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1.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399639

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the outcome of prostate cancer (PCa) patients diagnosed with oligorecurrent disease and treated with a first and a second PSMA (prostate-specific membrane antigen ligand) PET(positron-emission tomography)-directed radiotherapy (RT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-two patients with oligorecurrent relapse after curative therapy received a first PSMA PET-directed RT of all metastases. After biochemical progression, all patients received a second PSMA PET-directed RT of all metastases. The main outcome parameters were biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS) and androgen deprivation therapy-free survival (ADT-FS). The intervals of BPFS were analyzed separately as follows: the interval from the last day of PSMA PET-directed RT to the first biochemical progression was defined as bPFS_1 and the interval from second PSMA PET-directed RT to further biochemical progression was defined as bPFS_2. RESULTS: The median follow-up duration was 39.5 months (18-60). One out of 32 (3.1%) patients died after 47 months of progressive metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa). All patients showed biochemical responses after the first PSMA PET-directed RT and the median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level before RT was 1.70 ng/mL (0.2-3.8), which decreased significantly to a median PSA nadir level of 0.39 ng/mL (range <0.07-3.8; p = 0.004). The median PSA level at biochemical progression after the first PSMA PET-directed RT was 2.9 ng/mL (range 0.12-12.80; p = 0.24). Furthermore, the PSA level after the second PSMA PET-directed RT at the last follow-up (0.52 ng/mL, range <0.07-154.0) was not significantly different (p = 0.36) from the median PSA level (1.70 ng/mL, range 0.2-3.8) before the first PSMA PET-directed RT. The median bPFS_1 was 16.0 months after the first PSMA PET-directed RT (95% CI 11.9-19.2) and the median bPFS_2 was significantly shorter at 8.0 months (95% CI 6.3-17.7) after the second PSMA PET-directed RT (p = 0.03; 95% CI 1.9-8.3). Multivariate analysis revealed no significant parameter for bPFS_1, whereas extrapelvic disease was the only significant parameter (p = 0.02, OR 2.3; 95% CI 0.81-4.19) in multivariate analysis for bPFS_2. The median ADT-FS was 31.0 months (95% CI 20.1-41.8) and multivariate analysis showed that patients with bone metastases, compared to patients with only lymph node metastases at first PSMA PET-directed RT, had a significantly higher chance (p = 0.007, OR 4.51; 95% CI 1.8-13.47) of needing ADT at the last follow-up visit. CONCLUSION: If patients are followed up closely, including PSMA PET scans, a second PSMA PET-directed RT represents a viable treatment option for well-informed and well-selected patients.

2.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245655

RESUMO

The European Association of Urology (EAU) Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) Guideline Panel performed a protocol-driven systematic review (SR) on thermal ablation (TA) compared with partial nephrectomy (PN) for T1N0M0 renal masses, in order to provide evidence to support its recommendations. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed, and only comparative studies published between 2000 and 2019 were included. Twenty-six nonrandomised comparative studies were included, recruiting a total of 167 80 patients. Risk of bias (RoB) assessment revealed high or uncertain RoB across all studies, with the vast majority being retrospective, observational studies with poorly matched controls and short follow-up. Limited data showed TA to be safe, but its long-term oncological effectiveness compared with PN remains uncertain. A quality assessment of pre-existing SRs (n=11) on the topic, using AMSTAR, revealed that all SRs had low confidence rating, with all but two SRs being rated critically low. In conclusion, the current data are inadequate to make any strong and clear conclusions regarding the clinical effectiveness of TA for treating T1N0M0 renal masses compared with PN. Therefore, TA may be cautiously considered an alternative to PN for T1N0M0 renal masses, but patients must be counselled carefully regarding the prevailing uncertainties. We recommend specific steps to improve the evidence base based on robust primary and secondary studies. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this report, we looked at the literature to determine the effectiveness of thermoablation (TA) in the treatment of small kidney tumours compared with surgical removal. We found that TA could cautiously be offered as an option due to many remaining uncertainties regarding its effectiveness.

