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1.
Appl Opt ; 59(22): 6765-6773, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749383

RESUMO

Electromagnetic theory predicts spectral dependencies in extinction efficiency near a narrow absorption band for a particle with an index of refraction close to that of the medium in which it is immersed. These absorption band effects are anticipated in oceanographic beam-attenuation (beam-c) spectra, primarily due to the narrow red peak in absorption produced by the phytoplankton photopigment, chlorophyll a (Chl a). Here we present a method to obtain Chl a absorption and size information by analyzing an eigendecomposition of hyperspectral beam-c residuals measured in marine surface waters by an automatic underway system. We find that three principal modes capture more than 99% of the variance in beam-c residuals at wavelengths near the Chl a red absorption peak. The spectral shapes of the eigenvectors resemble extinction efficiency residuals attributed to the absorption band effects. Projection of the eigenvectors onto the beam-c residuals produces a time series of amplitude functions with absolute values that are strongly correlated to concurrent Chl a absorption line height (aLH) measurements (r values of 0.59 to 0.83) and hence provide a method to estimate Chl a absorption. Multiple linear regression of aLH on the amplitude functions enables an independent estimate of aLH, with RMSE of 3.19⋅10-3m-1 (3.3%) or log10-RMSE of 18.6%, and a raw-scale R2 value of 0.90 based on the Tara Oceans Expedition data. Relationships between the amplitude functions and the beam-c exponential slopes are in agreement with theory relating beam-c to the particle size distribution. Compared to multispectral analysis of beam-c slope, hyperspectral analysis of absorption band effects is anticipated to be relatively insensitive to the addition of nonpigmented particles and to monodispersion.

2.
J Phycol ; 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609873

RESUMO

In the last decade, the known biogeography of nitrogen fixation in the ocean has been expanded to colder and nitrogen-rich coastal environments. The symbiotic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria group A (UCYN-A) has been revealed as one of the most abundant and widespread nitrogen-fixers, and includes several sublineages that live associated with genetically distinct but closely related prymnesiophyte hosts. The UCYN-A1 sublineage is associated with an open ocean picoplanktonic prymnesiophyte, whereas UCYN-A2 is associated with the coastal nanoplanktonic coccolithophore Braarudosphaera bigelowii, suggesting that different sublineages may be adapted to different environments. Here, we study the diversity of nifH genes present at the Santa Cruz Municipal Wharf in the Monterey Bay (MB), California, and report for the first time the presence of multiple UCYN-A sublineages, unexpectedly dominated by the UCYN-A2 sublineage. Sequence and quantitative PCR data over an 8-year time-series (2011-2018) showed a shift toward increasing UCYN-A2 abundances after 2013, and a marked seasonality for this sublineage which was present during summer-fall months, coinciding with the upwelling-relaxation period in the MB. Increased abundances corresponded to positive temperature anomalies in MB, and we discuss the possibility of a benthic life stage of the associated coccolithophore host to explain the seasonal pattern. The dominance of UCYN-A2 in coastal waters of the MB underscores the need to further explore the habitat preference of the different sublineages in order to provide additional support for the hypothesis that UCYN-A1 and UCYN-A2 sublineages are different ecotypes.

3.
Harmful Algae ; 92: 101617, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113607

RESUMO

San Francisco Bay (SFB), California, USA is the largest estuary in the western United States and is home to more than 7 million people in nine counties and 101 cities. It is highly nutrient enriched and is directly connected to the Gulf of the Farallones and coastal Pacific ocean through the Golden Gate strait. The Gulf of the Farallones is one of several "hotspots" for the neurotoxin domoic acid, produced by members of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. Despite the close proximity, SFB has few reports of harmful algal blooms and low concentrations of domoic acid, suggesting that SFB is somehow resistant to toxic blooms. Here we evaluate the potential growth and toxicity of the dominant toxigenic species in California coastal waters, P. australis and P. multiseries, to directly test the hypothesis that SFB waters confer resistance to blooms. We specifically evaluate the effect of varying temperature, salinity, and to a lesser extent, nutrients on growth and toxin production. Results show equivalent growth in SFB water (maximum growth rates of 0.71 and 1.35 d-1 for P. multiseries and P. australis) compared to open-coast water, and comparable or greater toxicity (0 to >100 pg DA cell-1). The historical resistance to blooms in SFB is hypothesized to be caused by a combination of insufficient acclimation time for advected Pseudo-nitzschia populations to become established and suppression of toxin production in warm waters.

