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1.
Pharm Res ; 38(1): 165-177, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534130

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to fabricate polymeric microneedles, loaded with macrolides (erythromycin, azithromycin), using hyaluronic acid and polyvinyl pyrollidone. METHODS: These microneedles were fabricated using a vacuum micromolding technique. The integrity of the microneedle patches was studied by recording their morphologic features, folding endurance, swelling and micro-piercing. Physicochemical characteristics were studied by differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In-vitro drug release, antibiofilm and effect of microneedle patch on wound healing were also studied to confirm the efficacy of the formulations. RESULTS: Formulated patches displayed acceptable folding endurance (>100) and uniform distribution of microneedles (10 × 10) that can penetrate parafilm. Differential scanning calorimetry results depict a decrease in the crystallinity of macrolides following their incorporation in to a polymer matrix. Percentage release of azithromycin and erythromycin from the polymeric patch formulations (over 30 min) was 90% and 63% respectively. Broadly, the zone of bacterial growth inhibition follows the same order for Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. After 5 days of treatment with azithromycin patches, the wound healing was complete and skin structure (e.g. hair follicles and dermis) was regenerated. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that azithromycin loaded microneedle patches can be used to treat biofilms in the infected wounds.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecção dos Ferimentos/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Azitromicina/administração & dosagem , Azitromicina/farmacocinética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Eritromicina/administração & dosagem , Eritromicina/farmacocinética , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Ratos , Salmonella enterica/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/lesões , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Adesivo Transdérmico , Infecção dos Ferimentos/microbiologia
2.
J Drug Target ; 29(1): 60-68, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649227

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to develop heparin sodium loaded microneedle patches using different compositions of polyvinyl alcohol polymer and sorbitol. A vacuum micromolding technique was used to fabricate microneedle patches while heparin sodium was loaded into needle tips. Physical features of patches were evaluated by measuring thickness, width, folding endurance and swelling percentage. Patches were also characterised by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to determine the microneedle length and surface morphologies. A preliminary assessment of the microneedle performance was studied by examining the in-vitro insertion to the parafilm and recording the in-vitro drug release profile. In-vivo activity of patches was confirmed by measuring activated partial thromboplastin time and histological examination of the micropierced skin tissues. Prepared patches were clear, smooth; uniform in appearance; with sharp pointed microprojections and remained intact after 1000 folding. The microneedles were stiffer in nature, as they reproduce microcavities in the parafilm membrane following hand pushing without any structural loss. Insertion study results showed successful insertion of microneedles into the parafilm. Disrupted stratum corneum evident from histological examination confirmed successful insertion of the microneedle without affecting the vasculature. In-vitro release study confirmed ∼92% release of the loaded drug within 120 min. A significant prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time (4 folds as compared to negative control) was recorded following the application of heparin sodium loaded microneedle patch onto rabbit skin. In conclusion microneedles are a valuable drug delivery system, benefiting the patients with minimal skin invasion and also allowing self-administration of heparin sodium in a sustained release manner for the management of chronic ailments.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Heparina/administração & dosagem , Microinjeções/métodos , Agulhas , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Adesivo Transdérmico , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Feminino , Heparina/metabolismo , Masculino , Microinjeções/instrumentação , Coelhos , Pele/metabolismo
3.
Drug Discov Today ; 25(8): 1513-1520, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561300

RESUMO

Recently, remarkable efforts have focused on research towards enhancing and delivering efficacious and advanced therapeutic agents. Even though this involves significant challenges, innovative techniques and materials have been explored to overcome these. The advantageous properties of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), such as unique morphologies and geometries, makes then favorable for use for various drug delivery targeting purposes, particularly in cancer therapy. As we discuss here, MSNs have been utilized over the past few decades to improve the efficiency of anticancer drugs by enhancing their solubility to render them suitable for application, reducing adverse effects, and improving their anticancer cytotoxic efficiency.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Dióxido de Silício/administração & dosagem , Animais , Humanos , Porosidade
4.
Pharm Dev Technol ; 25(2): 197-205, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638453

