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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6656, 2022 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35459931

RESUMO

Although the flexion abduction external rotation (FABER) test is a useful hip provocation test, hip soft tissue characteristics in the FABER position remain unclear. This study investigated the in-vivo joint capsule characteristics, including its articular cavity area and relation to the fat pad surrounded by the joint capsule and pericapsular muscles, in the FABER position using magnetic resonance imaging. Thirteen hips from 13 healthy volunteers were analyzed. The images were obtained, with the participant hips at 15°-extension, 45°-flexion, and in the FABER position, to analyze the articular cavity size and fat pad and calculate these ratios to size of the femoral neck. The articular cavity area and its ratio to the femoral neck were significantly greatest in the FABER position, followed by those in the hip flexion and extension. Additionally, the area of the fat pad in the inter-pericapsular muscle space and its ratio to the femoral neck in the FABER position were significantly larger than those in the hip flexion and, as a tendency, larger than those in hip extension. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first in-vivo study to show the interrelationship among the joint capsule, pericapsular muscles, and fat pad in the FABER position.


Assuntos
Articulação do Quadril , Cápsula Articular , Quadril , Articulação do Quadril/patologia , Humanos , Cápsula Articular/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35189370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) and flexor-pronator muscle (FPM) injuries are common in baseball players. However, the sites of FPM injuries and the relationship between UCL and FPM injuries in baseball players have not been fully clarified. PURPOSE: To identify the sites of FPM injuries and to determine the relationships of location and severity of UCL injury with the presence of FPM injuries in baseball players. METHODS: UCL and FPM injuries were diagnosed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 99 baseball players. The sites of FPM injuries were identified on coronal, sagittal, and axial images. UCL injury severity was classified into four grades: chronic changes, low grade partial tear, high grade partial tear, and complete tear. UCL injury location was classified as proximal UCL tear or distal UCL tear. All images were assessed by a musculoskeletal radiologist and an orthopedic surgeon. RESULTS: Combined UCL and FPM injuries were observed in 45/99 players, of which 40/45 (89%) involved injury of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS). All FDS injuries were in the deep layer of the muscle belly. There was no significant difference between the severity of UCL injury and presence of FPM injuries (p = .352). There was a significant association of distal UCL tears with FPM injuries (p < .001). CONCLUSION: FDS injury occurs most commonly in the muscle belly of the second and fifth digits. There may be no relationship between the severity of UCL injury and presence of FPM injury in baseball players. FPM injuries may be a contributing factor in the failure of nonoperative management of distal UCL tears in baseball players.

3.
Gait Posture ; 93: 59-63, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35086050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Collapse of the foot arch is a one of the risk factors in medial tibial stress syndrome. Custom-made foot orthoses are used to reduce the collapse of foot arch, but the orthoses are designed for a specific shoe and cannot be used in other shoes. We developed an elastic foot orthosis that is highly fitted on the foot using thin films, is lightweight, and can be used with any shoe or without shoes. The purpose of this study was to investigate foot kinematics with our elastic foot orthosis during walking and running. METHODS: We recruited 30 participants with asymptomatic flatfoot for this study. Foot kinematic data were recorded for treadmill walking, treadmill running, and over-ground walking. Foot kinematics were recorded in three conditions, barefoot (BF), with the elastic foot orthosis (EFO), and with sham foot orthosis (SFO), and foot strain was measured using a stretch strain sensor. The difference in foot strain from initial contact to maximum strain during gait was calculated as loading arch strain, which was reflected as forefoot eversion excursion. A one-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni test was performed to compare the loading arch strain among the three conditions. RESULTS: In all tasks, loading arch strain with the EFO was significantly less than that in the BF and SFO conditions. Loading arch strain with the SFO was significantly more than that of BF in the treadmill gait condition. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the EFO decreased foot strain during locomotion compared to without the EFO and is capable of supporting the foot arch during locomotion.


