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1.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383070

RESUMO

Epidemiology studies suggested that low birthweight was associated with a higher risk of hypertension in later life. However, little is known about the causality of such associations. In our study, we evaluated the causal association of low birthweight with adulthood hypertension following a standard analytic protocol using the study-level data of 183,433 participants from 60 studies (CHARGE-BIG consortium), as well as that with blood pressure using publicly available summary-level genome-wide association data from EGG consortium of 153,781 participants, ICBP consortium and UK Biobank cohort together of 757,601 participants. We used seven SNPs as the instrumental variable in the study-level analysis and 47 SNPs in the summary-level analysis. In the study-level analyses, decreased birthweight was associated with a higher risk of hypertension in adults (the odds ratio per 1 standard deviation (SD) lower birthweight, 1.22; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.28), while no association was found between genetically instrumented birthweight and hypertension risk (instrumental odds ratio for causal effect per 1 SD lower birthweight, 0.97; 95% CI 0.68 to 1.41). Such results were consistent with that from the summary-level analyses, where the genetically determined low birthweight was not associated with blood pressure measurements either. One SD lower genetically determined birthweight was not associated with systolic blood pressure (ß = - 0.76, 95% CI - 2.45 to 1.08 mmHg), 0.06 mmHg lower diastolic blood pressure (ß = - 0.06, 95% CI - 0.93 to 0.87 mmHg), or pulse pressure (ß = - 0.65, 95% CI - 1.38 to 0.69 mmHg, all p > 0.05). Our findings suggest that the inverse association of birthweight with hypertension risk from observational studies was not supported by large Mendelian randomization analyses.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469254

RESUMO

Background - Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provided many biological insights into coronary artery disease (CAD), but these studies were mainly performed in Europeans. GWAS in diverse populations have the potential to advance our understanding of CAD. Methods - We conducted two GWAS for CAD in the Japanese population, which included 12,494 cases and 28,879 controls, and 2,808 cases and 7,261 controls, respectively. Then, we performed transethnic meta-analysis using the results of the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D 1000 Genomes meta-analysis with UK Biobank. We then explored the pathophysiological significance of these novel loci and examined the differences in CAD-susceptibility loci between Japanese and Europeans. Results - We identified 3 new loci on chromosome 1q21 (CTSS), 10q26 (WDR11-FGFR2), and 11q22 (RDX-FDX1). Quantitative trait locus analyses suggested the association of CTSS and RDX-FDX1 with atherosclerotic immune cells. Tissue/cell type enrichment analysis showed the involvement of arteries, adrenal glands and fat tissues in the development of CAD. We next compared the odds ratios of lead variants for myocardial infarction at 76 genome-wide significant loci in the transethnic meta-analysis and a moderate correlation between Japanese and Europeans, where 8 loci showed a difference. Finally, we performed tissue/cell type enrichment analysis using East Asian-frequent and European-frequent variants according to the risk allele frequencies, and identified significant enrichment of adrenal glands in the East Asian-frequent group while the enrichment of arteries and fat tissues was found in the European-frequent group. These findings indicate biological differences in CAD susceptibility between Japanese and Europeans. Conclusions - We identified 3 new loci for CAD and highlighted the genetic differences between the Japanese and European populations. Moreover, our transethnic analyses showed both shared and unique genetic architectures between the Japanese and Europeans. While most of the underlying genetic bases for CAD are shared, further analyses in diverse populations will be needed to elucidate variations fully.

3.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32472697

RESUMO

Antiplatelet response to clopidogrel shows wide variation, and poor response is correlated with adverse clinical outcomes. CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles play an important role in this response, but account for only a small proportion of variability in response to clopidogrel. An aim of the International Clopidogrel Pharmacogenomics Consortium (ICPC) is to identify other genetic determinants of clopidogrel pharmacodynamics and clinical response. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed using DNA from 2,750 European ancestry individuals, using adenosine diphosphate (ADP) induced platelet reactivity and major cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events as outcome parameters. GWAS for platelet reactivity revealed a strong signal for CYP2C19*2 (p-value=1.67e-33). After correction for CYP2C19*2 no other SNP reached genome-wide significance. GWAS for a combined clinical endpoint of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (5.0% event rate) or a combined endpoint of cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction (4.7% event rate) showed no significant results, although in coronary artery disease, percutaneous coronary intervention, and acute coronary syndrome subgroups, mutations in SCOS5P1, CDC42BPA and CTRAC1 showed genome-wide significance (lowest p-values: 1.07e-09, 4.53e-08 and 2.60e-10, respectively). CYP2C19*2 is the strongest genetic determinant of on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity. We identified three novel associations in clinical outcome subgroups, suggestive for each of these outcomes.

