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1.
Nagoya J Med Sci ; 83(1): 183-194, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727749

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is emerging as a significant global public health burden. The incidence and prevalence of prostate cancer has increased in Japan, as westernized lifestyles become more popular. Recent advances in genetic epidemiology, including genome-wide association studies (GWASs), have identified considerable numbers of human genetic factors associated with diseases. Several GWASs have reported significant loci associated with serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. One GWAS, which was based on classic GWAS microarray measurements, has been reported for Japanese so far. In the present study, we conducted a GWAS of serum PSA using 1000Genomes imputed GWAS data (n =1,216) from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study, to detect candidate novel genetic loci that influence serum PSA levels in Japanese. The association of SNPs/genetic variants with serum PSA as a continuous variable was tested using the linear Wald test. SNP rs10000006 in SGMS2 (sphingomyelin synthase 2) on chromosome 4 had genome-wide significance (P <5×10-8), and eight variants on three chromosomes (chromosomes 12, 14, 15) had genome-wide suggestive levels of significance (P <1×10-6). With an independent data set from the J-MICC Shizuoka Study (n = 2,447), the association of the SGMS2 SNP with blood PSA levels was not replicated. Although our GWAS failed to detect novel loci associated with serum PSA levels in the Japanese cohort, it confirmed the significant effects of previously reported genetic loci on PSA levels in Japanese. Importantly, our results confirmed the significance of KLK3 SNPs also in Japanese, implying that consideration of individual genetic information in prostate cancer diagnosis may be possible in the future.

2.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 171, 2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although previous studies have evaluated risk factors for the incidence of severe infection in patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV), the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and severe infection in AAV has not been elucidated. We hypothesized that older adults with AAV and a low BMI would be at a higher risk of infection. We therefore investigated the association between underweight status at AAV diagnosis and subsequent occurrence of severe infection in older adults with AAV. METHODS: This single-center retrospective cohort study included 93 consecutive older adults with microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) treated at the Aichi Medical University Hospital in Japan between 2004 and 2018. The relationships between BMI at diagnosis and subsequent first severe infection were assessed using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. The cumulative probability of the development of the first severe infection was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test. The level of statistical significance was set at P <  0.05. RESULTS: During the median follow-up period of 19 (6-53) months, 29 (31.2%) patients developed at least one severe infection. Older age (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 2.02, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14-3.52, per 10 years; P =  0.016), low BMI (< 18.5 kg/m2 compared with normal BMI [18.5-23.0 kg/m2], adjusted HR =  2.63, 95% CI: 1.11-6.19; P =  0.027), and use of methylprednisolone pulse therapy (adjusted HR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.07-5.76; P =  0.034) were found to be significant predictors of severe infection. CONCLUSIONS: Low BMI was associated with a higher risk of severe infection in older adults with MPA, suggesting that careful management may be required to prevent this complication in this vulnerable group. Further studies are needed to elucidate the optimal treatment strategy for these patients.


Assuntos
Poliangiite Microscópica , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Poliangiite Microscópica/diagnóstico , Poliangiite Microscópica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
J Epidemiol ; 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation is thought to be a risk factor for kidney disease. However, discussion is controversial whether inflammatory status is either a cause or an outcome of chronic kidney disease. We aimed to investigate the causal relationship between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using mendelian randomization (MR) approaches. METHODS: A total of 10,521 participants of the Japan Multi-institutional Collaborative Cohort Study was analyzed in this study. We used two-sample MR approaches (the inverse-variance weighted (IVW), the weighted median (WM), and the MR-Egger method) to estimate the effect of genetically determined hs-CRP on kidney function. We selected four and three hs-CRP associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as two instrumental variables (IV): IVCRP and IVAsian, based on SNPs previously identified in European and Asian populations. IVCRP and IVAsian explained 3.4% and 3.9% of the variation in hs-CRP, respectively. RESULTS: Using the IVCRP, genetically determined hs-CRP was not significantly associated with eGFR in the IVW and the WM methods (estimate per 1 unit increase in ln(hs-CRP), 95%CI: 0.000, -0.019 to 0.020 and -0.003, -0.019 to 0.014). For IVAsian, we found similar results using the IVW and the WM methods (estimate, 95% CI: -0.005, -0.020 to 0.010 and -0.004, -0.020 to 0.012). The MR-Egger method also showed no causal relationships between hs-CRP and eGFR (IVCRP: -0.008, -0.058 to 0.042; IVAsian: 0.001, -0.036 to 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: Our two-sample MR analyses with different IVs did not support a causal effect of hs-CRP on eGFR.