4.
Harmful Algae ; 91: 101591, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057339

RESUMO

Time series now have sufficient duration to determine harmful algal bloom (HAB) responses to changing climate conditions, including warming, stratification intensity, freshwater inputs and natural patterns of climate variability, such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Against the context of time series, such as those available from phytoplankton monitoring, dinoflagellate cyst records, the Continuous Plankton Recorder surveys, and shellfish toxin records, it is possible to identify extreme events that are significant departures from long-term means. Extreme weather events can mimic future climate conditions and provide a "dress rehearsal" for understanding future frequency, intensity and geographic extent of HABs. Three case studies of extreme HAB events are described in detail to explore the drivers and impacts of these oceanic outliers that may become more common in the future. One example is the chain-forming diatom of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia in the U.S. Pacific Northwest and its response to the 2014-16 northeast Pacific marine heat wave. The other two case studies are pelagic flagellates. Highly potent Alexandrium catenella group 1 dinoflagellate blooms (up to 150 mg/kg PST in mussels; 4 human poisonings) during 2012-17 created havoc for the seafood industry in Tasmania, south-eastern Australia, in a poorly monitored area where such problems were previously unknown. Early evidence suggests that changes in water column stratification during the cold winter-spring season are driving new blooms caused by a previously cryptic species. An expansion of Pseudochattonella cf. verruculosa to the south and A. catenella to the north over the past several years resulted in the convergence of both species to cause the most catastrophic event in the history of the Chilean aquaculture in the austral summer of 2016. Together, these two massive blooms were colloquially known as the "Godzilla-Red tide event", resulting in the largest fish farm mortality ever recorded worldwide, equivalent to an export loss of USD$800 million which when combined with shellfish toxicity, resulted in major social unrest and rioting. Both blooms were linked to the strong El Niño event and the positive phase of the Southern Annular Mode, the latter an indicator of anthropogenic climate change in the southeastern Pacific region. For each of these three examples, representing recent catastrophic events in geographically distinct regions, additional targeted monitoring was employed to improve the understanding of the climate drivers and mechanisms that gave rise to the event and to document the societal response. Scientists must be poised to study future extreme HAB events as these natural experiments provide unique opportunities to define and test multifactorial drivers of blooms.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Chile , Humanos , Noroeste dos Estados Unidos , Oceanos e Mares
5.
Harmful Algae ; 91: 101632, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057342

RESUMO

There is increasing concern that accelerating environmental change attributed to human-induced warming of the planet may substantially alter the patterns, distribution and intensity of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). Changes in temperature, ocean acidification, precipitation, nutrient stress or availability, and the physical structure of the water column all influence the productivity, composition, and global range of phytoplankton assemblages, but large uncertainty remains about how integration of these climate drivers might shape future HABs. Presented here are the collective deliberations from a symposium on HABs and climate change where the research challenges to understanding potential linkages between HABs and climate were considered, along with new research directions to better define these linkages. In addition to the likely effects of physical (temperature, salinity, stratification, light, changing storm intensity), chemical (nutrients, ocean acidification), and biological (grazer) drivers on microalgae (senso lato), symposium participants explored more broadly the subjects of cyanobacterial HABs, benthic HABs, HAB effects on fisheries, HAB modelling challenges, and the contributions that molecular approaches can bring to HAB studies. There was consensus that alongside traditional research, HAB scientists must set new courses of research and practices to deliver the conceptual and quantitative advances required to forecast future HAB trends. These different practices encompass laboratory and field studies, long-term observational programs, retrospectives, as well as the study of socioeconomic drivers and linkages with aquaculture and fisheries. In anticipation of growing HAB problems, research on potential mitigation strategies should be a priority. It is recommended that a substantial portion of HAB research among laboratories be directed collectively at a small sub-set of HAB species and questions in order to fast-track advances in our understanding. Climate-driven changes in coastal oceanographic and ecological systems are becoming substantial, in some cases exacerbated by localized human activities. That, combined with the slow pace of decreasing global carbon emissions, signals the urgency for HAB scientists to accelerate efforts across disciplines to provide society with the necessary insights regarding future HAB trends.