3.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 140, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether or not double J (DJ) stenting during transurethral resection of a bladder tumour (TURBT) harms patients with regard to possible metachronous upper urinary tract urothelial cancer (UUTUC) development remains controversial. This study evaluated the impact of DJ compared to nephrostomy placement during TURBT for bladder cancer (BCa) on the incidence of metachronous UUTUCs. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 637 patients who underwent TURBT in our department between 2008 and 2016. BCa, UUTUC and urinary drainage data (retrograde/anterograde DJ and percutaneous nephrostomy) were assessed, along with the prevalence of hydronephrosis, and mortality. Chi-square and Fisher's exact test was performed for univariate analyses. Survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank tests. RESULTS: UUTUC was noted in 28 out of 637 patients (4.4%), whereas only eight (1.3%) developed it metachronously to BCa. Out of these, four patients received DJ stents, while four patients received no urinary drainage of the upper urinary tract. Placement of urinary drainage significantly correlated with UUTUC (50.0% vs. 17.9%; p = 0.041). DJ stenting significantly correlated with UUTUC (50.0% vs. 11%; p <  0.01), while no patient with a nephrostomy tube developed UUTUC. UUTUC-free survival rates were significantly lower for patients with DJ stents than for all other patients (p = 0.001). Patients with or without DJ stents had similar overall survival (OS) rates (p = 0.73), whereas patients with nephrostomy tubes had significantly lower OS rates than all other patients (p <  0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with DJ stenting during TURBT for BCa might have an increased risk of developing metachronous UUTUC. This study indicated advantages in placing nephrostomy tubes rather than DJ stents; however, confirmation requires investigation of a larger cohort. Even so, the increased mortality rate in the nephrostomy group reflected hydronephrosis as an unfavourable prognostic factor.

4.
Clin Epigenetics ; 12(1): 33, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While a considerable number of tumor-specific hypermethylated loci have been identified in renal cell cancer (RCC), DNA methylation of loci showing successive increases in normal, tumoral, and metastatic tissues could point to genes with high relevance both for the process of tumor development and progression. Here, we report that DNA methylation of a locus in a genomic region corresponding to the 3'UTR of the transcription factor T-box brain 1 (TBR1) mRNA accumulates in normal renal tissues with age and possibly increased body mass index. Moreover, a further tissue-specific increase of methylation was observed for tumor and metastatic tissue samples. RESULTS: Biometric analyses of the TCGA KIRC methylation data revealed candidate loci for age-dependent and tumor-specific DNA methylation within the last exon and in a genomic region corresponding to the 3'UTR TBR1 mRNA. To evaluate whether methylation of TBR1 shows association with RCC carcinogenesis, we measured 15 tumor cell lines and 907 renal tissue samples including 355 normal tissues, 175 tissue pairs of normal tumor adjacent and corresponding tumor tissue as well 202 metastatic tissues samples of lung, bone, and brain metastases by the use of pyrosequencing. Statistical evaluation demonstrated age-dependent methylation in normal tissue (R = 0.72, p < 2 × 10-16), association with adiposity (P = 0.019) and tumor-specific hypermethylation (P = 6.1 × 10-19) for RCC tissues. Comparison of tumor and metastatic tissues revealed higher methylation in renal cancer metastases (P = 2.65 × 10-6). CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses provide statistical evidence of association between methylation of TBR1 and RCC development and disease progression.

5.
Eur Urol Oncol ; 3(1): 57-72, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171501

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Little is known about the natural history of sporadic angiomyolipomas (AMLs); there is uncertainty regarding the indications of treatment and treatment options. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the indications, effectiveness, harms, and follow-up of different management modalities for sporadic AML to provide guidance for clinical practice. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic review of the literature was undertaken, incorporating Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library (from 1 January 1990 to 30 June 2017), in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. No restriction on study design was imposed. Patients with sporadic AML were included. The main interventions included active surveillance, surgery (nephron-sparing surgery and radical nephrectomy), selective arterial embolisation, and percutaneous or laparoscopic thermal ablations (radiofrequency, microwaves, or cryoablation). The outcomes included indications for active treatment, AML growth rate, AML recurrence rate, risk of bleeding, post-treatment renal function, adverse events of treatments, and modalities of follow-up. Risk of bias assessment was performed using standard Cochrane methods. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Among 2704 articles identified, 43 were eligible for inclusion (zero randomised controlled trials, nine nonrandomised comparative retrospective studies, and 34 single-arm case series). Most studies were retrospective and uncontrolled, and had a moderate to high risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS: In active surveillance series, spontaneous bleeding was reported in 2% of patients and active treatment was undertaken in 5%. Active surveillance is the most chosen option in 48% of the cases, followed by surgery in 31% and selective arterial embolisation in 17% of the cases. Selective arterial embolisation appeared to reduce AML volume but required secondary treatment in 30% of the cases. Surgery (particularly nephron-sparing surgery) was the most effective treatment in terms of recurrence and need for secondary procedures. Thermal ablation was an infrequent option. The association between AML size and the risk of bleeding remained unclear; as such the traditional 4-cm cut-off should not per se trigger active treatment. In spite of the limitations and uncertainties relating to the evidence base, the findings may be used to guide and inform clinical practice, until more robust data emerge. PATIENT SUMMARY: Sporadic angiomyolipoma (AML) is a benign tumour of the kidney consisting of a mixture of blood vessels, fat, and muscle. Large tumours may have a risk of spontaneous bleeding. However, the size beyond which these tumours need to be treated remains unclear. Most small AMLs can be monitored without any active treatment. For those who need treatment, options include surgical removal of the tumour or stopping its blood supply (selective embolisation). Surgery has a lower recurrence rate and lower need for a repeat surgical procedure.