4.
PLoS Genet ; 16(4): e1008643, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294086

RESUMO

Hereditary hearing loss is challenging to diagnose because of the heterogeneity of the causative genes. Further, some genes involved in hereditary hearing loss have yet to be identified. Using whole-exome analysis of three families with congenital, severe-to-profound hearing loss, we identified a missense variant of SLC12A2 in five affected members of one family showing a dominant inheritance mode, along with de novo splice-site and missense variants of SLC12A2 in two sporadic cases, as promising candidates associated with hearing loss. Furthermore, we detected another de novo missense variant of SLC12A2 in a sporadic case. SLC12A2 encodes Na+, K+, 2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) 1 and plays critical roles in the homeostasis of K+-enriched endolymph. Slc12a2-deficient mice have congenital, profound deafness; however, no human variant of SLC12A2 has been reported as associated with hearing loss. All identified SLC12A2 variants mapped to exon 21 or its 3'-splice site. In vitro analysis indicated that the splice-site variant generates an exon 21-skipped SLC12A2 mRNA transcript expressed at much lower levels than the exon 21-included transcript in the cochlea, suggesting a tissue-specific role for the exon 21-encoded region in the carboy-terminal domain. In vitro functional analysis demonstrated that Cl- influx was significantly decreased in all SLC12A2 variants studied. Immunohistochemistry revealed that SLC12A2 is located on the plasma membrane of several types of cells in the cochlea, including the strial marginal cells, which are critical for endolymph homeostasis. Overall, this study suggests that variants affecting exon 21 of the SLC12A2 transcript are responsible for hereditary hearing loss in humans.

5.
Nat Med ; 26(4): 542-548, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251405

RESUMO

While polygenic risk scores (PRSs) are poised to be translated into clinical practice through prediction of inborn health risks1, a strategy to utilize genetics to prioritize modifiable risk factors driving heath outcome is warranted2. To this end, we investigated the association of the genetic susceptibility to complex traits with human lifespan in collaboration with three worldwide biobanks (ntotal = 675,898; BioBank Japan (n = 179,066), UK Biobank (n = 361,194) and FinnGen (n = 135,638)). In contrast to observational studies, in which discerning the cause-and-effect can be difficult, PRSs could help to identify the driver biomarkers affecting human lifespan. A high systolic blood pressure PRS was trans-ethnically associated with a shorter lifespan (hazard ratio = 1.03[1.02-1.04], Pmeta = 3.9 × 10-13) and parental lifespan (hazard ratio = 1.06[1.06-1.07], P = 2.0 × 10-86). The obesity PRS showed distinct effects on lifespan in Japanese and European individuals (Pheterogeneity = 9.5 × 10-8 for BMI). The causal effect of blood pressure and obesity on lifespan was further supported by Mendelian randomization studies. Beyond genotype-phenotype associations, our trans-biobank study offers a new value of PRSs in prioritization of risk factors that could be potential targets of medical treatment to improve population health.

6.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(5): 657-665, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238385