4.
Nutrition ; 84: 111114, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454529

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although consumption of vegetable and 100% fruit juices are an acceptable alternative for vegetable and fruit intake, information about their actual effects on kidney function is sparse. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the consumption of vegetable and fruit juices and changes in kidney function in a Japanese population over a 5-y period. METHODS: In this prospective study, we analyzed 2755 Japanese (742 men and 2013 women) individuals who participated in both the baseline and follow-up surveys in the Daiko study (a study within the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated by age, sex, and serum creatinine level. For each beverage, we categorized all participants into four groups-rare (rarely consumed), low (≤2 cups/wk), moderate (3-4 cups/wk), or frequent (≥5 cups/wk) consumers of the beverage-based on a food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: The mean baseline and follow-up eGFR (SD) were 82.4 (14.6) and 72.2 (12.6), respectively. In fully adjusted regression analyses, moderate consumption of vegetable juice was associated a lower decline in eGFR compared with the rare consumption group (ß = -1.30; P = 0.01). Moreover, stratified analyses revealed that this significant association remained in those who were young, female, non-obese, normotensive, smoked cigarettes, consumed alcohol, or exercised. However, no significant association was found in analyses for fruit juices. CONCLUSIONS: This 5-y prospective study suggested an association between self-reported moderate consumption of vegetable juice and changes (possibly smaller decline) in kidney function in a relatively healthy Japanese population.

5.
Ren Fail ; 43(1): 188-197, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459126

RESUMO

Left ventricular hypertrophy commonly occurs in dialysis patients and is associated with a risk of developing cardiovascular disease events and all-cause mortality. Although hypertension treatment reduces left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in hemodialysis patients, the relationships of prescription pattern, dose, and changes in the dose of antihypertensive drugs with LVMI have not been completely elucidated. Here, we hypothesized that volume reduction would lead to a decrease in the antihypertensive drug dose and subsequently to a reduction in LVMI; conversely, fluid retention would lead to an increase in the antihypertensive drug use and, subsequently, to LVMI progression. To assess this hypothesis, we investigated the relationship between changes in the dose of antihypertensive drugs and subsequent changes in LVMI in 240 patients who had just started hemodialysis using a retrospective hemodialysis cohort in Japan. Using multiple linear regression analysis, we assessed the association between changes in the antihypertensive drug dose over 1 year after hemodialysis initiation and changes in LVMI during this period. A decrease and an increase in the antihypertensive drug dose were significantly associated with a reduction in LVMI (vs. no change; ß  = - 17.386, p < .001) and LVMI progression (vs. no change; ß  = 16.192, p < .001), respectively. In conclusion, our findings suggested that volume reduction, leading to a decrease in the use of antihypertensive drugs, is a therapeutic strategy in patients undergoing hemodialysis to prevent LVMI progression.

6.
Nagoya J Med Sci ; 82(4): 623-630, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311793

RESUMO

Platelet Mapping can measure both the degree of platelet inhibition and fibrinogen activation, was not originally designed to measure fibrinogen concentration. Traditional laboratory fibrinogen concentration testing requires around 60 minutes; however, fibrinogen activation only takes 10 minutes, and is indicated as maximum amplitude of activator f. If Platelet Mapping can predict fibrinogen concentration during cardiopulmonary bypass, this could facilitate rapid hemostasis management. The aim of this study was to verify whether fibrinogen concentration could be predicted using Platelet Mapping results. Thus, a pilot study was conducted to evaluate this concept during cardiopulmonary bypass. This prospective, observational pilot study investigated 15- to 90-year-old patients who underwent cardiac or aortic surgery from August 2019 to September 2019. Twenty-one patients enrolled in this study, and 43 blood samples were obtained for both fibrinogen activation measurements using Platelet Mapping and traditional laboratory-based tests, respectively. Correlations between results were analyzed using linear regression and the receiver operating characteristic curve. Correlation by Pearson's correlation analysis indicates a significant relationship (correlation coefficient of r = 0.91), and a receiver operating characteristic curve indicated that sensitivity, specificity, and receiver operating characteristic area were 100% (95% confidence interval, 75.3-100%), 93.8% (79.2-99.2%), and 0.995 (0.984-1.00), respectively. Our results indicate a strong correlation between fibrinogen activation and serum fibrinogen concentration. The maximum amplitude of activator f can estimate low fibrinogen concentration faster than traditional methods; this method quickly provides important information for anesthesia and hemostatic management in cardiac surgery.

