.561/0.457/0.355 and 0.423/0.441/0.36 (p < 0.05). Low risk VOIs mapped all RP lesions; area under the curve (AUC) for intermediate risk VOIs to discriminate GS6 vs GS ≥ 7 was 0.852; for high risk VOIs to discriminate GS6,7 vs GS ≥ 8 was 0.952. In conclusion, the automatically delineated volumes in the prostate with restricted diffusion were found to strongly correlate with cancer aggressiveness.

7.
Surg Pathol Clin ; 11(4): 759-774, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30447840

RESUMO

Since its development between 1966 and 1977, the Gleason grading system has remained one of the most important prognostic indicators in prostatic acinar adenocarcinoma. The grading system was first majorly revised in 2005 and again in 2014. With the publication of the 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging manual in 2018, the classification of prostate cancer and its reporting have further evolved and are now included as part of staging criteria. This article reflects the aspects that are most influential on daily practice. A brief summary of 3 ancillary commercially available genomic tests is also provided.

8.
Oncogene ; 2018 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30177837

RESUMO

Most prostate cancer cases remain indolent for long periods of time, but metastatic progression quickly worsens the prognosis and leads to mortality. However, little is known about what promotes the metastasis of prostate cancer and there is a lack of effective prognostic indicators, making it immensely difficult to manage options for treatment or surveillance. Arginyltransferase 1 (Ate1) is the enzyme mediating post-translational protein arginylation, which has recently been identified as a master regulator affecting many cancer-relevant pathways including stress response, cell cycle checkpoints, and cell migration/adhesion. However, the precise role of Ate1 in cancer remains unknown. In this study, we found the occurrence of metastasis of prostate cancer is inversely correlated with the levels of Ate1 protein and mRNA in the primary tumor. We also found that metastatic prostate cancer cell lines have a reduced level of Ate1 protein compared to non-metastatic cell lines, and that a depletion of Ate1 drives prostate cancer cells towards more aggressive pro-metastatic phenotypes without affecting proliferation rates. Furthermore, we demonstrated that a reduction of Ate1 can result from chronic stress, and that shRNA-reduced Ate1 increases cellular resistance to stress, and drives spontaneous and stress-induced genomic mutations. Finally, by using a prostate orthotropic xenograft mouse model, we found that a reduction of Ate1 was sufficient to enhance the metastatic phenotypes of prostate cancer cell line PC-3 in vivo. Our study revealed a novel role of Ate1 in suppressing prostate cancer metastasis, which has a profound significance for establishing metastatic indicators for prostate cancer, and for finding potential treatments to prevent its metastasis.

9.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 102(4): 821-829, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29908220

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop a prostate tumor habitat risk scoring (HRS) system based on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) referenced to prostatectomy Gleason score (GS) for automatic delineation of gross tumor volumes. A workflow for integration of HRS into radiation therapy boost volume dose escalation was developed in the framework of a phase 2 randomized clinical trial (BLaStM). METHODS AND MATERIALS: An automated quantitative mpMRI-based 10-point pixel-by-pixel method was optimized to prostatectomy GSs and volumes using referenced dynamic contrast-enhanced and apparent diffusion coefficient sequences. The HRS contours were migrated to the planning computed tomography scan for boost volume generation. RESULTS: There were 51 regions of interest in 12 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (26 with GS ≥7 and 25 with GS 6). The resultant heat maps showed inter- and intratumoral heterogeneity. The HRS6 level was significantly associated with radical prostatectomy regions of interest (slope 1.09, r = 0.767; P < .0001). For predicting the likelihood of cancer, GS ≥7 and GS ≥8 HRS6 area under the curve was 0.718, 0.802, and 0.897, respectively. HRS was superior to the Prostate Imaging, Reporting and Diagnosis System 4/5 classification, wherein the area under the curve was 0.62, 0.64, and 0.617, respectively (difference with HR6, P < .0001). HRS maps were created for the first 37 assessable patients on the BLaStM trial. There were an average of 1.38 habitat boost volumes per patient at a total boost volume average of 3.6 cm3. CONCLUSIONS: An automated quantitative mpMRI-based method was developed to objectively guide dose escalation to high-risk habitat volumes based on prostatectomy GS.