Assuntos
Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Água do Mar , Mudança Climática , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fitoplâncton
6.
Appl Opt ; 58(27): 7319-7330, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674376

RESUMO

We compared the mean normalized water-leaving radiances ([LW¯(λ)]N) of two in-water optical profilers, a compact optical profiling system (C-OPS) and a HyperPro II Optical Profiler (HP2), with modeled [LW¯(λ)]N at five stations in Monterey Bay, California. Although C-OPS and HP2 [LW¯(λ)]Ns were mostly within one standard deviation, C-OPS and modeled [LW¯(λ)]N showed the lowest absolute percent differences (≤25% for most wavelengths) at four of the stations. We attribute this to C-OPS's high vertical resolution (∼1 cm), which is important for detecting changes in optical layers and for measuring the upper 0-0.5 m of the water column. HP2's low vertical resolution (∼50 cm), low signal-to-noise ratio, and inability to measure the upper 0-0.5 m are problematic in Monterey Bay. Although a significant component of the [LW¯(λ)]N differences between C-OPS and HP2 likely stems from fluctuating water mass's inherent optical properties, the 25% error in [LW(λ)]Ns processed from HP2 casts, compared to <1% for C-OPS, is also important.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Dispositivos Ópticos , Água do Mar/química , California
7.
Harmful Algae ; 88: 101641, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582160

RESUMO

Diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) are produced by the marine dinoflagellate, Dinophysis, as well as select species of benthic Prorocentrum. The DSTs can bioaccumulate in shellfish and cause gastrointestinal illness when humans consume high levels of this toxin. Although not routinely monitored throughout the U.S., recent studies in Washington, Texas, and New York suggest DSTs may be widespread throughout U.S. coastal waters. This study describes a four-year time series (2013-2016) of Dinophysis concentration and DST level in California mussels (Mytilus californianus) from Santa Cruz Municipal Wharf (SCMW) in Monterey Bay, California. Results show a maximum Dinophysis concentration of 9404 cells/L during this study and suggest Dinophysis persists as a member of the background phytoplankton community throughout the year. In California mussels, DSTs were found at persistent low levels throughout the course of this study, and exceeded the FDA guidance level of 160 ng/g 19 out of 192 weeks sampled. Concentrations of Dinophysis alone are a positive but weak predictor of DST level in California mussels, and basic environmental variables (temperature, salinity, and nutrients) do not sufficiently explain variation in Dinophysis concentration at SCMW. This study demonstrates that Dinophysis in Monterey Bay are producing DSTs that accumulate in local shellfish throughout the year, occasionally reaching levels of concern.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados , Toxinas Marinhas , Mytilus , Animais , Baías , California , Humanos , Frutos do Mar , Washington
8.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222456, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525231

RESUMO

This study examines the occurrence of humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) song in the northeast Pacific from three years of continuous recordings off central California (36.713°N, 122.186°W). Song is prevalent in this feeding and migratory habitat, spanning nine months of the year (September-May), peaking in winter (November-January), and reaching a maximum of 86% temporal coverage (during November 2017). From the rise of song in fall through the end of peak occurrence in winter, song length increases significantly from month to month. The seasonal peak in song coincides with the seasonal trough in day length and sighting-based evidence of whales leaving Monterey Bay, consistent with seasonal migration. During the seasonal song peak, diel variation shows maximum occurrence at night (69% of the time), decreasing during dawn and dusk (52%), and further decreasing with increasing solar elevation during the day, reaching a minimum near solar noon (30%). Song occurrence increased 44% and 55% between successive years. Sighting data within the acoustic detection range of the hydrophone indicate that variation in local population density was an unlikely cause of this large interannual variation. Hydrographic data and modeling of acoustic transmission indicate that changes in neither habitat occupancy nor acoustic transmission were probable causes. Conversely, the positive interannual trend in song paralleled major ecosystem variations, including similarly large positive trends in wind-driven upwelling, primary productivity, and krill abundance. Further, the lowest song occurrence during the first year coincided with anomalously warm ocean temperatures and an extremely toxic harmful algal bloom that affected whales and other marine mammals in the region. These major ecosystem variations may have influenced the health and behavior of humpback whales during the study period.