6.
Adv Ther ; 37(1): 288-299, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721113

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) system, its receptors corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) and 2 (CRHR2), and its corresponding binding protein corticotropin-releasing hormone-binding protein (CRHBP) as well as the urocortin proteins-structural homologues to CRH, which are included in this peptide family-have become interesting oncological targets recently. Carcinogenesis of various human tumors has been reported with an altered presence of members of this system. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of urocortin 3 (UCN3) in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). METHODS: Therefore, tumoral tissues of 106 patients with RCC and available corresponding normal tissues were analyzed using qPCR for quantitative mRNA expression analysis. Tissue localization and protein signals of UCN3 in normal and tumoral renal specimens were evaluated using western blot and immunohistochemistry. In addition, correlation studies of UCN3 mRNA expression with clinicopathological parameters of patients with RCC and different histological subtypes were evaluated. RESULTS: UCN3 mRNA was significantly downregulated in nearly all tumoral tissues (p = 7.92 × 10-13). The same effect was observed at protein level using immunohistochemistry. Level of UCN3 mRNA expression was not directly correlated with clinicopathological parameters. CONCLUSION: We report for the first time the significant downregulation of UCN3 in RCC. These results demonstrate a possible involvement of the CRH system and its significance in carcinogenesis of RCC.

7.
World J Urol ; 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506747

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The benign prostatic syndrome, comprising lower urinary tract symptomatology secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia/enlargement, represents a major health care issue in westernized countries. The pharmacological management involves alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists, intervention into the hormonal control of prostate growth using inhibitors of the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase, and stimulation of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway by tadalafil, an inhibitor of the phosphodiesterase type 5. METHODS: This review summarizes the achievements which have been made in the development of drug candidates assumed to offer opportunities as beneficial treatment options in the management of the benign prostatic syndrome. RESULTS: A review of the literature has revealed that the line of development is focusing on drugs interfering with peripheral neuromuscular/neuronal mechanisms (nitric oxide donor drugs, agonists/antagonists of endogenous peptides, botulinum toxin, NX-1207), the steroidal axis (cetrorelix) or the metabolic turn-over (lonidamine), as well as the combination of drugs already established in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptomatology/benign prostatic hyperplasia (phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor plus alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist). CONCLUSION: Many research efforts have provided the basis for the development of new therapeutic modalities for the management of lower urinary tract dysfunctions, some of which might be offered to the patients in the near future.

8.
Oncol Rep ; 42(5): 2159-2168, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545450

RESUMO

DNA methylation plays an important role in the genesis and progression of tumor diseases. To identify new DNA methylation markers possibly associated with the clinical characteristics of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), we investigated loci in the sarcosine dehydrogenase (SARDH) gene. SARDH is involved in the metabolism of the glycine­derivative sarcosine and is closely linked through a functional control loop. Statistical evaluation of methylation data and clinical characteristics of patients showed that kidney tumors with clinically aggressive features such as a high tumor stage, positive lymph nodes, distant metastases or a previously advanced tumor status exhibited significantly lower methylation of a locus in the SARDH gene. Moreover, SARDH methylation was found to be a significant prognostic factor for recurrence­free survival in RCC patients showing statistical independence from the clinical prognosticators, grade, stage and state of metastasis. In conclusion, the methylation status of the SARDH­CGI was identified as an independent prognostic candidate marker for RCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Metilação de DNA , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Sarcosina Desidrogenase/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida
9.
Aktuelle Urol ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486061