Assuntos
Pé Chato , Órtoses do Pé , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Desenho de Equipamento , Pé Chato/terapia , , Marcha , Humanos , Sapatos
4.
Foot (Edinb) ; 50: 101890, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although patients with plantar fasciitis show spring ligament laxity, the thickness of the spring ligament in patients with plantar fasciitis remains unclear. This study aimed to elucidate the morphological characteristics of the spring ligament in patients with plantar fasciitis based on an ultrasound imaging system (US). METHODS: Thirty feet of 30 patients (painful group) diagnosed with plantar fasciitis at our hospital and thirty feet of 30 healthy volunteers (healthy group) without plantar pain were investigated. The thicknesses of both the spring ligament and plantar fascia were assessed via a US statistical comparison of the spring ligament and plantar fascia thickness between the painful and healthy groups. This was performed using Welch's t-test, and the significance level was set at p < 0.01. In addition, Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated to assess the correlation between the spring ligament and plantar fascia thickness in the two groups, and the significance level was set at p < 0.01. RESULTS: The spring ligament thickness in the painful group was significantly lower than that in the healthy group (p < 0.001). The thickness of the plantar fascia in the painful group was significantly greater than that in the healthy group (p = 0.03). In addition, the correlation between the spring ligament and plantar fascia thickness was moderately negative (r = -0.42, p = 0.001). The thicker the plantar fascia in the subjects, the thinner was the spring ligament. CONCLUSIONS: The thickness of the spring ligament in patients with plantar fasciitis decreased. The thinning of the spring ligament was negatively correlated with the thickening of the plantar fascia as per the US evaluation. Based on the spring ligament thinning determined via US evaluation, interventions such as insoles from an early stage could prevent the onset of plantar fasciitis.


Assuntos
Fasciíte Plantar , Fáscia/diagnóstico por imagem , Fasciíte Plantar/diagnóstico por imagem , Pé/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Ligamentos Articulares/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34886141

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a functional biomechanics garment (FBG) with a lower extremity assist function. 32 healthy male participants were included in this study. Participants were divided into an FBG with taping function group (FBG group) and a compression garment group (CG group). Cadence (steps/min), step length (m), and usual walking speed (m/s) were measured as spatio-temporal data. Kinetics, kinematics data, and dynamic joint stiffness (DJS) of the lower extremity were calculated using a three-dimensional gait analysis system. The FBG group showed significantly faster walking speed (FBG, 1.54 ± 0.12 m/s; CG, 1.42 ± 0.15 m/s, p < 0.05) and reduced hip DJS in terminal stance (FBG, 0.033 ± 0.014 Nm/kg/degree; CG: 0.049 ± 0.016 Nm/kg/degree, p < 0.05) compared to the CG group. The FBG decreased hip DJS in the terminal stance and affected walking speed. The passive elastic moment generated by the high elasticity part of the hip joint front in the FBG supported the internal hip flexion moment. Therefore, our FBG has a biomechanical effect. The FBG may be useful as a tool to promote health activities.


Assuntos
Marcha , Promoção da Saúde , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Vestuário , Humanos , Masculino , Caminhada
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948877

RESUMO

Virtual reality (VR)-guided exercise therapy using mediVR KAGURA has been reported to improve gait function by extending the arm to spatial targets while sitting. We aimed to investigate toe and trunk-pelvic function and plantar sensation during gait in a postoperative patient with hallux valgus. A 60-year-old woman, whose foot deformities had improved 6 months earlier, participated in the study. The exercise therapy interventions were performed twice weekly for 15 min. This study used an A-B-A design: 1-week pre-phase, 3-week intervention phase, and 2-week post-phase. The plantar pressure distribution and thoracic and pelvic displacements during gait were recorded at the end of each phase. The tactile pressure thresholds of the foot were determined before and after each exercise. The maximum force and impulse under the hallux increased after the intervention. The sensory threshold of the hallux was reduced. The amplitude of the thoracic and pelvic displacement was shortened in lateral and extended in the vertical and progressional directions after the intervention. We found that a 3-week VR-guided exercise improved toe function, plantar sensation, and postural adjustment of the trunk and pelvis during gait in a patient who had undergone surgery for hallux valgus, and the effects continued for 2 weeks.