Assuntos
Migração Animal/fisiologia , Jubarte/fisiologia , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Animais , California , Ecossistema , Densidade Demográfica , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
9.
Harmful Algae ; 78: 129-141, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30196920

RESUMO

Monterey Bay, California experiences near-annual blooms of Pseudo-nitzschia that can affect marine animal health and the economy, including impacts to tourism and commercial/recreational fisheries. One species in particular, P. australis, has been implicated in the most toxic of events, however other species within the genus can contribute to widespread variability in community structure and associated toxicity across years. Current monitoring methods are limited in their spatial coverage as well as their ability to capture the full suite of species present, thereby hindering understanding of HAB events and limiting predictive accuracy. An integrated deployment of multiple in situ platforms, some with autonomous adaptive sampling capabilities, occurred during two divergent bloom years in the bay, and uncovered detailed aspects of population and toxicity dynamics. A bloom in 2013 was characterized by spatial differences in Pseudo-nitzschia populations, with the low-toxin producer P. fraudulenta dominating the inshore community and toxic P. australis dominating the offshore community. An exceptionally toxic bloom in 2015 developed as a diverse Pseudo-nitzschia community abruptly transitioned into a bloom of highly toxic P. australis within the time frame of a week. Increases in cell density and proliferation coincided with strong upwelling of nutrients. High toxicity was driven by silicate limitation of the dense bloom. This temporal shift in species composition mirrored the shift observed further north in the California Current System off Oregon and Washington. The broad scope of sampling and unique platform capabilities employed during these studies revealed important patterns in bloom formation and persistence for Pseudo-nitzschia. Results underscore the benefit of expanded biological observing capabilities and targeted sampling methods to capture more comprehensive spatial and temporal scales for studying and predicting future events.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Eutrofização , California , Toxinas Marinhas/análise
10.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0197669, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29775481

RESUMO

Benthic algae fuel summer food webs in many sunlit rivers, and are hotspots for primary and secondary production and biogeochemical cycling. Concerningly, riverine benthic algal assemblages can become dominated by toxic cyanobacteria, threatening water quality and public health. In the Eel River in Northern California, over a dozen dog deaths have been attributed to cyanotoxin poisonings since 2000. During the summers of 2013-2015, we documented spatial and temporal patterns of cyanotoxin concentrations in the watershed, showing widespread distribution of anatoxin-a in benthic cyanobacterial mats. Solid phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT) samplers were deployed weekly to record dissolved microcystin and anatoxin-a levels at 10 sites throughout the watershed, and 187 Anabaena-dominated or Phormidium-dominated cyanobacterial mat samples were collected from 27 locations to measure intracellular anatoxin-a (ATX) and microcystins (MCY). Anatoxin-a levels were higher than microcystin for both SPATT (mean MCY = 0.8 and ATX = 4.8 ng g resin-1 day-1) and cyanobacterial mat samples (mean MCY = 0.074 and ATX = 1.89 µg g-1 DW). Of the benthic mats sampled, 58.9% had detectable anatoxin-a (max = 70.93 µg g-1 DW), while 37.6% had detectable microcystins (max = 2.29 µg g-1 DW). SPATT cyanotoxin levels peaked in mid-summer in warm mainstem reaches of the watershed. This is one of the first documentations of widespread anatoxin-a occurrence in benthic cyanobacterial mats in a North American watershed.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas/análise , Cianobactérias/isolamento & purificação , Cianobactérias/patogenicidade , Rios/química , Rios/microbiologia , Tropanos/análise , Anabaena/química , Anabaena/isolamento & purificação , Anabaena/patogenicidade , Animais , Toxinas Bacterianas/envenenamento , California , Cianobactérias/química , Cães , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Microcistinas/análise , Microcistinas/envenenamento , Oscillatoria/química , Oscillatoria/isolamento & purificação , Oscillatoria/patogenicidade , Saúde Pública , Tropanos/envenenamento , Microbiologia da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/envenenamento , Qualidade da Água
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(10): 5519-5529, 2018 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656639