10.
Hum Pathol ; 78: 144-150, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29723604

RESUMO

Frozen section telepathology interpretation experience has been largely limited to practices with locations significantly distant from one another with sporadic need for frozen section diagnosis. In 2010, we established a real-time nonrobotic telepathology system in a very active cancer center for daily frozen section service. Herein, we evaluate its accuracy compared to direct microscopic interpretation performed in the main hospital by the same faculty and its cost-efficiency over a 1-year period. From 643 (1,416 parts) cases requiring intraoperative consultation, 333 cases (690 parts) were examined by telepathology and 310 cases (726 parts) by direct microscopy. Corresponding discrepancy rates were 2.6% (18 cases: 6 [0.9%] sampling and 12 [1.7%] diagnostic errors) and 3.2% (23 cases: 8 [1.1%] sampling and 15 [2.1%] diagnostic errors), P = .63. The sensitivity and specificity of intraoperative frozen diagnosis were 0.92 and 0.99, respectively, in telepathology and 0.90 and 0.99, respectively, in direct microscopy. There was no correlation of error incidence with postgraduate year level of residents involved in the telepathology service. Cost analysis indicated that the time saved by telepathology was $19,691.00 over 1 year of the study period, whereas the capital cost for establishing the system was $8,924.00. Thus, real-time nonrobotic telepathology is a reliable and easy-to-use tool for frozen section evaluation in busy clinical settings, especially when frozen section service involves more than one hospital, and it is cost-efficient when travel is a component of the service.

13.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 48: 233-238, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29773186

RESUMO

Cadmium is a known carcinogen that has been implicated in prostate cancer, but how it affects prostate carcinogenesis in humans remains unclear. Evidence from basic science suggests that cadmium can bind to the androgen receptor causing endocrine disruption. The androgen receptor is required for normal prostate development and is the key driver of prostate cancer progression. In this study, we examined the association between cadmium content and androgen receptor protein expression in prostate cancer tissue of African American (N = 22) and European American (N = 30) men. Although neither overall tumor cadmium content (log transformed) nor androgen receptor protein expression level differed by race, we observed a race-cadmium interaction with regard to androgen receptor expression (P = 0.003) even after accounting for age at prostatectomy, smoking history, and Gleason score. African American men had a significant positive correlation between tumor tissue cadmium content and androgen receptor expression (Pearson correlation = 0.52, P = 0.013), while European Americans showed a non-significant negative correlation between the two (Pearson correlation = -0.19, P = 0.31). These results were unchanged after further accounting for tissue zinc content or dietary zinc or selenium intake. African American cases with high-cadmium content (>median) in tumor tissue had more than double the androgen receptor expression (0.021 vs. 0.008, P = 0.014) of African American men with low-cadmium level. No difference in androgen receptor expression was observed in European Americans by cadmium level (high 0.015 vs. low 0.011, P = 0.30). Larger studies are needed to confirm these results and if upheld, determine the biologic mechanism by which cadmium increases androgen receptor protein expression in a race-dependent manner. Our results suggest that cadmium may play a role in race disparities observed in prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/biossíntese , Afro-Americanos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
14.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol ; 26(2): 126-131, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27438511

RESUMO

Head and neck carcinomas with basaloid features can be diagnostically challenging. A common diagnostic issue is the distinction between a basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (bSCC) and a basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of cutaneous origin. This is particularly true in small biopsy specimens where classic architectural and histologic features may be difficult to appreciate. A specific diagnosis is essential because of significant differences in clinical outcome and therapeutic management. Ten resection cases of bSCC and BCC of the head and neck were selected based on primary location and the classic morphologic features that characterize these 2 entities. The following immunohistochemical markers were evaluated: epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), Ber-EP4, CD44, Bcl2, androgen receptor, SOX2, and p16. The strongest statistically significant differences in staining patterns were for EMA, p16, and SOX2. EMA was positive in all bSCCs and negative in all BCCs. SOX2 was positive in all bSCCs and in only 3 out of 10 BCCs. Staining was weak and peripheral in the SOX2-positive BCCs. p16 was positive in 8 out of 10 bSCCs and negative in all BCCs. We conclude that bSCC and BCC of the head and neck can be readily distinguished by a limited panel consisting primarily of EMA, and supported by SOX2 and p16.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Basocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Mucina-1/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Basocelular/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
15.
Front Oncol ; 7: 259, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29177134

RESUMO

Purpose: To develop a robust and clinically applicable automated method for analyzing Dynamic Contrast Enhanced (DCE-) MRI of the prostate as a guide for targeted biopsies and treatments. Materials and methods: An unsupervised pattern recognition (PR) method was used to analyze prostate DCE-MRI from 71 sequential radiotherapy patients. Identified regions of interest (ROIs) with increased perfusion were assigned either to the peripheral (PZ) or transition zone (TZ). Six quantitative features, associated with the washin and washout part of the weighted average DCE curve from the ROI, were calculated. The associations between the assigned DCE-scores and Gleason Score (GS) were investigated. A heatmap of tumor aggressiveness covering the entire prostate was generated and validated with histopathology from MRI-ultrasound fused (MRI-US) targeted biopsies. Results: The volumes of the PR-identified ROI's were significantly correlated with the highest GS from the biopsy session for each patient. Following normalization (and only after normalization) with gluteus maximus muscle's DCE signal, the quantitative features in PZ were significantly correlated with GS. These correlations straightened in subset of patients with available MRI-US biopsies when GS from the individual biopsies were used. Area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for discrimination between indolent vs aggressive cancer for the significant quantitative features reached 0.88-0.95. When DCE-scores were calculated in normal appearing tissues, the features were highly discriminative for cancer vs no cancer both in PZ and TZ. The generated heatmap of tumor aggressiveness coincided with the location and GS of the MRI-US biopsies. Conclusion: A quantitative approach for DCE-MRI analysis was developed. The resultant map of aggressiveness correlated well with tumor location and GS and is applicable for integration in radiotherapy/radiology imaging software for clinical translation.

