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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5175, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729369

RESUMO

Kidney stone disease (nephrolithiasis) is a major clinical and economic health burden with a heritability of ~45-60%. We present genome-wide association studies in British and Japanese populations and a trans-ethnic meta-analysis that include 12,123 cases and 417,378 controls, and identify 20 nephrolithiasis-associated loci, seven of which are previously unreported. A CYP24A1 locus is predicted to affect vitamin D metabolism and five loci, DGKD, DGKH, WDR72, GPIC1, and BCR, are predicted to influence calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) signaling. In a validation cohort of only nephrolithiasis patients, the CYP24A1-associated locus correlates with serum calcium concentration and a number of nephrolithiasis episodes while the DGKD-associated locus correlates with urinary calcium excretion. In vitro, DGKD knockdown impairs CaSR-signal transduction, an effect rectified with the calcimimetic cinacalcet. Our findings indicate that studies of genotype-guided precision-medicine approaches, including withholding vitamin D supplementation and targeting vitamin D activation or CaSR-signaling pathways in patients with recurrent kidney stones, are warranted.

2.
J Lipid Res ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694877

RESUMO

Few studies have investigated the interactions between HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C)-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified by genome-wide association (GWA) study and physical activity (PA) on HDL-C. First, we conducted a sex-stratified GWA study in a discovery sample (2,231 men and 2,431 women) and replication sample (2,599 men and 3,109 women) to identify SNPs influencing log-transformed HDL-C in Japanese participants in the baseline survey of Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. We also replicated previously reported HDL-C-related SNPs in a combined (discovery plus replication) sample (4,830 men and 5,540 women). We then analyzed the interactions of the HDL-C-related SNPs with PA on HDL-C. The sex-stratified GWA analyses identified 11 and 10 HDL-C-related SNPs in men and women as targets for an interaction analysis. Among these, only 1 interaction of ABCA1 rs1883025 with PA was statistically significant in men, after Bonferroni correction (P-interaction = 0.001 [α = 0.05/21 = 0.002]). The per-major-allele (C) increase in log-transformed HDL-C was lost in men with low PA (ß = 0.008) compared with those with medium (ß = 0.032) or high PA (ß = 0.034). These findings suggest that the benefit of carrying a C allele of ABCA1 rs1883025 on enhancing HDL-C may be attenuated in inactive men.

3.
Nat Genet ; 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740837

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder with approximately 1% lifetime risk globally. Large-scale schizophrenia genetic studies have reported primarily on European ancestry samples, potentially missing important biological insights. Here, we report the largest study to date of East Asian participants (22,778 schizophrenia cases and 35,362 controls), identifying 21 genome-wide-significant associations in 19 genetic loci. Common genetic variants that confer risk for schizophrenia have highly similar effects between East Asian and European ancestries (genetic correlation = 0.98 ± 0.03), indicating that the genetic basis of schizophrenia and its biology are broadly shared across populations. A fixed-effect meta-analysis including individuals from East Asian and European ancestries identified 208 significant associations in 176 genetic loci (53 novel). Trans-ancestry fine-mapping reduced the sets of candidate causal variants in 44 loci. Polygenic risk scores had reduced performance when transferred across ancestries, highlighting the importance of including sufficient samples of major ancestral groups to ensure their generalizability across populations.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17332, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757997

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified about 70 genomic loci associated with breast cancer. Owing to the complexity of linkage disequilibrium and environmental exposures in different populations, it is essential to perform regional GWAS for better risk prediction. This study aimed to investigate the genetic architecture and to assess common genetic risk model of breast cancer with 6,669 breast cancer patients and 21,930 female controls in the Japanese population. This GWAS identified 11 genomic loci that surpass genome-wide significance threshold of P < 5.0 × 10-8 with nine previously reported loci and two novel loci that include rs9862599 on 3q13.11 (ALCAM) and rs75286142 on 21q22.12 (CLIC6-RUNX1). Validation study was carried out with 981 breast cancer cases and 1,394 controls from the Aichi Cancer Center. Pathway analyses of GWAS signals identified association of dopamine receptor medicated signaling and protein amino acid deacetylation with breast cancer. Weighted genetic risk score showed that individuals who were categorized in the highest risk group are approximately 3.7 times more likely to develop breast cancer compared to individuals in the lowest risk group. This well-powered GWAS is a representative study to identify SNPs that are associated with breast cancer in the Japanese population.