RESUMO

Anthropogenic nutrient overenrichment, coupled with rising temperatures, and an increasing frequency of extreme hydrologic events (storms and droughts) are accelerating eutrophication and promoting the expansion of harmful algal blooms (HABs) across the freshwater-to-marine continuum. All HABs-with a focus here on cyanobacterial blooms-pose serious consequences for water supplies, fisheries, recreational uses, tourism, and property values. As nutrient loads grow in watersheds, they begin to compound the effects of legacy stores. This has led to a paradigm shift in our understanding of how nutrients control eutrophication and blooms. Phosphorus (P) reductions have been traditionally prescribed exclusively for freshwater systems, while nitrogen (N) reductions were mainly stressed for brackish and coastal waters. However, because most systems are hydrologically interconnected, single nutrient (e.g., P only) reductions upstream may not necessarily reduce HAB impacts downstream. Reducing both N and P inputs is the only viable nutrient management solution for long-term control of HABs along the continuum. This article highlights where paired physical, chemical, or biological controls may improve beneficial uses in the short term, and offers management strategies that should be enacted across watershed scales to combat the global expansion of HABs across geographically broad freshwater-to-marine continua.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Eutrofização , Água Doce , Nitrogênio , Fósforo
12.
Harmful Algae ; 73: 138-147, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29602502

RESUMO

San Francisco Bay (SFB) is a eutrophic estuary that harbors both freshwater and marine toxigenic organisms that are responsible for harmful algal blooms. While there are few commercial fishery harvests within SFB, recreational and subsistence harvesting for shellfish is common. Coastal shellfish are monitored for domoic acid and paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), but within SFB there is no routine monitoring for either toxin. Dinophysis shellfish toxins (DSTs) and freshwater microcystins are also present within SFB, but not routinely monitored. Acute exposure to any of these toxin groups has severe consequences for marine organisms and humans, but chronic exposure to sub-lethal doses, or synergistic effects from multiple toxins, are poorly understood and rarely addressed. This study documents the occurrence of domoic acid and microcystins in SFB from 2011 to 2016, and identifies domoic acid, microcystins, DSTs, and PSTs in marine mussels within SFB in 2012, 2014, and 2015. At least one toxin was detected in 99% of mussel samples, and all four toxin suites were identified in 37% of mussels. The presence of these toxins in marine mussels indicates that wildlife and humans who consume them are exposed to toxins at both sub-lethal and acute levels. As such, there are potential deleterious impacts for marine organisms and humans and these effects are unlikely to be documented. These results demonstrate the need for regular monitoring of marine and freshwater toxins in SFB, and suggest that co-occurrence of multiple toxins is a potential threat in other ecosystems where freshwater and seawater mix.


Assuntos
Baías , Água Doce/química , Toxinas Marinhas/química , Mytilus/química , Água do Mar/química , Animais , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Humanos , Ácido Caínico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Caínico/química , Microcistinas/química , São Francisco , Fatores de Tempo , Água/química
13.
Glob Chang Biol ; 2018 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29623683