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Genome-wide meta-analyses of clinically defined gout were performed to identify subtype-specific susceptibility loci. Evaluation using selection pressure analysis with these loci was also conducted to investigate genetic risks characteristic of the Japanese population over the last 2000-3000 years. METHODS: Two genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of 3053 clinically defined gout cases and 4554 controls from Japanese males were performed using the Japonica Array and Illumina Array platforms. About 7.2 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms were meta-analysed after imputation. Patients were then divided into four clinical subtypes (the renal underexcretion type, renal overload type, combined type and normal type), and meta-analyses were conducted in the same manner. Selection pressure analyses using singleton density score were also performed on each subtype. RESULTS: In addition to the eight loci we reported previously, two novel loci, PIBF1 and ACSM2B, were identified at a genome-wide significance level (p<5.0×10-8) from a GWAS meta-analysis of all gout patients, and other two novel intergenic loci, CD2-PTGFRN and SLC28A3-NTRK2, from normal type gout patients. Subtype-dependent patterns of Manhattan plots were observed with subtype GWASs of gout patients, indicating that these subtype-specific loci suggest differences in pathophysiology along patients' gout subtypes. Selection pressure analysis revealed significant enrichment of selection pressure on ABCG2 in addition to ALDH2 loci for all subtypes except for normal type gout. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings on subtype GWAS meta-analyses and selection pressure analysis of gout will assist elucidation of the subtype-dependent molecular targets and evolutionary involvement among genotype, phenotype and subtype-specific tailor-made medicine/prevention of gout and hyperuricaemia.

8.
J Epidemiol ; 2020 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a reported risk factor for various health problems. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified numerous independent loci associated with body mass index (BMI). However, most of these have been focused on Europeans, and little evidence is available on the genetic effects across the life course of other ethnicities. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study to examine the associations of 282 GWAS-identified single nucleotide polymorphisms with three BMI-related traits, current BMI, BMI at 20 years old (BMI at 20) and change in BMI (BMI change), among 11 586 Japanese individuals enrolled in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study. Associations were examined using multivariable linear regression models. RESULTS: We found a significant association (P < 0.05/282 = 1.77×10-4) between BMI and 11 polymorphisms in or near FTO, BDNF, TMEM18, HS6ST3, and BORCS7. The trend was similar between current BMI and BMI change, but differed from that of the BMI at 20. Among the significant variants, those on FTO were associated with all BMI traits, whereas those on TMEM18 and HS6SR3 were only associated with BMI at 20. The association of FTO loci with BMI remained even after additional adjustment for dietary energy intake. CONCLUSIONS: Previously reported BMI-associated loci discovered in Europeans were also identified in the Japanese population. Additionally, our results suggest that the effects of each loci on BMI may vary across the life course and that this variation may be caused by the differential effects of individual genes on BMI via different pathways.

9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1217, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139696

RESUMO

Known risk variants explain only a small proportion of breast cancer heritability, particularly in Asian women. To search for additional genetic susceptibility loci for breast cancer, here we perform a meta-analysis of data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) conducted in Asians (24,206 cases and 24,775 controls) and European descendants (122,977 cases and 105,974 controls). We identified 31 potential novel loci with the lead variant showing an association with breast cancer risk at P < 5 × 10-8. The associations for 10 of these loci were replicated in an independent sample of 16,787 cases and 16,680 controls of Asian women (P < 0.05). In addition, we replicated the associations for 78 of the 166 known risk variants at P < 0.05 in Asians. These findings improve our understanding of breast cancer genetics and etiology and extend previous findings from studies of European descendants to Asian women.

11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1197, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988393

RESUMO

Uterine leiomyoma is one of the most common gynaecologic benign tumours, but its genetic basis remains largely unknown. Six previous GWAS identified 33 genetic factors in total. Here, we performed a two-staged GWAS using 13,746 cases and 70,316 controls from the Japanese population, followed by a replication analysis using 3,483 cases and 4,795 controls. The analysis identified 9 significant loci, including a novel locus on 12q23.2 (rs17033114, P = 6.12 × 10-25 with an OR of 1.177 (1.141-1.213), LINC00485). Subgroup analysis indicated that 5 loci (3q26.2, 5p15.33, 10q24.33, 11p15.5, 13q14.11) exhibited a statistically significant effect among multiple leiomyomas, and 2 loci (3q26.2, 10q24.33) exhibited a significant effect among submucous leiomyomas. Pleiotropic analysis indicated that all 9 loci were associated with at least one proliferative disease, suggesting the role of these loci in the common neoplastic pathway. Furthermore, the risk T allele of rs2251795 (3q26.2) was associated with longer telomere length in both normal and tumour tissues. Our findings elucidated the significance of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of leiomyoma.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Leiomioma/genética , Neoplasias Uterinas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Japão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Risco , Homeostase do Telômero/genética
12.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(3): 308-316, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959922