5.
J Hum Genet ; 64(12): 1195-1202, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586129

RESUMO

It has been reported that there are differences in effects on irinotecan-induced adverse reactions between UGT1A1*6 and UGT1A1*28. In order to compare those differences in the Japanese population, we examined the associations between UGT1A1 and irinotecan-induced adverse reactions using the BioBank Japan Project database. We genotyped UTG1A1*6 and UGT1A1*28 and conducted case-control analyses. A total of 651 patients (102 cases and 549 tolerant controls) were included in this study. The results showed that UGT1A1*6/*6 is a predictor of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) (p-value 0.00070, odds ratio 6.59, 95% confidence interval 2.33-18.6), whereas UGT1A1*6/*28 and UGT1A1*28/*28 were not. The subanalysis comprising only patients with UGT1A1*6/*6, UGT1A1*6/*28, and UGT1A1*28/*28 revealed a trend towards an increased risk of ADRs in patients with UGT1A1*6 (p-value 0.0092, odds ratio 4.39, 95% confidence interval 1.57-14.9). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that use of platinum-based antineoplastic drugs and presence of UGT1A1*6/*6 were independent variables, significantly associated with ADRs. The diagnostic performance of a predictive model had a sensitivity of 49.0%, specificity of 70.1%, and a number needed to screen of 5.8. We concluded that UGT1A1 testing could be useful to predict irinotecan-induced ADRs, and that UTG1A1*6 rather than UGT1A1*28 contributed to ADR occurrence.

6.
EBioMedicine ; 48: 203-211, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously conducted a systematic field synopsis of 1059 breast cancer candidate gene studies and investigated 279 genetic variants, 51 of which showed associations. The major limitation of this work was the small sample size, even pooling data from all 1059 studies. Thereafter, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have accumulated data for hundreds of thousands of subjects. It's necessary to re-evaluate these variants in large GWAS datasets. METHODS: Of these 279 variants, data were obtained for 228 from GWAS conducted within the Asian Breast Cancer Consortium (24,206 cases and 24,775 controls) and the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry). Meta-analyses were conducted to combine the results from these two datasets. FINDINGS: Of those 228 variants, an association was observed for 12 variants in 10 genes at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 2·19 × 10-4. The associations for four variants reached P < 5 × 10-8 and have been reported by previous GWAS, including rs6435074 and rs6723097 (CASP8), rs17879961 (CHEK2) and rs2853669 (TERT). The remaining eight variants were rs676387 (HSD17B1), rs762551 (CYP1A2), rs1045485 (CASP8), rs9340799 (ESR1), rs7931342 (CHR11), rs1050450 (GPX1), rs13010627 (CASP10) and rs9344 (CCND1). Further investigating these 10 genes identified associations for two additional variants at P < 5 × 10-8, including rs4793090 (near HSD17B1), and rs9210 (near CYP1A2), which have not been identified by previous GWAS. INTERPRETATION: Though most candidate gene variants were not associated with breast cancer risk, we found 14 variants showing an association. Our findings warrant further functional investigation of these variants. FUND: National Institutes of Health.

7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4719, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624269

RESUMO

Mosaic loss of chromosome Y (mLOY) is frequently observed in the leukocytes of ageing men. However, the genetic architecture and biological mechanisms underlying mLOY are not fully understood. In a cohort of 95,380 Japanese men, we identify 50 independent genetic markers in 46 loci associated with mLOY at a genome-wide significant level, 35 of which are unreported. Lead markers overlap enhancer marks in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs, P ≤ 1.0 × 10-6). mLOY genome-wide association study signals exhibit polygenic architecture and demonstrate strong heritability enrichment in regions surrounding genes specifically expressed in multipotent progenitor (MPP) cells and HSCs (P ≤ 3.5 × 10-6). ChIP-seq data demonstrate that binding sites of FLI1, a fate-determining factor promoting HSC differentiation into platelets rather than red blood cells (RBCs), show a strong heritability enrichment (P = 1.5 × 10-6). Consistent with these findings, platelet and RBC counts are positively and negatively associated with mLOY, respectively. Collectively, our observations improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying mLOY.