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the application of piezoelectric inkjet technology in the preparation of custom-made indomethacin (IMC) films. Indomethacin solutions with and without PVP were printed onto polymeric sheets using a commercial inkjet printer. Drug loading was varied by selecting a machine parameter different dots per inches (DPIs). The printed patches were evaluated for particulate morphologies, drug loading, in vitro release and ex vivo skin permeation and anti-inflammatory effects using hind paw inflammation model. Calculated drug loaded in 2 × 2 cm2 patches of IMC of 96, 300, and 600 DPIs were in the range of 40, 60, and 65 µg, respectively. Patches loaded with IMC alcoholic solution showed crystalline structures observed by scanning electron microscopy and the addition of PVP in solution turned it to amorphous form. The drug release profile showed 60-70% of total drug released in 3 h. Permeation studies showed 40-50% of total drug loaded permeated through rat skin using Franz cells. Patches with higher printing density 600 DPI showed anti-inflammatory effect in hind paw inflammation model studies. This study has shown the potential of personalized medicine in which a calculated amount of drug can be delivered to patients by piezoelectric technology.


Assuntos
Indometacina/química , Animais , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Excipientes/química , Feminino , Indometacina/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Polímeros/química , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Impressão Tridimensional , Ratos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
J Drug Target ; 28(5): 525-532, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718314

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to fabricate Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-loaded microneedle patches using micromould casting technique and compare their efficacy with the injectable counterparts. The microneedle patches were formulated using sodium alginate (10% w/v) and trehalose (20% of polymer). The patches were characterised using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and folding endurance. Serum IgG, TLC, granulocyte count, lymphocyte count and CRP were assessed and results were compared to that of intradermal injections alongside controls. The results showed that polymeric patches had a thickness of 0.8 mm, microneedle projections of 272 ± 12 µm and folding endurance of more than 300. Based on haematological and IgG ELISA assays, microneedle-based BCG administration significantly activated the immune cells and induced production of lymphocytes, granulocytes and peptide-specific IgG in immunised rats that were comparable to injectable counterparts. There was an increase in IgG antibodies from 3 g/L to 5.98 g/L and an increase in leucocytes from 2.6 × 109/L to 18.45 × 109/L. There was also an increase in granulocytes from 14.4% to 29.15% and lymphocyte count from 58.75% to 85.3%. It was concluded that BCG-coated polymeric microneedle patches are suitable for the transdermal delivery of vaccine without inducing discomfort usually observed with injections.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/química , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Polímeros/química , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Injeções Intradérmicas , Microinjeções/métodos , Agulhas , Ratos , Adesivo Transdérmico , Vacinação/métodos
6.
Daru ; 27(2): 673-681, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630328

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to design and characterize microneedle patch formulation containing cetirizine hydrochloride. METHODS: Chitosan was co-formulated with cetirizine hydrochloride. Transdermal patches were prepared by casting this solution to microneedle molds. Control patches were formulated by casting this solution to a plain cuvet of same area as mold but lacking microneedles. An array of methods namely; differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed for the characterization of the films and the microneedles accordingly whereas in vitro permeation studies were conducted across rat skin. Light microscopy was performed to assess any histological changes upon microneedles application onto the rat skin. RESULTS: The patches had a reproducible thickness (0.86 ± 0.06 mm) and folding endurance. Both the blank and drug loaded patches had 100 microneedles each of 300 micrometre length. In addition, the microneedle patches were ascribed with a two-fold increase in drug permeation across rat skin in the presence of microneedles as compared to the control formulations. Histological examination confirms a minimal invasion of the skin conferred by the microneedles. CONCLUSION: The microneedle patches serve as an alternate route of drug administration in patients with nausea and swelling difficulties. Graphical abstract Microneedle patch manifest a two-fold increase in the skin permeation of Cetirizine Hydrochloride as compared to the control that is drug loaded patch without microneedles.