RESUMO

Sustained observations of marine biodiversity and ecosystems focused on specific conservation and management problems are needed around the world to effectively mitigate or manage changes resulting from anthropogenic pressures. These observations, while complex and expensive, are required by the international scientific, governance and policy communities to provide baselines against which the effects of human pressures and climate change may be measured and reported, and resources allocated to implement solutions. To identify biological and ecological essential ocean variables (EOVs) for implementation within a global ocean observing system that is relevant for science, informs society, and technologically feasible, we used a driver-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) model. We (1) examined relevant international agreements to identify societal drivers and pressures on marine resources and ecosystems, (2) evaluated the temporal and spatial scales of variables measured by 100+ observing programs, and (3) analysed the impact and scalability of these variables and how they contribute to address societal and scientific issues. EOVs were related to the status of ecosystem components (phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass and diversity, and abundance and distribution of fish, marine turtles, birds and mammals), and to the extent and health of ecosystems (cover and composition of hard coral, seagrass, mangrove and macroalgal canopy). Benthic invertebrate abundance and distribution and microbe diversity and biomass were identified as emerging EOVs to be developed based on emerging requirements and new technologies. The temporal scale at which any shifts in biological systems will be detected will vary across the EOVs, the properties being monitored and the length of the existing time-series. Global implementation to deliver useful products will require collaboration of the scientific and policy sectors and a significant commitment to improve human and infrastructure capacity across the globe, including the development of new, more automated observing technologies, and encouraging the application of international standards and best practices.

14.
J Wildl Dis ; 54(3): 569-574, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29547358

RESUMO

From August through December 2015, beachcast bird survey programs reported increased deposition of Common Murres ( Uria aalge) on central and northern California beaches, but not on southern California beaches. Coastal wildlife rehabilitation centers received more than 1,000 live, stranded, and debilitated murres from Sonoma County to San Luis Obispo County during August-October. Approximately two-thirds of admitted birds were after-hatch-year birds in emaciated body condition and in various stages of molt, with extremely worn plumage. Necropsies were done on a sample ( n=35) of birds to determine the probable cause of death of beachcast carcasses. Most birds examined during necropsy were emaciated, with starvation the most likely cause of death. Birds were also tested for underlying infectious diseases at the US Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center and harmful algal bloom toxins at the University of California at Santa Cruz and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration's Northwest Fisheries Science Center. Twenty-four out of 29 tested birds had detectable levels of domoic acid, and no indication of infectious disease was found. Emaciation is thought to be the cause of death for these birds, with a large warm water anomaly and harmful algal bloom playing a secondary detrimental role.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/mortalidade , Charadriiformes , Eutrofização , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , California , Feminino , Masculino
15.
Ecol Appl ; 28(3): 749-760, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29509310

RESUMO

The biodiversity and high productivity of coastal terrestrial and aquatic habitats are the foundation for important benefits to human societies around the world. These globally distributed habitats need frequent and broad systematic assessments, but field surveys only cover a small fraction of these areas. Satellite-based sensors can repeatedly record the visible and near-infrared reflectance spectra that contain the absorption, scattering, and fluorescence signatures of functional phytoplankton groups, colored dissolved matter, and particulate matter near the surface ocean, and of biologically structured habitats (floating and emergent vegetation, benthic habitats like coral, seagrass, and algae). These measures can be incorporated into Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs), including the distribution, abundance, and traits of groups of species populations, and used to evaluate habitat fragmentation. However, current and planned satellites are not designed to observe the EBVs that change rapidly with extreme tides, salinity, temperatures, storms, pollution, or physical habitat destruction over scales relevant to human activity. Making these observations requires a new generation of satellite sensors able to sample with these combined characteristics: (1) spatial resolution on the order of 30 to 100-m pixels or smaller; (2) spectral resolution on the order of 5 nm in the visible and 10 nm in the short-wave infrared spectrum (or at least two or more bands at 1,030, 1,240, 1,630, 2,125, and/or 2,260 nm) for atmospheric correction and aquatic and vegetation assessments; (3) radiometric quality with signal to noise ratios (SNR) above 800 (relative to signal levels typical of the open ocean), 14-bit digitization, absolute radiometric calibration <2%, relative calibration of 0.2%, polarization sensitivity <1%, high radiometric stability and linearity, and operations designed to minimize sunglint; and (4) temporal resolution of hours to days. We refer to these combined specifications as H4 imaging. Enabling H4 imaging is vital for the conservation and management of global biodiversity and ecosystem services, including food provisioning and water security. An agile satellite in a 3-d repeat low-Earth orbit could sample 30-km swath images of several hundred coastal habitats daily. Nine H4 satellites would provide weekly coverage of global coastal zones. Such satellite constellations are now feasible and are used in various applications.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação , Oceanos e Mares , Fitoplâncton
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28820049