8.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646624

RESUMO

CYP2C9*3 and HLA-B alleles are reportedly associated with phenytoin-induced eruption in some East Asian populations; however, this finding is not readily applicable to the Japanese population. Thus, we aimed at investigating the risk alleles using samples and data from BioBank Japan. A total of 747 patients (24 cases and 723 tolerant controls) were selected for analysis. Case-control association studies were conducted, using CYP2C9*3, CYP2C9*27, CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3, and HLA-B allele genotype data. CYP2C9*3 carrier status was significantly associated with phenytoin-induced eruption (P = 0.0022, odds ratio 7.05, 95% confidence interval 2.44-20.4). HLA-B*51:01 showed the most prominent association (P = 0.010, odds ratio 3.19, 95% confidence interval 1.37-7.48). Including both of these features improved predictive performance, measured as area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, by 10%. CYP2C9*3 and HLA-B*51:01 allele carrier statuses are significantly associated with phenytoin-induced eruption; thus, checking this carrier status before prescription would decrease it in clinical practice.

9.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558841

RESUMO

The functional variants involved in alcohol metabolism, the A allele of rs1229984:A > G in ADH1B and the A allele of rs671:G > A in ALDH2, are specifically prevalent among East Asian population. They are shown to be under recent positive selection, but the reasons for the selection are unknown. To test whether these positively selected variants have beneficial effects on survival in modern population, we performed the survival analyses using the large-scale Japanese cohort (n = 135,974) with genotype and follow-up survival data. The rs671-A allele was significantly associated with the better survival in the additive model (HR for mortality = 0.960, P = 1.7 × 10-5), and the rs1229984-A had both additive and non-additive effects (HR = 0.962, P = 0.0016 and HR = 0.958, P = 0.0066, respectively), which was consistent with the positive selection. The favorable effects of these alleles on survival were independent of the habit of alcohol consumption itself. The heterogenous combinatory effect between rs1229984 and rs671 genotype was also observed (HRs for AA genotype at rs671 were 1.03, 0.80, and 0.90 for GG, GA, and AA genotype at rs1229984, respectively), supposedly reflecting the synergistic effects on survival.

10.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 44(12): 2119-2124, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476763

RESUMO

Suicide is a significant public health problem worldwide, and several Asian countries including Japan have relatively high suicide rates on a world scale. Twin, family, and adoption studies have suggested high heritability for suicide, but genetics lags behind due to difficulty in obtaining samples from individuals who died by suicide, especially in non-European populations. In this study, we carried out genome-wide association studies combining two independent datasets totaling 746 suicides and 14,049 non-suicide controls in the Japanese population. Although we identified no genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we demonstrated significant SNP-based heritability (35-48%; P < 0.001) for completed suicide by genomic restricted maximum-likelihood analysis and a shared genetic risk between two datasets (Pbest = 2.7 × 10-13) by polygenic risk score analysis. This study is the first genome-wide association study for suicidal behavior in an East Asian population, and our results provided the evidence of polygenic architecture underlying completed suicide.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504375