7.
J Diabetes Investig ; 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034138

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: The relationship between renal function and urinary glucose is poorly understood in diabetes patients who are not using sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors. This study aimed to investigate the association of urinary glucose excretion with renal function prognosis in such patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 1,172 patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients were recruited and data were collected between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2011; follow-up data were collected until 30 June 2015. The primary outcome was set as a 30% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate relative to baseline. The relationship between this outcome and urinary glucose was investigated using Cox proportional hazards model. For analysis, patients were categorized into two groups: urinary glucose <5 g/day or ≥5 g/day. Interaction terms were analyzed. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed that the prognosis of renal function was significantly better in patients with high urinary glucose (≥5 g/day; adjusted hazard ratio 0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.35-0.96; P = 0.034). Significant interactions were observed between high urinary glucose and male sex (hazard ratio 0.33, 95% confidence interval 0.14-0.74; P = 0.007), and between high urinary glucose and longer duration of diabetes (≥10 years; hazard ratio 0.25, 95% confidence interval 0.11-0.58; P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that high urinary glucose is associated with prognosis in diabetes patients not taking sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors. Measurement of 24-h urinary glucose excretion might have clinical utility for predicting renal prognosis.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18499, 2020 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116160

RESUMO

There are few studies examining the association between homocysteine (Hcy) level and the risk of hypertension with consideration for folate and vitamin B12 as related to Hcy level. We simultaneously examined the associations of plasma levels of Hcy, folate, and vitamin B12, and dietary folate intake with the prevalence of hypertension. Participants included 1046 men and 1033 women (mean age ± standard deviation: 56.0 ± 8.9 years) in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. Dietary folate intake was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Hypertension was defined based on measured blood pressure and use of antihypertensive medication. A total of 734 participants (35.3%) had hypertension. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios of hypertension for the highest quartile group of Hcy were 2.36 (95% CI 1.41-3.96) in men and 1.86 (95% CI 1.11-3.11) in women, as compared with the lowest group (P for trend = 0.014 and 0.005, respectively). Dietary folate intake was not correlated with hypertension in both men and women (P for trend = 0.099 and 0.703, respectively). Plasma vitamin B12 was positively associated with hypertension only in women (P for trend = 0.027). Plasma Hcy level was positively linked with hypertension after controlling for covariates, including folate and vitamin B12.

9.
Alcohol ; 89: 129-138, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991979

RESUMO

To investigate the association between alcohol intake pattern in amount and frequency and metabolic syndrome (Mets) components, we simulated the change in the prevalence of Mets components by intake reduction. In order to manage Mets, alcohol intake reduction with moderation of intake pattern is required. However, evidence investigating the comparative impact of alcohol intake reduction in amount and frequency for Mets components is limited. We conducted a large-scale cross-sectional study in the general Japanese population. The study subjects included 37,371 non-drinkers and current drinkers recruited in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. Odds ratios (ORs) for Mets components according to alcohol intake amount and frequency were estimated using a multiple logistic regression model. The prevalence of Mets components was estimated after assumed alcohol intake reduction of a) none, b) 10 g/day (men) or 5 g/day (women), c) 20 g/day (men) or 10 g/day (women), d) less than 20 g/day (men) or 10 g/day (women) for moderate-to-heavy drinkers, e) 1-2 times/week, and f) 3-4 times/week. The ORs with alcohol intake amount and frequency increased with high blood pressure while decreasing with dyslipidemia. A J-shaped association was observed between intake amount and Mets. The estimated prevalence (%) of high blood pressure and dyslipidemia in men were a) 45.2, b) 43.0, c) 41.4, d) 40.4, e) 42.9, and f) 42.0; and a) 50.3, b) 51.8, c) 52.9, d) 50.2, e) 52.7, and f) 53.4 in women. The estimated prevalence of high blood pressure in women did not evidently decrease. Simulated alcohol intake reduction showed decreased prevalence for high blood pressure and increased prevalence for dyslipidemia in men after reduced intake amount and frequency. The largest decreased prevalence for high blood pressure was observed in men when all moderate-to-heavy drinkers reduced their alcohol intake amount to less than 20 g/day.