RESUMO

The receptor-binding assay (RBA) method for the detection of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins was evaluated for its overall performance in comparison with the mouse bioassay (MBA). An initial study to evaluate the effects of filtering shellfish extracts prior to running the RBA indicated no significant difference between filtered and unfiltered extracts on the determined saxitoxin (STX) concentrations. Next, we tested the RBA assay on 295 naturally contaminated mussel tissue samples, ranging in concentrations from 320 µg STX equiv. kg-1 to 13,000 µg STX equiv. kg-1 by MBA. An overall trend was observed with the RBA giving higher results (256 µg STX equiv. kg-1 on average) than the MBA; however, at low concentrations (< 500 µg STX equiv. kg-1) the RBA results were marginally lower. A third study was conducted using spiked mussel tissue analysed by three independent laboratories, two of which performed the RBA and one the MBA. This multi-laboratory study again showed the RBA to give higher results than the MBA; however, it also revealed that STX determination was accurate by the RBA, unlike the MBA. To optimise the assay for efficient usage under regulatory practice, three suggestions have been made: the use of an initial screening plate to separate those samples that exceed the alert level; use of rapid PSP test kits in the field and in the laboratory for screening negative samples and for early detection of toxicity; and use of an alternate commercially available porcine membrane in place of the laboratory-prepared rat membrane homogenate. The large number of samples analysed and the diversity of the tests conducted in this study further support the RBA as an affordable rapid method for STX detection that is also free of the routine sacrifice of live animals.


Assuntos
Bioensaio , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Saxitoxina/análise , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar , Animais , Camundongos , Frutos do Mar
17.
Toxins (Basel) ; 9(7)2017 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28737685

RESUMO

Toxin producing cyanobacterial blooms have increased globally in recent decades in both frequency and intensity. Despite the recognition of this growing risk, the extent and magnitude of cyanobacterial blooms and cyanotoxin prevalence is poorly characterized in the heavily populated region of southern California. Recent assessments of lentic waterbodies (depressional wetlands, lakes, reservoirs and coastal lagoons) determined the prevalence of microcystins and, in some cases, additional cyanotoxins. Microcystins were present in all waterbody types surveyed although toxin concentrations were generally low across most habitats, as only a small number of sites exceeded California's recreational health thresholds for acute toxicity. Results from passive samplers (Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking (SPATT)) indicated microcystins were prevalent throughout lentic waterbodies and that traditional discrete samples underestimated the presence of microcystins. Multiple cyanotoxins were detected simultaneously in some systems, indicating multiple stressors, the risk of which is uncertain since health thresholds are based on exposures to single toxins. Anatoxin-a was detected for the first time from lakes in southern California. The persistence of detectable microcystins across years and seasons indicates a low-level, chronic risk through both direct and indirect exposure. The influence of toxic cyanobacterial blooms is a more complex stressor than presently recognized and should be included in water quality monitoring programs.


Assuntos
Água Doce/análise , Microcistinas/análise , Poluentes da Água/análise , California , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Áreas Alagadas
18.
J Phycol ; 53(3): 664-679, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28328165