16.
Curr Opin Urol ; 27(3): 191-197, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28376512

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This chapter describes important changes in the clinical practice and pathological interpretation of prostate cancer (PCa) that stratify PCa into insignificant and significant disease to allow for better patient management and treatment decisions. RECENT FINDINGS: Among the most important changes over the last half a decade has been the change in PCa grading. A new grading system has been developed that is more patient-centric with more accurate stratification according to risk of disease progression. An additional advance is the recent recommendation to report percentage of pattern 4 in Gleason score 7 cancer that may help identify a subset of these men who have relatively insignificant prostate cancer. The definition of significant PCa at prostatectomy has also been extended from a dichotomized classification into a more tiered nuanced approach. Factors involved in classification of significant cancer at prostatectomy include grade, stage along with classification of extraprostatic extension into focal and nonfocal, and tumor volume. Of these variables, tumor volume appears to be least critical as an independent variable. Promising genetic discoveries may also help predict significant cancer, especially in the small subset of lower-grade cancers. SUMMARY: Significant PCa is a spectrum of findings bearing different clinical significance with some nuanced definitions at biopsy and prostatectomy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Carga Tumoral , Biópsia , Humanos , Masculino , Gradação de Tumores , Próstata , Prostatectomia
17.
Urol Oncol ; 35(6): 450-451, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28416104

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated survival outcomes of cystic/multilocular cystic renal cell carcinomas in a long-term population-based study based on size and pathological tumor stage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We, retrospectively, reviewed a provincial cancer registry of all histologically proven cases of multilocular cystic renal cancers treated surgically between 1995 and 2008. All cases of cystic necrosis were excluded from study. Primary end points were overall- and cancer-specific survival estimated using Kaplan-Meier curves. Cox proportional hazards models of univariable and multivariable analyses were used to assess for factors associated with survival. RESULTS: Of 172 cases of cystic renal cancers 168 with complete data were analyzed, of which 98% were multilocular cystic. Median patient age at treatment was 55 years and 58% of the patients were male. More than 40% of cases were pT1b or greater, 15% were pT2 or greater and most cases were low Fuhrman grade (1-2). At a median follow-up of 9.75-years overall- and cancer-specific survival was 82.1% and 100%, respectively. No difference was noted in higher pathological T stage, size, or grade. Limitations inherent in population-based studies include under ascertainment of cause of death, lack of data on histologically benign cysts that are treated surgically and a lack of central pathology review. CONCLUSIONS: Multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma has an excellent prognosis, which remains unchanged regardless of tumor size or pathological T stage. This suggests a strong case for nephron and adrenal sparing surgery when indicated, and nonsurgical management when feasible. As postoperative follow-up protocols are dictated by staging, we propose that for this entity pathological T staging should be abandoned or reassigned as pT1c to guide clinicians.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Cistos/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Urol Oncol ; 35(6): 451-452, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28416105