Assuntos
Hallux Valgus , Realidade Virtual , Feminino , , Marcha , Hallux Valgus/cirurgia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Postura Sentada
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22813, 2021 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819610

RESUMO

Recently, pathological changes in the fat pad on the anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS), between the proximal rectus femoris and joint capsule, have been highlighted as a cause of anterior hip pain. However, precise fat pad features, such as the spatial distribution distal to the AIIS, histological features, and in vivo tissue elasticity, remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the morphological characteristics of the fat pad on the AIIS. Four hips from four cadaveric donors were both macroscopically and histologically investigated, and eight hips from four volunteers were assessed using ultrasonography. The fat pad on the AIIS was also surrounded by the iliopsoas and gluteus minimus, extending distally to the superficial portion of the vastus lateralis, and the anterior portion of the gluteus maximus tendon. Histological analysis revealed that the fat pad was composed of loose connective tissue. Based on the ultrasonography, the shear wave velocity in the fat pad was significantly lower than that in the joint capsule. Conclusively, the pathological adhesion between the joint capsule and pericapsular muscles, if caused by fat pad fibrosis, may occur following the abovementioned fat pad spatial distribution.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/anatomia & histologia , Articulação do Quadril/anatomia & histologia , Cápsula Articular/anatomia & histologia , Tecido Adiposo/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Cadáver , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Feminino , Articulação do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Cápsula Articular/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
8.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 271, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the maximum level of diaphragm excursion (DEmax) is correlated with dynamic lung hyperinflation and exercise tolerance. This study aimed to elucidate the utility of DEmax to predict the improvement in exercise tolerance after pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in patients with COPD. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study. Of the 62 patients with stable COPD who participated in the outpatient PR programme from April 2018 to February 2021, 50 completed the programme. Six-minute walk distance (6MWD) was performed to evaluate exercise tolerance, and ultrasonography was performed to measure DEmax. Responders to PR in exercise capacity were defined as patients who demonstrated an increase of > 30 m in 6MWD. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the cut-off point of DEmax to predict responses to PR. RESULTS: Baseline levels of forced expiratory volume in 1 s, 6MWD, maximum inspiratory pressure, DEmax and quadriceps muscle strength were significantly higher, and peak dyspnoea of modified Borg (mBorg) scale score was lower in responders (n = 30) than in non-responders (n = 20) to PR (p < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, DEmax was significantly correlated with an increase of > 30 m in 6MWD. The area under the ROC curve of DEmax to predict responders was 0.915, with a sensitivity and specificity of 83% and 95%, respectively, at a cut-off value of 44.9 mm of DEmax. CONCLUSION: DEmax could adequately predict the improvement in exercise tolerance after PR in patients with COPD.


Assuntos
Diafragma/fisiopatologia , Terapia por Exercício , Tolerância ao Exercício , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/reabilitação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Diafragma/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Treinamento de Força , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia , Teste de Caminhada , Caminhada
9.
Knee ; 33: 143-149, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA), the descending genicular artery (DGA) showed abnormal angiogenesis. However, the non-invasive assessment method of DGA remains unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the characteristics of blood flow velocity of the DGA in patients with KOA and to examine the factors involved in the changes. METHODS: The KOA group included 22 knees of 22 patients with KOA (4 males, 18 females; mean age, 72.3 ± 7.5 years) and the control group included 22 knees (4 males, 18 females; mean age, 71.3 ± 5.4 years) of 22 healthy adults. The peak systolic blood flow velocity (PSV) in each group was measured using ultrasonography. The KOA group was classified into the effusion group and the non-effusion group based on observed effusion, and the PSV was compared between the two groups. The relationships between PSV and suprapatellar bursa intracavitary distance, pain, femorotibial angle, Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure were also investigated. RESULTS: The PSV in the KOA group (51.5 ± 12.9 cm/s) was significantly higher than that in the control group (29.3 ± 4.4 cm/s) (P < 0.01). In the KOA group, PSV in the effusion group (55.5 cm/s (51.2-59.4 cm/s)) was significantly higher than that in the non-effusion group (39.1 cm/s (35.1-44.4 cm/s)) (P < 0.01). The PSV was positively and significantly correlated with both suprapatellar bursa intracavitary distance (r = 0.81: P < 0.01) and pain (r = 0.48: P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The PSV measurement in the DGA is useful for the evaluation of non-invasive synovitis of patients with KOA.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite do Joelho , Sinovite , Adulto , Idoso , Artérias , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Feminino , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem
10.
J Phys Ther Sci ; 33(10): 722-727, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34658513