Assuntos
Cetirizina/farmacocinética , Quitosana/química , Microtecnologia/instrumentação , Animais , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Agulhas , Ratos , Termogravimetria , Adesivo Transdérmico
7.
Polymers (Basel) ; 11(9)2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450763

RESUMO

In this work, highly monodisperse porous alginate films from bubble bursting were formed on a glass substrate at ambient temperature, by a T-shaped microfluidic junction device method using polyethylene glycol (PEG) stearate and phospholipid as precursors in some cases. Various polymer solution concentrations and feeding liquid flow rates were applied for the generation of monodisperse microbubbles, followed by the conversion of the bubbles to porous film structures on glass substrates. In order to compare the physical properties of polymeric solutions, the effects of alginate, PEG stearate (surfactant), and phospholipid concentrations on the flowability of the liquid in a T-shaped microfluidic junction device were studied. To tailor microbubble diameter and size distribution, a method for controlling the thinning process of the bubbles' shell was also explored. In order to control pore size, shape, and surface as well as internal structure morphologies in the scalable forming of alginate polymeric films, the effect of the feeding liquid's flow rate and concentrations of PEG-stearate and phospholipid was also studied. Digital microscopy images revealed that the as-formed alginate films at the flow rate of 100 µL·min-1 and the N2 gas pressure of 0.8 bar have highly monodisperse microbubbles with a polydispersity index (PDI) of approximately 6.5%. SEM captures also revealed that the as-formed alginate films with high PDI value have similar monodisperse porous surface and internal structure morphologies, with the exception that the as-formed alginate films with the help of phospholipids were mainly formed under our experimental environment. From the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, we concluded that no chemical composition changes, thermal influence, and crystal structural modifications were observed due to the T-shaped microfluidic junction device technique. The method used in this work could expand and enhance the use of alginate porous films in a wide range of bioengineering applications, especially in tissue engineering and drug delivery, such as studying release behaviors to different internal and surface morphologies.

8.
J Drug Target ; 24(7): 603-12, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26586147

RESUMO

Dexibuprofen (DXIBN) transdermal patches were formulated using various concentrations of selected polymeric excipients (matrix material; ethyl cellulose and polyvinylpyrrolidone, plasticizer (di-N-butyl phthalate), and a conventional permeation enhancer (almond oil)). Initial patch formulations were evaluated for their physiochemical properties (thickness, moisture uptake, final moisture content, and DXIBN content). Also, impact of patch components on resulting tensile strength and in vitro permeation were used to predict an optimal patch formulation using a quality-by-design (QbD) approach, which was subsequently evaluated and further compared with a commercial oral tablet dosage form for in vitro and in vivo release (rabbit model). Initially formulated patches demonstrated uniform thickness (0.44 ± 0.02 cm), relatively low moisture uptake (7.87 ± 1.11 w/w %), and highly acceptable drug loading values (100.0 ± 0.026%). The tensile strength of patches increased significantly with matrix polymer concentration and to a lesser degree with increase in plasticizer and permeation enhancer content, although these affected the permeation of DXIBN. Predicted properties (tensile strength and DXIBN steady-state flux) for the QbD-optimized formulation were in close agreement to experimental results. The QbD optimal patch formulation behavior differed significantly from the commercial tablet formulation in vivo. Such model-based predictions (QbD approach) will reduce cost and time in formulation development sciences.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Desenho de Fármacos , Ibuprofeno/análogos & derivados , Pele/metabolismo , Adesivo Transdérmico/normas , Animais , Antirreumáticos/farmacocinética , Composição de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Ibuprofeno/administração & dosagem , Ibuprofeno/farmacocinética , Plastificantes/química , Polímeros/química , Coelhos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Absorção Cutânea , Testes de Irritação da Pele , Solubilidade , Propriedades de Superfície , Resistência à Tração
9.
Curr Pharm Des ; 21(22): 3239-47, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26027562