RESUMO

Dietary habits are important factors in our lifestyle, and confer both susceptibility to and protection from a variety of human diseases. We performed genome-wide association studies for 13 dietary habits including consumption of alcohol (ever versus never drinkers and drinks per week), beverages (coffee, green tea and milk) and foods (yoghurt, cheese, natto, tofu, fish, small whole fish, vegetables and meat) in Japanese individuals (n = 58,610-165,084) collected by BioBank Japan, the nationwide hospital-based genome cohort. Significant associations were found in nine genetic loci (MCL1-ENSA, GCKR, AGR3-AHR, ADH1B, ALDH1B1, ALDH1A1, ALDH2, CYP1A2-CSK and ADORA2A-AS1) for 13 dietary traits (P < 3.8 × 10-9). Of these, ten associations between five loci and eight traits were new findings. Furthermore, a phenome-wide association study revealed that five of the dietary trait-associated loci have pleiotropic effects on multiple human complex diseases and clinical measurements. Our findings provide new insight into the genetics of habitual consumption.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Comportamento Alimentar , Alimentos , Pleiotropia Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Japão
13.
Mol Biol Evol ; 37(5): 1306-1316, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957793

RESUMO

Elucidation of natural selection signatures and relationships with phenotype spectra is important to understand adaptive evolution of modern humans. Here, we conducted a genome-wide scan of selection signatures of the Japanese population by estimating locus-specific time to the most recent common ancestor using the ascertained sequentially Markovian coalescent (ASMC), from the biobank-based large-scale genome-wide association study data of 170,882 subjects. We identified 29 genetic loci with selection signatures satisfying the genome-wide significance. The signatures were most evident at the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene cluster locus at 4q23 (PASMC = 2.2 × 10-36), followed by relatively strong selection at the FAM96A (15q22), MYOF (10q23), 13q21, GRIA2 (4q32), and ASAP2 (2p25) loci (PASMC < 1.0 × 10-10). The additional analysis interrogating extended haplotypes (integrated haplotype score) showed robust concordance of the detected signatures, contributing to fine-mapping of the genes, and provided allelic directional insights into selection pressure (e.g., positive selection for ADH1B-Arg48His and HLA-DPB1*04:01). The phenome-wide selection enrichment analysis with the trait-associated variants identified a variety of the modern human phenotypes involved in the adaptation of Japanese. We observed population-specific evidence of enrichment with the alcohol-related phenotypes, anthropometric and biochemical clinical measurements, and immune-related diseases, differently from the findings in Europeans using the UK Biobank resource. Our study demonstrated population-specific features of the selection signatures in Japanese, highlighting a value of the natural selection study using the nation-wide biobank-scale genome and phenotype data.

14.
Genomics ; 112(2): 1223-1232, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306748

RESUMO

We investigated whether genetic susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) influences lung adenocarcinoma development among never-smokers using TB genome-wide association study (GWAS) results within the Female Lung Cancer Consortium in Asia. Pathway analysis with the adaptive rank truncated product method was used to assess the association between a TB-related gene-set and lung adenocarcinoma using GWAS data from 5512 lung adenocarcinoma cases and 6277 controls. The gene-set consisted of 31 genes containing known/suggestive associations with genetic variants from previous TB-GWAS. Subsequently, we followed-up with Mendelian Randomization to evaluate the association between TB and lung adenocarcinoma using three genome-wide significant variants from previous TB-GWAS in East Asians. The TB-related gene-set was associated with lung adenocarcinoma (p = 0.016). Additionally, the Mendelian Randomization showed an association between TB and lung adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.66, p = 0.027). Our findings support TB as a causal risk factor for lung cancer development among never-smoking Asian women.

15.
Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 74(1): 35-39, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461559