RESUMO

[Purpose] This study aimed to clarify the influence of the isometric contraction of the quadriceps (ICQ) with low intensity on the circulation in the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP). [Participants and Methods] The participants were 7 males and 5 females, with an average age of 21.5 ± 1.4 years. IFP hardness was measured using shear wave ultrasound elastography and Biodex. Tissue oxygenation was measured via near-infrared spectroscopy using oxygenated hemoglobin (O2Hb), deoxygenated hemoglobin (HHb), and total hemoglobin (cHb) as indices. The mean values were calculated for three periods: 1 min of rest immediately before the exercise task (before ICQ), the lower limit of the 10 sets during the exercise task (during ICQ), and 3-4 min after the exercise task (after ICQ). IFP hardness was compared between resting conditions and ICQ, and tissue oxygenation was compared before, during, and after ICQ. [Results] ICQ significantly increased IFP hardness. Tissue hemoglobin, O2Hb, and cHb decreased significantly during ICQ and increased after ICQ compared to that before ICQ. HHb decreased during ICQ and recovered significantly after ICQ. [Conclusion] In healthy participants, low-intensity ICQ increases the hardness and oxygenation of the IFP. This study may partly explain the unknown pain relief mechanism of exercise therapy.

11.
J Funct Morphol Kinesiol ; 6(3)2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449659

RESUMO

(1): The superficial and deep parts of the infrapatellar fat pat (IFP) have different morphological and functional characteristics. Knee pain often occurs during movement, and it is important to clarify the movement of the IFP during knee joint movement. The purpose of this study is to clarify that the movement of the superficial and deep parts of the IFP are different during knee extension in vivo using ultrasonography (US). (2): US was performed on 15 knees of 15 healthy adults. The probe was placed longitudinally at the center of the patellar tendon and the IFP was imaged. Measurements were taken during active extension of the knee from 90 degrees to 10 degrees of knee flexion at a rate of 30 times/min. The captured US videos were analyzed using Flow particle image velocimetry (Flow PIV) fluid measurement software. The region-of-interest (ROI) was set at the superficial part and the deep part of the IFP, and the flow velocity was calculated for each. (3): The flow velocity of the deep part (1.37 ± 0.13 cm/s) of the IFP was significantly faster than that of the superficial part (0.80 ± 0.23 cm/s). (4): Our results show that the flow velocity of the IFP is different between the superficial and deep parts and that US may be a better assessment tool for the movement of the IFP.

12.
PeerJ ; 9: e11269, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33954059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decreased walking speed has been revealed to be related to many negative events. Several researchers support the importance of triceps surae function as a cause of decreased walking speed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between walking speed and plantar flexor power during the terminal stance of gait in community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly women using an inertial sensor. METHODS: One hundred thirty-six healthy female middle-aged to elderly community-dwelling women were included in this study. We measured two-step score, grip strength, walking speed and accelerometer data from which we estimated ankle power (estimated ankle power) during walking using an inertial sensor. All participants were classified into the four different age strata, fifties (50-59), sixties (60-69), seventies (70-79) and eighties (80-89). The differences in each parameter between the four age groups were compared using repeated analysis of variance and post-hoc Bonferroni corrections for multiple comparisons to establish significance. Multiple regression analysis was carried out using a stepwise method to determine the correlations with comfortable walking speed. Comfortable walking speed was considered a dependent variable. RESULTS: The normalized estimated ankle power of the eighties group was significantly decreased in comparison with seventies age groups and fifties age groups (P < 0.05), but there were no significant differences in normalized estimated ankle power between the sixties and eighties age-groups. The results of stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the normalized estimated ankle power, two-step value and body weight were highly-significant partial regression coefficients (adjusted R 2 = 0.57).