10.
J Epidemiol ; 2020 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Japan Multi-institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) study was launched in 2005 to examine gene-environment interactions in lifestyle-related diseases, including cancers, among the Japanese. This report describes the study design and baseline profile of the study participants. METHODS: The participants of the J-MICC Study were individuals aged 35 to 69 years enrolled from respondents to study announcements in specified regions, inhabitants attending health checkup examinations provided by local governments, visitors at health checkup centers, and first-visit patients at a cancer hospital in Japan. At the time of the baseline survey, from 2005 to 2014, we obtained comprehensive information regarding demographics, education, alcohol consumption, smoking, sleeping, exercise, food intake frequency, medication and supplement use, personal and family disease history, psychological stress, and female reproductive history, and collected peripheral blood samples. RESULTS: The baseline survey included 92,610 adults (mean age: 55.2 [9.4] years, 44.1% men) from 14 study regions in 12 prefectures. The participation rate was 33.5%, with participation ranging from 19.7% to 69.8% in different study regions. The largest number of participants was in the age groups of 65-69 years for men and 60-64 years for women. There were differences in body mass index, educational attainment, alcohol consumption, smoking, and sleep duration between men and women. CONCLUSIONS: The J-MICC Study collected lifestyle and clinical data and biospecimens from over 90,000 participants. This cohort is expected to be a valuable resource for the national and international scientific community in providing evidence to support longer healthy lives.

11.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Although benefits of fish consumption for health are well known, a significant percentage of individuals dislike eating fish. Fish consumption may be influenced by genetic factors in addition to environmental factors. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to find genetic variations that affect fish consumption in a Japanese population. METHODS: We performed a two-stage GWAS on fish consumption using 13,739 discovery samples from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study, and 2845 replication samples from the other population. We used a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to estimate food intake. Association of the imputed variants with fish consumption was analyzed by separate linear regression models per variant, with adjustments for age, sex, energy intake, principal component analysis components 1-10, and alcohol intake (g/day). We also performed conditional analysis. RESULTS: We found 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in 12q24 and 14q32.12 that were associated with fish consumption. The 19 SNPs were located at 11 genes including six lead SNPs at the BRAP, ACAD10, ALDH2, NAA25, and HECTD4 regions on 12q24.12-13, and CCDC197 region on 14q32.12. In replication samples, all five SNPs located on chromosome 12 were replicated successfully, but the one on chromosome 14 was not. Conditional analyses revealed that the five lead variants in chromosome 12 were in fact the same signal. CONCLUSION: We found that new SNPs in the 12q24 locus were related to fish intake in two Japanese populations. The associations between SNPs on chromosome 12 and fish intake were strongly confounded by drinking status.