RESUMO

Electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) enabling platform technologies have gathered significant momentum over the last two decades. Utilisation of the underpinning jetting process in tandem with desired materials (including polymers, ceramics, metals and even naturally occurring compounds such as peptides, DNA and cells) provides the basis for novel engineered therapies. Through EHDA processes, the generation of a variety of nano-meter and micro-meter scaled structures with control on surface and encapsulation features is attainable in a single step. While a host of adaptable EHDA techniques have evolved (e.g. printing and template patterning), there are two main processes that continue to dominate: electrospraying (ESy) and electrospinning (ESp). Although ESp has drawn considerable researcher interest for nanofibre applications, ESy is an important and timely process for nano- and micro-particle fabrication. Thus, an appropriate evaluation of ESy is vital. This short review focuses on key developments in the ESy field in relation to nanotechnologies with potential healthcare applications using metals, polymers and ceramics. An insight into the process of particle formation (during EHDA spraying or ESy), process parameters and materials specifications, is provided. Emerging biomedical and other healthcare research through nanotechnologies are highlighted.


Assuntos
Nanotecnologia , Humanos , Metais/química , Nanomedicina/métodos , Nanopartículas/química , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Polímeros/química , Propriedades de Superfície
10.
J Nanopart Res ; 16(12): 2626, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25484617

RESUMO

In this work, solid polymer nanospheres with their surface tailored for drug adhesion were prepared using a V-shaped microfluidic junction. The biocompatible polymer solutions were infused using two channels of the microfluidic junction which was also simultaneously fed with a volatile liquid, perfluorohexane using the other channel. The mechanism by which the nanospheres are generated is explained using high speed camera imaging. The polymer concentration (5-50 wt%) and flow rates of the feeds (50-300 µl min-1) were important parameters in controlling the nanosphere diameter. The diameter of the polymer nanospheres was found to be in the range of 80-920 nm with a polydispersity index of 11-19 %. The interior structure and surfaces of the nanospheres prepared were studied using advanced microscopy and showed the presence of fine pores and cracks on surface which can be used as drug entrapment locations.

11.
Int J Pharm ; 472(1-2): 339-46, 2014 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24945138

RESUMO

Itraconazole is widely used as an anti-fungal drug to treat infections. However, its poor aqueous solubility results in low bioavailability. The aim of the present study was to improve the drug release profile by preparing surface itraconazole adsorbed polymethylsilsesquioxane (PMSQ) nanospheres using a V-junction microfluidic (VJM) device. In order to generate nanospheres with rough surface, the process flow rate of perfluorohexane (PFH) was set between 50 and 300 µl min(-1) while the flow rate of PMSQ and itraconazole solution were constant at 300 µl min(-1). Variations in the PFH flow rate enable the controlled size generation of nanospheres. PMSQ nanospheres adsorbing itraconazole were characterized by SEM, FTIR and Zetasizer. The release of itraconazole from PMSQ nanosphere surface was measured using UV spectroscopy. Nanosphere formulations with a range of sphere size (120, 320 and 800 nm diameter) were generated and drug release was studied. 120 nm itraconazole coated PMSQ nanospheres were found to present highest drug encapsulation efficiency and 13% drug loading in a more reproducible manner compared to 320 nm and 800 nm sized nanosphere formulations. Moreover, 120 nm itraconazole coated PMSQ nanospheres (encapsulation efficiency: 88%) showed higher encapsulation efficiency compared to 320 nm (encapsulation efficiency: 74%) and 800 nm (encapsulation efficiency: 62%) sized nanosphere formulations. The itraconazole coated PMSQ nanospheres were prepared continuously at the rate of 2.6 × 10(6) per minute via VJM device. Overall the VJM device enabled the preparation of monodisperse surface itraconazole adsorbed nanospheres with controlled in vitro drug release profile.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/química , Itraconazol/química , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Nanosferas/química , Compostos de Organossilício/química , Polímeros/química , Adsorção , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Fluorcarbonetos/química , Propriedades de Superfície
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