13.
Gait Posture ; 86: 180-185, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multi-segment foot analysis is traditionally challenging to perform while subjects are wearing footwear or a foot orthosis and is difficult to apply in the clinical setting. A recently developed stretch strain sensor (STR), that is thin and highly flexible, may solve this limitation because it does not require observation using a camera and is highly portable. RESEARCH QUESTION: This study aimed to examine the reproducibility and validity of foot motion analysis using the STR during walking and running by comparing it with a conventional motion capture system. METHODS: Twenty-one healthy participants were examined in this study. The STR was placed on the participant's foot in one of two locations in separate experiments (spring ligament; SL and navicular drop; ND methods). Foot kinematic data during walking and running were simultaneously recorded using the STR and a three-dimensional motion capture system. Intra-class correlation (ICC) was used to assess test-retest reproducibility of the STR method. Cross-correlation coefficient evaluated the similarity of the pattern of the signals between the two systems. Pearson and Spearman correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between the STR measurement and angular excursion of the forefoot or hindfoot. RESULTS: The ICCs of the SL method were 0.95 and 0.96, and those of the ND method were 0.93 and 0.71 during walking and running, respectively. In the SL method, the pattern of the signals between the STR and forefoot frontal motion was strongly correlated. The STR measurement was significantly correlated with forefoot eversion excursion (walking: r=-0.67, running: r=-0.64, p < 0.01 each). In the ND method, the STR signal was not associated with forefoot and hindfoot kinematics. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results showed that the STR has acceptable reproducibility and validity of foot motion analysis. This system may enable measurement of foot motion while subjects are wearing shoes and outside the laboratory.


Assuntos
Pé/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Sapatos , Caminhada/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
14.
JSES Int ; 5(1): 31-34, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554160

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesize that ulnohumeral joint space distance due to gravity valgus stress may not be related to pain in the medial elbow of the dominant arm in baseball players. METHODS: Thirty-one male baseball players were divided into an ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injury group (n = 16) and a Healthy group (n = 15). The injury groups were diagnosed with UCL injury by magnetic resonance imaging, and was defined as having pain during throwing. The medial elbow of each player's throwing arm was imaged by ultrasonography under valgus stress. The ulnohumeral joint space was measured for horizontal and vertical distances. The examiner added resistance force on the subject in order to produce isometric contraction of the forearm pronator muscles (FPMs). Measurements were taken at rest and at FPM isometric contraction. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare data between the dominant and nondominant sides, and between the UCL injury group and the Healthy group. RESULTS: The horizontal and vertical distance at rest on the dominant side was not significantly different between 2 groups. The vertical distance during contraction of the flexor carpi radialis (FCR), flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), and pronator teres (PT) muscles was significantly different between the UCL injury group and the Healthy group (P < .05) and was shifted laterally. A shift in the lateral direction indicates an increase in valgus instability. CONCLUSIONS: The dominant side suggested that the space in the ulnohumeral joint space was wider, with or without pain. It was suggested that players with medial elbow pain may have impaired FCR, FCU, and PT function.