12.
Gene ; 762: 145019, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755657

RESUMO

Dyslipidemia is a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Experimental studies have reported that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) regulates adipocyte differentiation, lipid storage, and glucose metabolism. Therefore, we examined the associations between PPAR-γ polymorphisms (rs1801282, rs3856806, rs12497191, rs1151999, and rs1152003) and serum lipids in two cross-sectional studies. In the Shizuoka area of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study, we examined 4,952 participants (3,356 men and 1,596 women) in a baseline survey and 2,245 participants (1,550 men and 695 women) in a second survey 5 years later. Outcome measures were the prevalence of dyslipidemia (low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C] ≥ 140 mg/dl, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol < 40 mg/dl, triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dl, and/or use of cholesterol-lowering drugs) and the prevalence of high LDL-C (LDL-C ≥ 140 mg/dl and/or use of cholesterol-lowering drugs). Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) were estimated by using unconditional logistic regression models. A total of 2,114 and 1,431 individuals (42.7% and 28.9%) had dyslipidemia and high LDL-C in the baseline survey, respectively, as did 933 and 716 (41.6% and 31.9%), respectively, in the second survey. In the baseline study, compared with major allele homozygotes, minor allele homozygotes of rs3856806 and rs12497191 had a 42% (OR, 0.58; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.39-0.85) and 23% (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.60-0.99) lower risk of dyslipidemia, respectively, after adjustment for potential confounding factors. In addition, minor allele homozygotes of rs3856806 had a 45% (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.35-0.86) lower risk of high LDL-C. Similar risk reductions were found in the second survey. In conclusion, rs3856806 and rs12497191 polymorphisms may be related to a lower risk of dyslipidemia and high LDL-C.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/genética , PPAR gama/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Colesterol/sangue , Dislipidemias/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
J Anesth ; 34(6): 904-911, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851513

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Volatile anesthetics (VAs) protect myocardial cells in cardiovascular surgery. A recent clinical trial of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery reported no significant difference in mortality rates between the use of VAs and total intravenous anesthetics at 1 year postoperatively. However, oxygenator function may affect the VA pharmacokinetics. Thus, we measured the VA blood concentrations during CPB in patients managed with four different microporous polypropylene hollow fiber membrane oxygenators. METHODS: Twenty-four patients scheduled for elective CPB were randomly allocated to one of the two VA groups (desflurane and sevoflurane groups) and, then, randomly divided into one of four oxygenator groups: Terumo, LivaNova, Medtronic, and Senko (n = 3). Additionally, in each VA group, three patients were randomly selected and redundantly allocated to the human lung group (for control blood VA concentration without oxygenator). Blood samples collected 20 min after starting 6.0 vol% desflurane or 1.7 vol% sevoflurane were analyzed using gas chromatography. Oxygenator-related complications and structural changes in the membrane surface of each oxygenator after surgery were evaluated. RESULTS: The mean (standard deviation) concentrations of desflurane and sevoflurane in the human lung were 182.4 (23.2) and 54.0 (9.6) µg/ml, respectively; not significantly different from those in the four oxygenator groups. No oxygenator-related complications occurred. Structural changes in membrane fibers did not occur after clinical use, except for difficulty in image acquisition with Senko products. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that the blood concentrations of desflurane and sevoflurane passing through oxygenators used during CPB were similar to those in the human lung control.

14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235900, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649701

RESUMO

With the global problem of aging, it has become more difficult to improve the prognosis of older dialysis patients. Extended-hours hemodialysis offers longer treatment time compared to conventional hemodialysis regimen and provides favorable metabolic status, hemodynamic stability, and increased dietary intake. Despite prior studies reporting that in-center extended-hours hemodialysis can reduce the mortality rate, the treatment impact on elderly patients remains unclear. Therefore, we examined the association between extended-hours hemodialysis compared to conventional hemodialysis and all-cause mortality. Survival analyses using Cox proportional hazard model with multivariable adjustments and propensity-score based method were performed to compare mortality risk between 198 consecutive patients who started in-center extended-hours hemodialysis (Extended-HD) and 1407 consecutive patients who initiated conventional hemodialysis. The median age was 67.1 years in the Extended-HD group and 70.7 years in the conventional hemodialysis group. Extended-HD was associated with lower all-cause mortality in overall patients and the subgroup >70 years (adjusted hazard ratios of 0.60 [95% CI, 0.39-0.91] and 0.35 [95% CI, 0.18-0.69], respectively). There was a significant interaction between age >70 years and Extended-HD. In conclusion, extended-hours hemodialysis was associated with a lower mortality rate, especially in elderly patients.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica/patologia , Diálise Renal/métodos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32486113