RESUMO

Due to novel therapies, the prognosis of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma has improved significantly. A median overall survival of more than two years is a realistic goal. Immunotherapies with checkpoint inhibitors are new first-line and second-line options. Sunitinib, Pazopanib, Tivozanib and the combination of Bevacizumab + interferon alpha are approved for first-line therapy, regardless of the progression risk score. The use of both the combination Nivolumab + Ipilimumab and Cabozantinib is limited to intermediate and high-risk patients. In this subgroup, the immunotherapy combination was more effective in terms of overall survival compared with Sunitinib. Temsirolimus is only approved for high-risk patients. Sunitinib and Pazopanib can also be used as second-line options, with the use of Pazopanib being limited to the event of cytokine failure. Nivolumab and Cabozantinib demonstrated superior overall survival compared to Everolimus. Furthermore, the combination of Lenvatinib + Everolimus and Axitinib are approved treatment options in second-line and further settings. Everolimus monotherapy has been replaced by the new options. The question regarding the optimal sequence of treatments is still unanswered. An interdisciplinary expert meeting aimed to discuss the criteria that should be used for therapy. The members discussed several aspects of treating patients with RCC. As in previous years, the experts intended to provide recommendations for clinical practice. The results are presented here.

10.
Andrologia ; 51(9): e13349, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482616

RESUMO

The nitric oxide (NO) pathway plays a role in maintaining the function of the prostate. An impairment in the activity of the NO system may have an impact in the manifestation of lower urinary tract symptomatology and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Arginase enzymes (Arg) counteract the generation of NO by depleting the intracellular pool of L-arginine, known to be the substrate of the NO synthases. This study investigated the expression of arginase type I and II in the human prostate. Nondiseased prostate tissue was obtained during pelvic surgeries (prostatectomy, cystoprostatectomy). Tissue sections were exposed to antibodies directed against Arg I and II, cGMP, the phosphodiesterase 5 and nNOS. The expression of mRNA transcripts encoding for Arg I and Arg II was investigated using molecular biology. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed the presence of mRNA encoding for Arg I and II, immunofluorescence specific for Arg I was seen in the stromal smooth musculature, and labelling for PDE5 and cyclic GMP was also observed. Nerve fibres containing nNOS were identified running across the smooth musculature. Immunostainings for Arg II did not yield signals. These findings are in support of the notion that, in the prostate, Arg is involved in the modulation of the activity of the NO system.


Assuntos
Arginase/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Próstata/metabolismo , Arginase/análise , Arginase/genética , Arginina/metabolismo , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Fibras Nervosas/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Próstata/inervação , Próstata/cirurgia , Prostatectomia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
11.
Eur Urol ; 76(2): 151-156, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151678

RESUMO

Recent randomised trials have demonstrated a survival benefit for a front-line ipilimumab and nivolumab combination therapy, and pembrolizumab and axitinib combination therapy in metastatic clear-cell renal cell carcinoma. The European Association of Urology Guidelines Panel has updated its recommendations based on these studies. PATIENT SUMMARY: Pembrolizumab plus axitinib is a new standard of care for patients diagnosed with kidney cancer spread outside the kidney and who did not receive any prior treatment for their cancer (treatment naïve). This applies to all risk groups as determined by the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium criteria.