15.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 24(4): 316-320, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218528

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The thickness of connective tissue has been shown to be associated with pain (Stecco et al., 2014). However, the relationship between fascial thickness and gliding remains unclear. In addition, the influence between gliding and the motion rhythm and limb position isn't clear. METHOD: A therapist moved patient's lower leg at one of two constant rhythms (40 or 60bpm). Gliding of both the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle and subcutaneous (SC) tissue were recorded during knee motion using ultrasonography. Particle image velocimetry analysis software was adapted to create the flow velocity from echo imaging. Gliding was calculated using a coefficient of correlation from each flow velocity. Myofascial thickness and SC were measured using Image-J. The ratios of the loose connective tissue (LCT) and dense connective tissue (DCT) thickness to the total myofascial thickness were calculated. Repeated-measures two-way ANOVA was used to compare the two motion rhythms and three positions, with stepwise multiple regression analysis to analyze the predictors that influenced the gliding coefficient at each rhythm. RESULTS: Repeated-measures two-way ANOVA showed that the effect of rhythm was statistically significant, but the effect of position was not. At a 40 bpm rhythm, stepwise multiple regression analysis selected SC thickness and DCT thickness as significant factors, while at a 60 bpm rhythm, SC thickness and DCT ratio were selected. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that increased thickness of DCT of the myofascia and SC resulted in decreased gliding between the VL and SC, demonstrating that gliding is related to fascial thickness. Motion rhythm influences gliding between tissues.


Assuntos
Músculo Quadríceps , Tela Subcutânea , Tecido Conjuntivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Fáscia , Humanos , Músculo Quadríceps/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia
16.
Phys Ther Sport ; 46: 162-168, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949959

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of chronic ankle instability (CAI) and to investigate its relationship to the foot arch in collegiate female athletes by each sports event. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University setting. PARTICIPANTS: 138 collegiate female athletes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All subjects were asked about previous ankle sprains, and the arch height index (AHI) was calculated. Athletes with a previous sprain history were evaluated based on the criteria by the International Ankle Consortium (IAC), the severity of ankle instability (CAIT), and foot and ankle function (FAAM). The prevalence of CAI and the relationship between the AHI and ankle instability were analyzed by each sports event. RESULTS: Of 106 athletes with a previous ankle sprain, 10 (9.4%) met the IAC criteria below the cut-off value of the CAIT, and only 1 athlete (0.9%) was below the FAAM cut-off value. The AHI was not significantly different in athletes with CAI. The AHI was significantly lower in swimmers than in track and field (sprint) athletes. CONCLUSION: Most female athletes with CAI were aware of the severity of ankle instability, but they did not feel dysfunction of the ankle during sports. Additionally, the AHI may depend on the characteristics of sports events.


Assuntos
Articulação do Tornozelo/fisiopatologia , Atletas , Instabilidade Articular/epidemiologia , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Tornozelo/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/epidemiologia , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/fisiopatologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pé/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Instabilidade Articular/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Esportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Phys Ther Sci ; 32(4): 277-280, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273650

RESUMO

[Purpose] The present study aimed to determine the effects of eccentric calf raise exercise, which has the characteristics of plyometric training, on the fascicle length and muscle thickness of the gastrocnemius medialis muscle and range of motion of the ankle using ultrasonography. [Participants and Methods] Twenty-one healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to the eccentric calf raise exercise group or normal calf raise exercise group. Measurements were performed before training and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks after training. [Results] In the eccentric calf raise exercise group, the fascicle length significantly increased after 6 weeks compared to that at baseline and at 3 weeks after training. The dorsiflexion angle and muscle thickness after three weeks significantly increased compared to that at baseline, but the pennation angle was not significantly different. The fascicle length, pennation angle, dorsiflexion angle, and muscle thickness showed no significant difference at all time points in the NCR group. [Conclusion] The results of this study showed that continued stretching of the gastrocnemius medialis muscle during eccentric calf raise exercise enhanced the morphological structures, such as the a fascicle length and muscle thickness. Eccentric calf raise exercise training may aid in injury prevention.