RESUMO

The association between dietary acid load and metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been fully investigated. A cross-sectional study was performed on 14,042 men and 14,105 women (aged 35-69 years) who participated in a baseline survey of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study. Dietary acid load was assessed using the net-endogenous-acid-production (NEAP) score that is closely correlated with the rate of renal net acid excretion. MetS was diagnosed according to the Joint Interim Statement Criteria of 2009 using body-mass index instead of waist circumference. After adjusting for potential confounders, higher NEAP scores were associated with a significantly increased odds ratio (OR) of MetS, obesity, high blood pressure, and high fasting blood glucose. These associations remained significant after further adjustment for carbohydrate intake or two nutrient-pattern scores significantly associated with MetS. After adjustment for fiber, iron, potassium, and vitamin pattern scores, the OR of MetS for the highest quartile of NEAP scores, relative to the lowest quartile, was 1.25 (95% confidence interval 1.12-1.39). There was no significant interaction between sex, age, or body-mass index and NEAP. Higher dietary acid load was associated with a higher prevalence of MetS and several of its components, independently of carbohydrate intake or nutrient patterns.

16.
Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 68(12): 1361-1368, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350785

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Several strategies are employed for administering fresh frozen plasma (FFP) during weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). This study evaluated by coagulation function aimed to compare two strategies of administering FFP in cardiovascular surgery: administering 4 units of FFP before separating from CPB or administering it after weaning from CPB. METHODS: Thirty patients who underwent CPB and were expected to receive 8 units of FFP and 20 units of platelet concentrate were randomly allocated into group A (8 units of FFP and 20 units of platelet concentrate administered after separating from CPB) and group B (4 units of FFP administered before separation, and 4 units of FFP and 20 units of platelet concentrate administered after separating from CPB). Thromboelastography (TEG6s®, HAEMONETICS Japan GK, Tokyo, Japan) was conducted at four time points before and after separation. Blood test results, blood loss, and required amounts of blood transfusion were compared. The primary outcome was the difference in coagulation function evaluated by TEG6s 90 min after protamine administration. RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients were enrolled in the study. Coagulation function after separating from CPB was not significantly different between the groups. Additionally, no significant differences were found in intensive care unit outcomes, such as 24-h transfusion requirements. CONCLUSIONS: Coagulation function 90 min after separating from CPB was not significantly different between the groups. Prior FFP administration before separation did not provide significant improvement in coagulation function.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is an uncommon but life-threatening complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) therapy. The causative factors of EPS remain unclear. Pathological studies of the peritoneum affected by EPS and relationships with clinical factors including PD solutions remain lacking. The objective of this study was to examine peritoneal samples from EPS patients and to identify the associations of peritoneal pathology with different clinical factors. METHODS: Peritoneal specimens were obtained at the time of surgical enterolysis in Tsuchiya General Hospital from 1993 to 2016. A total of 223 PD patients were enrolled and analyzed. Tissues were fixed with formalin and processed with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining, as well as immunohistochemical staining for CD31 and CD68. RESULTS: Evaluations could be made in 174 patients who received surgical enterolysis. Conventional or pH-neutral low-glucose degradation product PD solutions were utilized during PD treatment. The conventional PD solution group showed less angiogenesis (P = 0.013) but more severe vasculopathy, in the form of a lower ratio of luminal diameter to vessel diameter (L/V ratio) (P < 0.001) in association with longer PD treatment. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models revealed that L/V ratio (per 0.1 increase, hazard ratio = 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.77-0.99, P = 0.047) was significantly associated with a lower incidence of EPS relapse. In contrast, most of the cases in the pH-neutral solution group showed milder vasculopathy. CONCLUSIONS: The pathology of EPS differed between conventional and pH-neutral solution groups. Vasculopathy was related to the development and relapse of EPS in the conventional solution group.

18.
J Epidemiol ; 2020 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a reported risk factor for various health problems. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified numerous independent loci associated with body mass index (BMI). However, most of these have been focused on Europeans, and little evidence is available on the genetic effects across the life course of other ethnicities. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study to examine the associations of 282 GWAS-identified single nucleotide polymorphisms with three BMI-related traits, current BMI, BMI at 20 years old (BMI at 20) and change in BMI (BMI change), among 11 586 Japanese individuals enrolled in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort study. Associations were examined using multivariable linear regression models. RESULTS: We found a significant association (P < 0.05/282 = 1.77×10-4) between BMI and 11 polymorphisms in or near FTO, BDNF, TMEM18, HS6ST3, and BORCS7. The trend was similar between current BMI and BMI change, but differed from that of the BMI at 20. Among the significant variants, those on FTO were associated with all BMI traits, whereas those on TMEM18 and HS6SR3 were only associated with BMI at 20. The association of FTO loci with BMI remained even after additional adjustment for dietary energy intake. CONCLUSIONS: Previously reported BMI-associated loci discovered in Europeans were also identified in the Japanese population. Additionally, our results suggest that the effects of each loci on BMI may vary across the life course and that this variation may be caused by the differential effects of individual genes on BMI via different pathways.