12.
Eur Urol ; 75(5): 799-810, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803729

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The European Association of Urology Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) Guideline Panel has prepared evidence-based guidelines and recommendations for the management of RCC. OBJECTIVE: To provide an updated RCC guideline based on standardised methodology including systematic reviews, which is robust, transparent, reproducible, and reliable. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: For the 2019 update, evidence synthesis was undertaken based on a comprehensive and structured literature assessment for new and relevant data. Where necessary, formal systematic reviews adhering to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were undertaken. Relevant databases (Medline, Cochrane Libraries, trial registries, conference proceedings) were searched until June 2018, including randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and retrospective or controlled studies with a comparator arm, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. Where relevant, risk of bias (RoB) assessment, and qualitative and quantitative syntheses of the evidence were performed. The remaining sections of the document were updated following a structured literature assessment. Clinical practice recommendations were developed and issued based on the modified GRADE framework. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: All chapters of the RCC guidelines were updated based on a structured literature assessment, for prioritised topics based on the availability of robust data. For RCTs, RoB was low across studies. For most non-RCTs, clinical and methodological heterogeneity prevented pooling of data. The majority of included studies were retrospective with matched or unmatched cohorts, based on single- or multi-institutional data or national registries. The exception was for the treatment of metastatic RCC, for which there were several large RCTs, resulting in recommendations based on higher levels of evidence. CONCLUSIONS: The 2019 RCC guidelines have been updated by the multidisciplinary panel using the highest methodological standards. These guidelines provide the most reliable contemporary evidence base for the management of RCC in 2019. PATIENT SUMMARY: The European Association of Urology Renal Cell Carcinoma Guideline Panel has thoroughly evaluated the available research data on kidney cancer to establish international standards for the care of kidney cancer patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/terapia , Neoplasias Renais/terapia , Nefrectomia/métodos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/secundário , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Conduta Expectante
13.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 18(4): 801-811, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787175

RESUMO

ß-Arrestins are classic attenuators of G-protein-coupled receptor signaling. However, they have multiple roles in cellular physiology, including carcinogenesis. This work shows for the first time that ß-arrestins have prognostic significance for predicting metastasis and response to chemotherapy in bladder cancer. ß-Arrestin-1 (ARRB1) and ß-arrestin-2 (ARRB2) mRNA levels were measured by quantitative RT-PCR in two clinical specimen cohorts (n = 63 and 43). The role of ARRBs in regulating a stem cell-like phenotype and response to chemotherapy treatments was investigated. The consequence of forced expression of ARRBs on tumor growth and response to Gemcitabine in vivo were investigated using bladder tumor xenografts in nude mice. ARRB1 levels were significantly elevated and ARRB2 levels downregulated in cancer tissues compared with normal tissues. In multivariate analysis only ARRB2 was an independent predictor of metastasis, disease-specific-mortality, and failure to Gemcitabine + Cisplatin (G+C) chemotherapy; ∼80% sensitivity and specificity to predict clinical outcome. ARRBs were found to regulate stem cell characteristics in bladder cancer cells. Depletion of ARRB2 resulted in increased cancer stem cell markers but ARRB2 overexpression reduced expression of stem cell markers (CD44, ALDH2, and BMI-1), and increased sensitivity toward Gemcitabine. Overexpression of ARRB2 resulted in reduced tumor growth and increased response to Gemcitabine in tumor xenografts. CRISPR-Cas9-mediated gene-knockout of ARRB1 resulted in the reversal of this aggressive phenotype. ARRBs regulate cancer stem cell-like properties in bladder cancer and are potential prognostic indicators for tumor progression and chemotherapy response.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Fenótipo , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , beta-Arrestina 1/genética , beta-Arrestina 2/genética , Animais , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Desoxicitidina/farmacologia , Desoxicitidina/uso terapêutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Prognóstico , Transfecção , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto , beta-Arrestina 1/metabolismo , beta-Arrestina 2/metabolismo
14.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 195(5): 420-429, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30610354

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the differences in the target volume (TV) delineation of metachronous lymph node metastases between 68 Ga-PSMA ligand PET/CT and conventional imaging in a comparative retrospective contouring study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients with biochemical prostate cancer recurrence after primary prostatectomy underwent 68 Ga-PSMA ligand PET/CT in addition to conventional imaging techniques such as CT and/or MR imaging for restaging. All patients were diagnosed with at least one lymph node metastasis. TVs were manually delineated in two different ways: (a) based on conventional imaging (CT/MRI) and (b) based on conventional imaging (CT/MRI) plus 68 Ga-PSMA ligand PET/CT. The size of TVs, overlap rates, and subjective assessment of the difficulty of TV delineation reported by the radiation oncologist (easy/moderate/difficult) were compared. RESULTS: With the additional information from PSMA ligand PET, 47 lymph node metastases were identified and included in the gross tumor volume (GTV). The median clinical target volume (CTV) of non-PET-based TV delineation was statistically larger than the CTV based on PET imaging (134.8 ml [range 6.9-565.2] versus 44.9 ml [range 4.9-481.3; p = 0.001]). The CTV based on CT/MRI enclosed only 81.3% (39/48) of PET-positive lymph nodes. The CT/MRI-based CTV did not enclose all PET-positive lymph nodes in 24% (6/25) of patients. In 12% (3/25) of patients, all PET-positive lymph nodes were outside of the CT/MRI-based CTV. The median overlap rates (TVPET/TVCT/MRIâ€¯× 100) were 45.7% (range 0-96.9) for the GTV and 71.7% (range 9.8-98.2) for the CTV. The assessment of difficulty of contouring revealed that contouring with the additional imaging information of the PET was categorized as easy/moderate in 92% (23/25) and as difficult in 8% (2/25) of the cases, whereas contouring based on CT/MRI without PET was categorized as difficult in 56% (14/25) and as easy/moderate in 44% of the cases (11/25; p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: 68 Ga-PSMA ligand PET/CT is superior to conventional cross-sectional imaging for the delineation of lymph node metastases from prostate cancer. PET-based TV delineation allows for smaller target volumes and should be considered the standard for irradiation of metachronous lymph node metastases in recurrent prostate cancer. Conventional imaging is not sufficiently sensitive for radio-oncological treatment concepts in oligometastatic prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Metástase Linfática/diagnóstico por imagem , Metástase Linfática/radioterapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Idoso , Ácido Edético/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Oligopeptídeos , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Radioterapia , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/normas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Carga Tumoral
15.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 17(2): e345-e355, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30528378