RESUMO

AIMS: Clopidogrel is prescribed for the prevention of atherothrombotic events. While investigations have identified genetic determinants of inter-individual variability in on-treatment platelet inhibition (e.g. CYP2C19*2), evidence that these variants have clinical utility to predict major adverse cardiovascular events remains controversial. METHODS AND RESULTS: We assessed the impact of 31 candidate gene polymorphisms on ADP-stimulated platelet reactivity in 3,391 clopidogrel-treated coronary artery disease patients of the International Clopidogrel Pharmacogenomics Consortium (ICPC). The influence of these polymorphisms on cardiovascular events (CVE) was tested in 2,134 ICPC patients (N = 129 events) in whom clinical event data were available. Several variants were associated with on-treatment ADP-stimulated platelet reactivity (CYP2C19*2, P = 8.8x10-54; CES1 G143E, P = 1.3x10-16; CYP2C19*17, P = 9.5x10-10; CYP2B6 1294 + 53C>T, P = 3.0x10-4; CYP2B6 516G>T, P = 1.0x10-3; CYP2C9*2, P = 1.2x10-3; and CYP2C9*3, P = 1.5x10-3). While no individual variant was associated with CVEs, generation of a pharmacogenomic polygenic response score (PgxRS) revealed that patients who carried a greater number of alleles that associated with increased on-treatment platelet reactivity were more likely to experience CVEs (ß = 0.17, SE 0.06, P = 0.01) and cardiovascular-related death (ß = 0.43, SE 0.16, P = 0.007). Patients who carried 8 or more risk alleles were significantly more likely to experience CVEs (OR = 1.78, 95%CI 1.14-2.76, P = 0.01) and cardiovascular death (OR = 4.39, 95%CI 1.35-14.27, P = 0.01) compared to patients who carried 6 or fewer of these alleles. CONCLUSION: Several polymorphisms impact clopidogrel response and PgxRS is a predictor of cardiovascular outcomes. Additional investigations that identify novel determinants of clopidogrel response and validating polygenic models may facilitate future precision medicine strategies.

12.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488892

RESUMO

We performed genome-wide association studies of five gynecologic diseases using data of 46,837 subjects (5236 uterine fibroid, 645 endometriosis, 647 ovarian cancer (OC), 909 uterine endometrial cancer (UEC), and 538 uterine cervical cancer (UCC) cases allowing overlaps, and 39,556 shared female controls) from Biobank Japan Project. We used the population-specific imputation reference panel (n = 3541), yielding 7,645,193 imputed variants. Analyses performed under logistic model, linear mixed model, and model incorporating correlations identified nine significant associations with three gynecologic diseases including four novel findings (rs79219469:C > T, LINC02183, P = 3.3 × 10-8 and rs567534295:C > T, BRCA1, P = 3.1 × 10-8 with OC, rs150806792:C > T, INS-IGF2, P = 4.9 × 10-8 and rs140991990:A > G, SOX9, P = 3.3 × 10-8 with UCC). Random-effect meta-analysis of the five GWASs correcting for the overlapping subjects suggested one novel shared risk locus (rs937380553:A > G, LOC730100, P = 2.0 × 10-8). Reverse regression analysis identified three additional novel associations (rs73494486:C > T, GABBR2, P = 4.8 × 10-8, rs145152209:A > G, SH3GL3/BNC1, P = 3.3 × 10-8, and rs147427629:G > A, LOC107985484, P = 3.8 × 10-8). Estimated heritability ranged from 0.026 for OC to 0.220 for endometriosis. Genetic correlations were relatively strong between OC and UEC, endometriosis and OC, and uterine fibroid and OC (rg > 0.79) compared with relatively weak correlations between UCC and the other four (rg = -0.08 ~ 0.25). We successfully identified genetic associations with gynecologic diseases in the Japanese population. Shared genetic effects among multiple related diseases may help understanding the pathophysiology.

13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4422, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562322

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified ~170 genetic loci associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk, but most of them were identified in European populations. We here performed a GWAS and replication study using a large Japanese cohort (9,906 cases and 83,943 male controls) to identify novel susceptibility loci associated with PCa risk. We found 12 novel loci for PCa including rs1125927 (TMEM17, P = 3.95 × 10-16), rs73862213 (GATA2, P = 5.87 × 10-23), rs77911174 (ZMIZ1, P = 5.28 × 10-20), and rs138708 (SUN2, P = 1.13 × 10-15), seven of which had crucially low minor allele frequency in European population. Furthermore, we stratified the polygenic risk for Japanese PCa patients by using 82 SNPs, which were significantly associated with Japanese PCa risk in our study, and found that early onset cases and cases with family history of PCa were enriched in the genetically high-risk population. Our study provides important insight into genetic mechanisms of PCa and facilitates PCa risk stratification in Japanese population.