19.
Nutr J ; 19(1): 2, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental health has become a major public health issue worldwide. Biological and epidemiological studies suggest diet has a role in the prevention or cure of mental disorders. However, further research is required to elucidate the relationship between diet and mental health. This study aimed to investigate associations between dietary intake of nutrients (macronutrients, vitamins, calcium, and fatty acids) and food groups (fish, meat and chicken, dairy products, and vegetables) and mental health among middle-aged Japanese in cross-sectional and prospective studies. METHODS: In total, 9298 men and women that participated in two areas of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study were eligible for analysis at the baseline (cross-sectional) survey. Of these, 4701 participants were followed for about 5 years and included in the follow-up (prospective) analysis. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was used to assess participants' general mental health status over the past several weeks. The average intake of 46 foods over the past year was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. We also evaluated lifestyle and medical factors using a self-administered questionnaire. A cross-sectional logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate odds ratios for a GHQ score ≥ 4 (poor mental health) according to dietary intake of foods/nutrients at baseline. The prospective study used baseline dietary and lifestyle factors and GHQ scores at follow-up. RESULTS: The cross-sectional logistic regression analysis showed vegetables, protein, calcium, vitamin D, carotene and n-3 highly-polyunsaturated fatty acids were inversely associated with a GHQ score ≥ 4. On the other hand, mono-unsaturated fatty acids showed a positive association with higher GHQ score. The prospective logistic regression analysis found dairy products, calcium, vitamin B2, and saturated fatty acids were inversely correlated with a GHQ score ≥ 4. Calcium was associated with GHQ scores in both the cross-sectional and follow-up studies. In the follow-up study, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for a GHQ score ≥ 4 was 0.71 (95% confidence interval, 0.55-0.92) for the highest versus lowest quartiles of calorie-adjusted dietary calcium intake. CONCLUSION: Consuming particular nutrients and foods, especially calcium and dairy products, may lead to better mental health in Japanese adults.

20.
J Ren Nutr ; 30(2): 154-162, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401040

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Low body mass index (BMI) is a potential risk factor for mortality in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. This suggests the usefulness of BMI as a prognostic factor and implies the importance of nutritional status, inflammation, and oxidative stress, all of which affect BMI. We aimed to evaluate BMI changes over time and the mortality risk in patients undergoing a novel combination therapy consisting of an extended-hours hemodialysis protocol without dietary restrictions, which enabled sufficient nutrition. DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on BMI change (ΔBMI < 0, ΔBMI ≥ 0) between the 3rd and 12th month after transfer to the clinic. We studied the associations of BMI changes with all-cause mortality. Further subgroup analyses were performed using Cox models. We finally studied 187 patients who were receiving the combined therapy. The main outcome measure was all-cause mortality of the study group. RESULTS: The median (interquartile range) follow-up time was 4.9 (3.0-8.6) years. Overall, 138 patients were in the ΔBMI ≥ 0 group. As per unadjusted and adjusted Cox models, maintained or increased BMI during this period was associated with hazard ratios of 0.45 (confidence interval 0.23-0.87, P < .05) and 0.35 (confidence interval 0.17-0.75, P < .01) for all-cause mortality, respectively. In the same group, maintained or increased BMI was found to be significantly associated with decreased mortality in female, older, and nondiabetic patients. The data indicated that diabetic status could have a modifying effect on the association between variation in BMI and mortality (P = .006). CONCLUSIONS: Extended-hours hemodialysis without dietary restrictions led to a beneficial effect of maintenance or increase in BMI, especially in females, patients aged ≥65 years, and those without diabetic nephropathy, which could lead to prolonged survival.

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