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To systematically assessed the diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) compared to other imaging modalities for diagnosing and staging renal-cell carcinoma in adults. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted through various electronic databases. Data from the selected studies were extracted and pooled, and median sensitivity and specificity were calculated wherever possible. Forty studies analyzing data of 4354 patients were included. They examined CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography-CT, and ultrasound (US). RESULTS: For CT, median sensitivity and specificity were 88% (interquartile range [IQR] 81%-94%) and 75% (IQR 51%-90%), and for MRI they were 87.5% (IQR 75.25%-100%) and 89% (IQR 75%-96%). Staging sensitivity and specificity for CT were 87% and 74.5%, while MRI showed a median sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 75%. For US, the results varied greatly depending on the corresponding technique. Contrast-enhanced US had a median diagnostic sensitivity of 93% (IQR 88.75%-98.25%) combined with mediocre specificity. The diagnostic performance of unenhanced US was poor. For positron emission tomography-CT, diagnostic accuracy values were good but were based on only a small amount of data. Limitations include the strong heterogeneity of data due to the large variety in imaging techniques and tumor histotypes. Contrast-enhanced CT and MRI remain the diagnostic mainstay for renal-cell carcinoma, with almost equally high diagnostic and staging accuracy. CONCLUSION: For specific questions, a combination of different imaging techniques such as CT or MRI and contrast-enhanced US may be useful. There is a need for future large prospective studies to further increase the quality of evidence.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Meios de Contraste , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ultrassonografia
16.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 103(1): 95-104, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201438

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the patterns of progression after 68Ga prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-ligand positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT)-guided radiation therapy (RT) for recurrent oligometastatic prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS AND MATERIALS: One hundred and eight patients with increased prostate-specific antigen levels, who received 68Ga-PSMA-ligand PET/CT-guided RT for recurrent oligometastatic disease after primary therapy for PCa were included. The biochemical progression-free survival and distant disease-free survival after PSMA-ligand PET/CT-guided RT were determined. The patterns of progression were determined using renewed 68Ga-PSMA-ligand PET/CT in patients with biochemical progression and compared with the clinical target volume of the 68Ga-PSMA-ligand PET/CT-guided RT. The frequency of infield and outfield relapses was recorded. RESULTS: A total of 97.2% (105 of 108) of patients showed a decrease in prostate-specific antigen levels after RT and were classified as biochemical responders. After the median follow-up of 18 months, 43.5% (47 of 108) of the patients experienced biochemical progression, resulting in an estimated biochemical progression-free survival of 16 months. Renewed 68Ga-PSMA-ligand PET/CT allowed localization of recurrent disease in 91.7% (33 of 36) of patients. Analysis of the patterns of progression resulted in a cumulative infield relapse rate of 12.1% (4 of 33) and a cumulative outfield relapse rate of 87.9% (29 of 33). The resultant median disease-free survival was 11 months. In terms of the pattern of progression, we observed a shift in the pattern of metastases toward skeletal involvement and distant lymph node metastases. Of these patients, 45.5% (15 of 33) were treated with further RT to delay initiation or escalation of systemic therapies. CONCLUSION: PSMA-ligand PET/CT-guided RT for relapsed PCa with limited tumor burden allowed individualization of treatment approaches, provided effective local control, and resulted in considerably prolonged biochemical progression-free survival. As indicated by the PSMA-ligand PET/CT-based patterns of progression, repeated PET/CT-guided RT may represent a treatment option in well-selected patients with relapse after RT for oligometastatic disease.