14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4393, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562340

RESUMO

Human height is a representative phenotype to elucidate genetic architecture. However, the majority of large studies have been performed in European population. To investigate the rare and low-frequency variants associated with height, we construct a reference panel (N = 3,541) for genotype imputation by integrating the whole-genome sequence data from 1,037 Japanese with that of the 1000 Genomes Project, and perform a genome-wide association study in 191,787 Japanese. We report 573 height-associated variants, including 22 rare and 42 low-frequency variants. These 64 variants explain 1.7% of the phenotypic variance. Furthermore, a gene-based analysis identifies two genes with multiple height-increasing rare and low-frequency nonsynonymous variants (SLC27A3 and CYP26B1; PSKAT-O < 2.5 × 10-6). Our analysis shows a general tendency of the effect sizes of rare variants towards increasing height, which is contrary to findings among Europeans, suggesting that height-associated rare variants are under different selection pressure in Japanese and European populations.

15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3685, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417091

RESUMO

Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common pediatric spinal deformity. Several AIS susceptibility loci have been identified; however, they could explain only a small proportion of AIS heritability. To identify additional AIS susceptibility loci, we conduct a meta-analysis of the three genome-wide association studies consisting of 79,211 Japanese individuals. We identify 20 loci significantly associated with AIS, including 14 previously not reported loci. These loci explain 4.6% of the phenotypic variance of AIS. We find 21 cis-expression quantitative trait loci-associated genes in seven of the fourteen loci. By a female meta-analysis, we identify additional three significant loci. We also find significant genetic correlations of AIS with body mass index and uric acid. The cell-type specificity analyses show the significant heritability enrichment for AIS in multiple cell-type groups, suggesting the heterogeneity of etiology and pathogenesis of AIS. Our findings provide insights into etiology and pathogenesis of AIS.

16.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 205, 2019 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455759

RESUMO

Over 3000 candidate gene association studies have been performed to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of schizophrenia. However, a comprehensive evaluation of these studies' findings has not been undertaken since the decommissioning of the schizophrenia gene (SzGene) database in 2011. As such, we systematically identified and carried out random-effects meta-analyses for all polymorphisms with four or more independent studies in schizophrenia along with a series of expanded meta-analyses incorporating published and unpublished genome-wide association (GWA) study data. Based on 550 meta-analyses, 11 SNPs in eight linkage disequilibrium (LD) independent loci showed Bonferroni-significant associations with schizophrenia. Expanded meta-analyses identified an additional 10 SNPs, for a total of 21 Bonferroni-significant SNPs in 14 LD-independent loci. Three of these loci (MTHFR, DAOA, ARVCF) had never been implicated by a schizophrenia GWA study. In sum, the present study has provided a comprehensive summary of the current schizophrenia genetics knowledgebase and has made available all the collected data as a resource for the research community.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444167

RESUMO

Intellectual disability (ID) is a clinically and genetically heterozygous developmental brain disorder. The present study describes two male siblings, aged 7 and 1 years old, with severe intellectual disability, spastic quadriplegia, nystagmus, and brain atrophy with acquired microcephaly. We employed the exome sequencing to identify the causative gene in the patients and identified a hemizygous missense variant, c.1282T>A (p.W428R), in the p21 activated serine/threonine kinase 3 gene (PAK3), which is associated with X-linked ID. p.W428R is located within the highly conserved kinase domain and was predicted to induce loss of enzymatic function by three mutation prediction tools (SIFT, PolyPhen2, and Mutation Taster). In addition, this variant has not been reported in public databases (as of the middle of December 2018) or in the data from 3,275 individuals of the Japanese general population analyzed using high-depth whole genome sequencing. To date, only 13 point mutations and deletions in PAK3 in ID have been reported. Literature review illustrated a phenotypic spectrum of PAK3 pathogenic variants and our cases represented the most severe form of the PAK3-associated phenotypes. This is the first report of a PAK3 pathogenic variant in Japanese patients with X-linked ID.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461559