RESUMO

AIMS: Recent studies have revealed that the interplay between polygenic risk scores (PRS) and large copy number variants (CNV; >500kb) is essential for the etiology of schizophrenia (SCZ). To replicate previous findings, including those for smaller CNV (>10kb), the PRS between SCZ patients with and without CNV were compared. METHODS: The PRS were calculated for 724 patients with SCZ and 1178 healthy controls (HC), genotyped using array-based comparative genomic hybridization and single nucleotide polymorphisms chips, and comparisons were made between cases and HC, or between subjects with and without 'clinically significant' CNV. RESULTS: First, we replicated the higher PRS in patients with SCZ compared to that in HC (without taking into account the CNV). For clinically significant CNV, as defined by the American College of Medical Genetics ('pathogenic' and 'uncertain clinical significance, likely pathogenic' CNV), 66 patients with SCZ carried clinically significant CNV, whereas 658 SCZ patients had no such CNV. In the comparison of PRS between cases with/without the CNV, despite no significant difference in PRS, significant enrichment of the well-established risk CNV (22q11.2 deletion and 47,XXY/47,XXX) was observed in the lowest decile of PRS in SCZ patients with the CNV. CONCLUSION: Although the present study failed to replicate the significant difference in PRS between SCZ patients with and without clinically significant CNV, SCZ patients with well-established risk CNV tended to have a lower PRS. Therefore, we speculate that the CNV in SCZ patients with lower PRS may contain 'genuine' risk; PRS is a possible tool for prioritizing clinically significant CNV because the power of the CNV association analysis is limited due to their rarity.

16.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(3): 378-382, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558841

RESUMO

The functional variants involved in alcohol metabolism, the A allele of rs1229984:A > G in ADH1B and the A allele of rs671:G > A in ALDH2, are specifically prevalent among East Asian population. They are shown to be under recent positive selection, but the reasons for the selection are unknown. To test whether these positively selected variants have beneficial effects on survival in modern population, we performed the survival analyses using the large-scale Japanese cohort (n = 135,974) with genotype and follow-up survival data. The rs671-A allele was significantly associated with the better survival in the additive model (HR for mortality = 0.960, P = 1.7 × 10-5), and the rs1229984-A had both additive and non-additive effects (HR = 0.962, P = 0.0016 and HR = 0.958, P = 0.0066, respectively), which was consistent with the positive selection. The favorable effects of these alleles on survival were independent of the habit of alcohol consumption itself. The heterogenous combinatory effect between rs1229984 and rs671 genotype was also observed (HRs for AA genotype at rs671 were 1.03, 0.80, and 0.90 for GG, GA, and AA genotype at rs1229984, respectively), supposedly reflecting the synergistic effects on survival.

17.
J Lipid Res ; 61(1): 86-94, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694877

RESUMO

Few studies have investigated the interactions between HDL-C-related SNPs identified by genome-wide association (GWA) study and physical activity (PA) on HDL-C. First, we conducted a sex-stratified GWA study in a discovery sample (2,231 men and 2,431 women) and replication sample (2,599 men and 3,109 women) to identify SNPs influencing log-transformed HDL-C in Japanese participants in the baseline survey of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. We also replicated previously reported HDL-C-related SNPs in a combined (discovery plus replication) sample (4,830 men and 5,540 women). We then analyzed the interactions of the HDL-C-related SNPs with PA on HDL-C. The sex-stratified GWA analyses identified 11 and 10 HDL-C-related SNPs in men and women as targets for an interaction analysis. Among these, only one interaction of ABCA1 rs1883025 with PA was statistically significant in men, after Bonferroni correction [P-interaction = 0.001 (α = 0.05/21 = 0.002)]. The per-major-allele (C allele) increase in log-transformed HDL-C was lost in men with low PA (ß = 0.008) compared with those with medium (ß = 0.032) or high PA (ß = 0.034). These findings suggest that the benefit of carrying a C allele of ABCA1 rs1883025 on enhancing HDL-C may be attenuated in inactive men.

18.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(6): 558-566, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821071