RESUMO

There have been no recurrences or metastases of clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCPRCC) in 268 reported cases with follow-up in the English-language literature. We identified all our cases of CCPRCC (1990-2013), reviewing all cases that preceded the formal designation of the entity. Immunohistochemical stains were performed on 32 cases during their initial workup. In addition, stains for carbonic anhydrase IX and cytokeratin 7 were performed on 2 cases, one with atypical follow-up and the other with a more compact morphology, although not performed initially. An extended panel with AMACR, CD10, and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) was added to the case with atypical follow-up. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for chromosomes 3p, 7, and 17 was performed on the latter case and on another clinically presumed metastatic tumor. In classic cases, immunohistochemical staining was not performed. Fifty-eight patients (31 women; 27 men) with follow-up data were included in our study; 39 cases were from our consult service. The patients׳ ages ranged from 36 to 83 years. Thirty-five patients had cystic or partially cystic lesions; 6 tumors were multifocal, 3 of which were bilateral. The majority (53 patients; 91.4%) presented with stage pT1 disease (size range: 0.2-8cm), 2 patients presented with pT2 disease (8.5 and 10.3cm), 1 patient presented with pT3 disease (6.5cm sarcomatoid RCC focally extending out of the kidney), and pathologic stage was unavailable in 2 cases. Treatment consisted of 29 partial nephrectomies, 26 radical nephrectomies, 2 cryoablations, and 1 cyst ablation. The resection margins were negative in all but one case, with this case disease free after a 26-month period. Two patients had intraoperative tumor disruption and were disease free at 9 and 34 months. Five patients had synchronous ipsilateral renal cell carcinomas (non-CCPRCC). Mean follow-up time was 21 months (range: 1-175 months), with all but 3 patients having no evidence of disease. One patient was presumed to have contralateral disease on the basis of imaging findings and is alive and well 37 months after multiple partial nephrectomies. Metastatic disease to the lung was clinically presumed in 1 patient in whom a higher-grade lesion may have been missed during sampling of the predominantly cystic pT1b tumor and tissue confirmation of the metastases was not obtained. Another case presented with multiple skeletal and pulmonary metastases 8 months after resection of pT3 sarcomatoid CCPRCC. The patient with the sarcomatoid RCC died of multifocal skeletal and pulmonary metastatic disease 13 months after resection of the renal tumor. Our study, the largest to date with follow-up, along with others, suggests that pure CCPRCC is an indolent tumor and should be renamed "clear cell papillary neoplasm of low malignant potential" to reflect their biology.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Urol Oncol ; 35(6): 452-453, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28416106

RESUMO

There is limited literature on renal oncocytic neoplasms diagnosed on core biopsy. All renal oncocytic neoplasm core biopsies from 2006 to 2013 were, retrospectively, reviewed. Morphologic features and an immunohistochemical panel of CK7, c-KIT, and S100A1 were assessed. Concordance with resection diagnosis, statistical analysis including a random forest classification, and follow-up were recorded. The postimmunohistochemical diagnoses of 144 renal oncocytic core biopsies were favor oncocytoma (67%), favor renal cell carcinoma (RCC) (12%), and cannot exclude RCC (21%). Diagnosis was revised following immunohistochemistry in 7% of cases. The most common features for oncocytoma (excluding dense granular cytoplasm) were nested architecture, edematous stroma, binucleation and tubular architecture; the most common features for favor RCC were sheet-like architecture, nuclear pleomorphism, papillary architecture, and prominent cell borders. High nuclear grade, necrosis, extensive papillary architecture, raisinoid nuclei, and frequent mitoses were not seen in oncocytomas. Comparing the pathologist and random forest classification, the overall out-of-bag estimate of classification error dropped from 23% to 13% when favor RCC and cannot exclude RCC was combined into 1 category. Resection was performed in 19% (28 cases) with a 94% concordance (100% of favor RCC biopsies and 90% of cannot exclude RCC biopsies confirmed as RCC; 83% of favor oncocytomas confirmed); ablation in 23%; and surveillance in 46%. Follow-up was available in 92% (median follow-up, 33 months) with no adverse outcomes. Renal oncocytic neoplasms comprise a significant subset (16%) of all core biopsies, and the majority (78%) can be classified as favor oncocytoma or favor RCC.


Assuntos
Biópsia com Agulha de Grande Calibre/métodos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/imunologia , Imunofenotipagem/métodos , Neoplasias Renais/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Urol Oncol ; 35(6): 453-454, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28416107

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine characteristics of the peritumoral pseudocapsule (PC) between renal tumor subtypes. METHODS: The peritumoral PCs of 160 pT1 renal tumors were examined, including 60 clear cell renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), 50 papillary RCCs, 25 chromophobe RCCs, and 25 oncocytoma. Pathologic features (presence or absence of PC, mean thickness, continuity, and invasion by tumor) were analyzed. PC thickness was measured using an ocular micrometer to the nearest 1/10mm. RESULTS: A complete PC was found in 77% of clear cell tumors, 74% of papillary, 28% of chromophobe, and 4% of oncocytomas. Tumor PC was present but incomplete in 18% of clear cell, 18% of papillary, 44% of chromophobe, and 56% of oncocytoma. The PC was entirely absent in no clear cell tumors, 6% of papillary, 28% of chromophobe, and 40% of oncocytoma. Mean PC thickness and presence of invasion beyond the PC differed significantly by tumor subtype. Clear cell RCC possessed the thickest PC showing invasion through the capsule in 8% of tumors compared to 30% of papillary tumors. Complete PC invasion was not seen in chromophobe RCC or renal oncocytoma. Oncocytoma and chromophobe RCC characteristically exhibited an incomplete or absent PC. CONCLUSIONS: The characteristics of peritumoral PC vary predictably with histologic subtype of renal neoplasms. Clear cell RCC shows the most consistent PC, with a lower rate of invasion beyond it compared to papillary RCC. Chromophobe and oncocytoma characteristically have an incomplete or absent PC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
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