RESUMO

Six species of phytoplankton recently isolated from upper San Francisco Bay were tested for their sensitivity to growth inhibition by ammonium (NH4+ ), and for differences in growth rates according to inorganic nitrogen (N) growth source. The quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv /Fm ) was a sensitive indicator of NH4+ toxicity, manifested by a suppression of Fv /Fm in a dose-dependent manner. Two chlorophytes were the least sensitive to NH4+ inhibition, at concentrations of >3,000 µmoles NH4+  · L-1 , followed by two estuarine diatoms that were sensitive at concentrations >1,000 µmoles NH4+  · L-1 , followed lastly by two freshwater diatoms that were sensitive at concentrations between 200 and 500 µmoles NH4+  · L-1 . At non-inhibiting concentrations of NH4+ , the freshwater diatom species grew fastest, followed by the estuarine diatoms, while the chlorophytes grew slowest. Variations in growth rates with N source did not follow taxonomic divisions. Of the two chlorophytes, one grew significantly faster on nitrate (NO3- ), whereas the other grew significantly faster on NH4+ . All four diatoms tested grew faster on NH4+ compared with NO3- . We showed that in cases where growth rates were faster on NH4+ than they were on NO3- , the difference was not larger for chlorophytes compared with diatoms. This holds true for comparisons across a number of culture investigations suggesting that diatoms as a group will not be at a competitive disadvantage under natural conditions when NH4+ dominates the total N pool and they will also not have a growth advantage when NO3- is dominant, as long as N concentrations are sufficient.


Assuntos
Carbono/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fitoplâncton/metabolismo , California , Clorófitas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clorófitas/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
Estuar Coast Shelf Sci ; 197: 107-118, 2017 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30220764

RESUMO

San Francisco Bay (SFB), USA, is highly enriched in nitrogen and phosphorus, but has been resistant to the classic symptoms of eutrophication associated with over-production of phytoplankton. Observations in recent years suggest that this resistance may be weakening, shown by: significant increases of chlorophyll-a (chl-a) and decreases of dissolved oxygen (DO), common occurrences of phytoplankton taxa that can form Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB), and algal toxins in water and mussels reaching levels of concern. As a result, managers now ask: what levels of chl-a in SFB constitute tipping points of phytoplankton biomass beyond which water quality will become degraded, requiring significant nutrient reductions to avoid impairments? We analyzed data for DO, phytoplankton species composition, chl-a, and algal toxins to derive quantitative relationships between three indicators (HAB abundance, toxin concentrations, DO) and chl-a. Quantile regressions relating HAB abundance and DO to chl-a were significant, indicating SFB is at increased risk of adverse HAB and low DO levels if chl-a continues to increase. Conditional probability analysis (CPA) showed chl-a of 13 mg m-3 as a "protective" threshold below which probabilities for exceeding alert levels for HAB abundance and toxins were reduced. This threshold was similar to chl-a of 13 - 16 mg m-3 that would meet a SFB-wide 80 % saturation Water Quality Criterion (WQC) for DO. Higher "at risk" chl-a thresholds from 25 - 40 mg m-3 corresponded to 0.5 probability of exceeding alert levels for HAB abundance, and for DO below a WQC of 5.0 mg L-1 designated for lower South Bay (LSB) and South Bay (SB). We submit these thresholds as a basis to assess eutrophication status of SFB and to inform nutrient management actions. This approach is transferrable to other estuaries to derive chl-a thresholds protective against eutrophication.

20.
Geophys Res Lett ; 43(19): 10366-10376, 2016 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27917011

RESUMO

A coastwide bloom of the toxigenic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia in spring 2015 resulted in the largest recorded outbreak of the neurotoxin, domoic acid, along the North American west coast. Elevated toxins were measured in numerous stranded marine mammals and resulted in geographically extensive and prolonged closures of razor clam, rock crab, and Dungeness crab fisheries. We demonstrate that this outbreak was initiated by anomalously warm ocean conditions. Pseudo-nitzschia australis thrived north of its typical range in the warm, nutrient-poor water that spanned the northeast Pacific in early 2015. The seasonal transition to upwelling provided the nutrients necessary for a large-scale bloom; a series of spring storms delivered the bloom to the coast. Laboratory and field experiments confirming maximum growth rates with elevated temperatures and enhanced toxin production with nutrient enrichment, together with a retrospective analysis of toxic events, demonstrate the potential for similarly devastating ecological and economic disruptions in the future.

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