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In patients taking tamoxifen, the CYP2D6 genotype causes different exposure of active metabolite endoxifen. The objective of this randomized, open-label, multicenter, phase II study was to prospectively evaluate whether CYP2D6 genotype-guided tamoxifen dosing in patients with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer could have an impact on the clinical outcome. METHODS: Patients who needed first-line tamoxifen therapy were enrolled. Based on individual CYP2D6 genotype, patients heterozygous (wild type [wt]/variant [V]) or homozygous (V/V) for variant alleles of decreased or no function were randomly assigned to receive tamoxifen at an increased dose (ID arm; 40 mg daily) or regular dose (RD arm; 20 mg daily), and patients homozygous for wild-type alleles (wt/wt) received tamoxifen at 20 mg daily. The primary endpoint was the progression-free survival (PFS) rate at 6 months. The secondary endpoints included PFS and correlation of Z-endoxifen concentration with clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Between December 2012 and July 2016, 186 patients were enrolled in Japan. Of 184 evaluable patients, 136 carried wt/V or V/V (ID arm, 70; RD arm, 66), and 48 carried wt/wt. PFS rates at 6 months were not significantly different between the ID and RD arms (67.6% v 66.7%). The serum trough concentrations of Z-endoxifen in the ID arm were significantly higher than those in the RD arm (median, 89.2 nM v 51.1 nM; P < .0001) and were also higher compared with wt/wt patients (72.0 nM; P = .045). No significant difference in Z-endoxifen concentrations was observed between patients with disease progression and those who were progression free at 6 months (P = .43). CONCLUSION: In patients with CYP2D6-variant alleles, increasing tamoxifen dosing did not achieve a higher PFS rate at 6 months. The CYP2D6 genotype solely cannot explain individual variability in the efficacy of tamoxifen.

19.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 712-719, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927373

RESUMO

Earlier cohort studies using conventional regression models have consistently shown an increased cancer risk among individuals with type 2 diabetes. However, reverse causality and residual confounding due to common risk factors could exist, and it remains unclear whether diabetes per se contributes to cancer development. Mendelian randomization analyses might clarify the true association between diabetes and cancer risk. We conducted a case-cohort study with 10,536 subcohort subjects and 3,541 newly diagnosed cancer cases derived from 32,949 eligible participants aged 40-69 years within the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. With 29 known type 2 diabetes susceptibility variants, we used an inverse variance-weighted method to estimate hazard ratios for the associations of diabetes with risks of total and site-specific cancers. The hazard ratios of cancer per doubling of the probability of diabetes were 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92-1.15) overall, 1.08 (95% CI: 0.73-1.59) for the pancreas, 0.80 (95% CI: 0.57-1.14) for the liver and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.74-1.10) for the colorectum. Additional analyses, using publicly available large-scale genome-wide association study data on colorectal cancer in Japan, resulted in a narrower CI (hazard ratio: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.93-1.07). In this prospective Mendelian randomization study with a large number of incident cancer cases, we found no strong evidence to support associations between diabetes and overall and site-specific cancer risks. Our findings suggest that there is little evidence to support the genetic role of type 2 diabetes in cancer development in the Japanese population.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Seguimentos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Addict Biol ; 25(1): e12741, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30815984

RESUMO

The nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR; 3-hydroxycotinine/cotinine) is an index of CYP2A6 activity. CYP2A6 is responsible for nicotine's metabolic inactivation and variation in the NMR/CYP2A6 is associated with several smoking behaviors. Our aim was to integrate established alleles and novel genome-wide association studies (GWAS) signals to create a weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) for the CYP2A6 gene for European-ancestry populations. The wGRS was compared with a previous CYP2A6 gene scoring approach designed for an alternative phenotype (C2/N2; cotinine-d2/(nicotine-d2 + cotinine-d2)). CYP2A6 genotypes and the NMR were assessed in European-ancestry participants. The wGRS training set included N = 933 smokers recruited to the Pharmacogenetics of Nicotine Addiction and Treatment clinical trial [NCT01314001]. The replication cohort included N = 196 smokers recruited to the Quit 2 Live clinical trial [NCT01836276]. Comparisons between the two CYP2A6 phenotypes and with fractional clearance were made in a laboratory-based pharmacokinetic study (N = 92 participants). In both the training and replication sets, the wGRS, which included seven CYP2A6 variants, explained 33.8% (P < 0.001) of the variance in NMR, providing improved predictive power to the NMR phenotype when compared with other CYP2A6 gene scoring approaches. NMR and C2/N2 were strongly correlated to nicotine clearance (ρ = 0.70 and ρ = 0.79, respectively; P < 0.001), and to one another (ρ = 0.82; P < 0.001); however reduced function genotypes occurred in slow NMR but throughout C2/N2. The wGRS was able to predict smoking quantity and nicotine intake, to discriminate between NMR slow and normal metabolizers (AUC = 0.79; P < 0.001), and to replicate previous NMR-stratified cessation outcomes showing unique treatment outcomes between metabolizer groups.

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