RESUMO

AIMS: Recent studies have revealed that the interplay between polygenic risk scores (PRS) and large copy number variants (CNV; >500kb) is essential for the etiology of schizophrenia (SCZ). To replicate previous findings, including those for smaller CNV (>10kb), the PRS between SCZ patients with and without CNV were compared. METHODS: The PRS were calculated for 724 patients with SCZ and 1178 healthy controls (HC), genotyped using array-based comparative genomic hybridization and single nucleotide polymorphisms chips, and comparisons were made between cases and HC, or between subjects with and without 'clinically significant' CNV. RESULTS: First, we replicated the higher PRS in patients with SCZ compared to that in HC (without taking into account the CNV). For clinically significant CNV, as defined by the American College of Medical Genetics ('pathogenic' and 'uncertain clinical significance, likely pathogenic' CNV), 66 patients with SCZ carried clinically significant CNV, whereas 658 SCZ patients had no such CNV. In the comparison of PRS between cases with/without the CNV, despite no significant difference in PRS, significant enrichment of the well-established risk CNV (22q11.2 deletion and 47,XXY/47,XXX) was observed in the lowest decile of PRS in SCZ patients with the CNV. CONCLUSION: Although the present study failed to replicate the significant difference in PRS between SCZ patients with and without clinically significant CNV, SCZ patients with well-established risk CNV tended to have a lower PRS. Therefore, we speculate that the CNV in SCZ patients with lower PRS may contain 'genuine' risk; PRS is a possible tool for prioritizing clinically significant CNV because the power of the CNV association analysis is limited due to their rarity.

19.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(5): 1354-1363, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food allergy is a growing health problem worldwide because of its increasing prevalence, life-threatening potential, and shortage of effective preventive treatments. In an outbreak of wheat allergy in Japan, thousands of patients had allergic reactions to wheat after using soap containing hydrolyzed wheat protein (HWP). OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate genetic variation that can contribute to susceptibility to HWP allergy. METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association study of HWP allergy in 452 cases and 2700 control subjects using 6.6 million genotyped or imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms. Replication was assessed by genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms in independent samples comprising 45 patients with HWP allergy and 326 control subjects. RESULTS: Through the genome-wide association study, we identified significant associations with the class II HLA region on 6p21 (P = 2.16 × 10-24 for rs9271588 and P = 2.96 × 10-24 for HLA-DQα1 amino acid position 34) and with the RBFOX1 locus at 16p13 (rs74575857, P = 8.4 × 10-9). The associations were also confirmed in the replication data set. Both amino acid polymorphisms (HLA-DQß1 amino acid positions 13 and 26) located in the P4 binding pockets on the HLA-DQ molecule achieved the genome-wide significance level (P < 5.0 × 10-8). CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide the first demonstration of genetic risk for HWP allergy and show that this genetic risk is mainly represented by multiple combinations of HLA variants.

20.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(10): 1430-1437, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289104

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The first ever genome-wide association study (GWAS) of clinically defined gout cases and asymptomatic hyperuricaemia (AHUA) controls was performed to identify novel gout loci that aggravate AHUA into gout. METHODS: We carried out a GWAS of 945 clinically defined gout cases and 1003 AHUA controls followed by 2 replication studies. In total, 2860 gout cases and 3149 AHUA controls (all Japanese men) were analysed. We also compared the ORs for each locus in the present GWAS (gout vs AHUA) with those in the previous GWAS (gout vs normouricaemia). RESULTS: This new approach enabled us to identify two novel gout loci (rs7927466 of CNTN5 and rs9952962 of MIR302F) and one suggestive locus (rs12980365 of ZNF724) at the genome-wide significance level (p<5.0×10- 8). The present study also identified the loci of ABCG2, ALDH2 and SLC2A9. One of them, rs671 of ALDH2, was identified as a gout locus by GWAS for the first time. Comparing ORs for each locus in the present versus the previous GWAS revealed three 'gout vs AHUA GWAS'-specific loci (CNTN5, MIR302F and ZNF724) to be clearly associated with mechanisms of gout development which distinctly differ from the known gout risk loci that basically elevate serum uric acid level. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis is the first to reveal the loci associated with crystal-induced inflammation, the last step in gout development that aggravates AHUA into gout. Our findings should help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of gout development and assist the prevention of gout attacks in high-risk AHUA individuals.

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