18.
J Phys Ther Sci ; 32(3): 238-242, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184540

RESUMO

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate a correlation between the morphology of the intrinsic musculature of the foot and foot kinematics during gait using a foot type classification based on the windlass function. [Participants and Methods] We examined 67 feet of 35 healthy participants in this study. We collected three-dimensional foot kinematic data during gait from the Oxford Foot Model and assessed the morphology of the flexor digitorum brevis, abductor hallucis, adductor halluces (oblique head), and abductor digiti minimi muscles using B-mode ultrasound. Using the Foot Posture Index (six-item version), we divided static foot postures into two groups: normal arch and flatfoot. Subsequently, we compared foot kinematics and the morphology of the intrinsic musculature among the four groups using the analysis of variance with the Bonferroni test. [Results] Foot kinematics of the flatfoot-adduction type during gait significantly differed from that of the normal arch-abduction type. The abductor digiti minimi of the flatfoot-adduction type was significantly thinner than that of the normal arch-abduction type. [Conclusion] There may be some variations in flatfoot, and the flatfoot-abduction type might not be a risk factor for overuse injuries.

19.
Foot (Edinb) ; 44: 101665, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126447

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Spring ligament (SL) insufficiency is observed commonly in association with adult-acquired flatfoot deformity. Evaluation of the SL using ultrasonography (US) has not been fully investigated, and the functional characteristics of the spring ligament have not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to perform a functional evaluation of the SL using US. METHODS: Fifty-one healthy young volunteers (31 males, 20 females; 102 feet) participated in this study. The thickness of the SL in both non-weight bearing (NSL) and 90% weight bearing (WSL) conditions was measured using US. The correlation between assessment of foot alignment (Navicular Drop test (NDT), Arch height Index (AHI), and Arch height flexibility (AHF)) and the thickness of the SL was investigated. RESULTS: The thickness of the SL in NSL and WSL conditions was 2.28 ± 0.38 mm and 2.13 ± 0.34 mm, respectively. The thickness was 2.42 ± 0.38 mm (NSL)/2.26 ± 0.31 mm (WSL) in males, and 2.07 ± 0.28 mm (NSL)/1.93 ± 0.29 mm (WSL) in females. The standard values of the thickness of the SL were 2.0-2.8 mm in males and 1.8-2.4 mm in females. The thickness of the SL was significantly different between males and females (p < 0.01), but was within the margin of error between NSL and WSL. The relationship between NSL and foot alignment only showed a weak correlation with AHI (r = 0.23, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the SL is a hardy structure that shows little change in thickness on weight bearing in vivo.


Assuntos
Pé Chato/diagnóstico por imagem , Ligamentos Articulares/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Adulto , Pé Chato/fisiopatologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Japão , Ligamentos Articulares/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Suporte de Carga , Adulto Jovem
20.
ERJ Open Res ; 6(4)2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33447614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the development of dyspnoea and poor exercise tolerance in patients with COPD are complex, dynamic lung hyperinflation (DLH) plays a central role. Diaphragmatic excursions can be measured by ultrasonography (US) with high intra- and interobserver reliability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of diaphragmatic excursions as assessed by US on exercise tolerance and DLH in patients with COPD. METHODS: Patients with COPD (n=20) and age-matched control subjects (n=20) underwent US, which was used to determine the maximum level of diaphragmatic excursion (DEmax). Ventilation parameters, including the change in inspiratory capacity (ΔIC), were measured in the subjects during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). We examined the correlations between DEmax and the ventilation parameters. RESULTS: The DEmax of patients with COPD was significantly lower than that of the controls (45.0±12.8 mm versus 64.6±6.3 mm, respectively; p<0.01). The perception of peak dyspnoea (Borg scale) was significantly negatively correlated with DEmax in patients with COPD. During CPET, oxygen uptake/weight (V'O2 /W) and minute ventilation (V'E) were significantly positively correlated with DEmax, while V'E/V'O2 and V'E/carbon dioxide output (V'CO2 ) were significantly negatively correlated with DEmax in patients with COPD. DEmax was also significantly positively correlated with ΔIC, reflecting DLH, and with V'O2 /W, reflecting exercise capacity. CONCLUSION: Reduced mobility of the diaphragm was related to decreased exercise capacity and increased dyspnoea due to dynamic lung hyperinflation in COPD patients.

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