Assuntos
Ácido Edético/análogos & derivados , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Oligopeptídeos , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia
17.
Andrologia ; 51(1): e13150, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30251438

RESUMO

Studies on erectile dysfunction (ED) have revealed a relationship between smooth muscle atrophy and the accumulation of collagen in the corpus cavernosum (CC). Transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF ß1) is a cytokine which has been proposed to be involved in the fibrotic process in the CC. We aimed to evaluate the course of TGF ß1 in the systemic and cavernous blood of 17 healthy males through different phases of the sexual arousal response (exemplified by the penile conditions flaccidity, tumescence, rigidity and detumescence). An enzyme-linked immunoassay was used to measure the concentration of TGF ß1 (ng/ml) in both the systemic and cavernous blood at the stages of flaccidity, tumescence and detumescence. TGF levels were significantly higher in the cavernous compartment than in the systemic blood. A linear decrease was evident in the cavernous blood when the flaccid penis became tumescent (24.3 ± 14.5 to 13.9 ± 6.5) and rigid (to 8.7 ± 3.1). At detumescence, TGF increased to 18.3 ± 10.4. In contrast, the levels in the systemic circulation remained unchanged. The results are in support of the hypothesis that the concentration of TGF ß1 in the CC is regulated by adequate blood flow and oxygenation.


Assuntos
Disfunção Erétil/sangue , Ereção Peniana/fisiologia , Pênis/irrigação sanguínea , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/sangue , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Adulto Jovem
18.
Urologe A ; 58(3): 291-299, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30569194

RESUMO

Knowledge of artificial intelligence will become essential in urology and medicine in the future. Today, computer-aided solutions are used for higher-dimensioned data or complex questions. In urological research, but also in clinical application, artificial neural networks (ANN) have been increasingly used for years and are continuously being developed. ANNs are already successfully used in urology in the field of image recognition in radiology and pathology. ANNs can potentially play a role in decision-making of modern cancer treatment. Today, access to ANN has become comparatively easy.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Urologia , Previsões , Urologia/tendências
19.
Oncol Rep ; 40(6): 3861-3868, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30272321

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown that NELL1 expression is silenced epigenetically in human renal cell cancer (RCC) tissues and in RCC cell lines. However, it remains unknown whether NELL1 promoter methylation observed in clinical specimens might be associated with the clinicopathology or survival of patients with RCC. We analyzed NELL1 DNA methylation in tissues from patients with RCC and in adjacent normal renal tissues. In addition, we evaluated NELL1 methylation in cell lines derived from different urogenital tumors (prostate cancer, urothelial cancer and RCC). We performed regression analyses to determine whether NELL1 methylation is associated with clinicopathological parameters and recurrence­free survival (RFS). This cross­sectional study included 98 patients with RCC and 63 paired tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples. We analyzed a locus in the intron 1 region of NELL1 with pyrosequencing. We performed in silico analysis of NELL1 methylation in the TCGA Kidney Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma (KIRC) data set (n=284 patients), which served as a validation study. Statistical analyses were performed with the two­sided paired t­test for paired tumor and adjacent normal samples. We used logistic regression for subgroup comparisons and Cox regression for RFS comparisons. The mean methylation level was 6.8% higher in RCC tissues compared to paired adjacent normal tissues (paired t­test, P<0.001). Methylation levels in RCC were associated with advanced disease (P=0.002), the presence of distant metastases (P=0.004), and shorter RFS (P=0.035, HR: 4.15). In silico validation with TCGA KIRC data for adjacent loci also demonstrated that high relative methylation levels were associated with adverse clinicopathology and shortened RFS. Our results suggest that NELL1 methylation contributes to RCC disease progression. This finding could provide a clinical marker to complement recent functional analyses in tumor models.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Metilação de DNA , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Ilhas de CpG , Estudos Transversais , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Análise de Regressão , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
20.
Eur Urol ; 74(6): 849-851, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201510
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