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2.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547425

RESUMO

Perinatal mortality is a heavy burden for both affected parents and physicians. However, the underlying genetic causes have not been sufficiently investigated and most cases remain without diagnosis. This impedes appropriate counseling or therapy. We describe four affected children of two unrelated families with cardiomyopathy, hydrops fetalis, or cystic hygroma that all deceased perinatally. In the four patients, we found the following homozygous loss of function (LoF) variants in SLC30A5 NM_022902.4:c.832_836del p.(Ile278Phefs*33) and NM_022902.4:c.1981_1982del p.(His661Tyrfs*10). Knockout of SLC30A5 has previously been shown a cardiac phenotype in mouse models and no homozygous LoF variants in SLC30A5 are currently described in gnomAD. Taken together, we present SLC30A5 as a new gene for a severe and perinatally lethal form of cardiomyopathy.

3.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(3): 580-596, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Galloway-Mowat syndrome (GAMOS) is characterized by neurodevelopmental defects and a progressive nephropathy, which typically manifests as steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. The prognosis of GAMOS is poor, and the majority of children progress to renal failure. The discovery of monogenic causes of GAMOS has uncovered molecular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of disease. METHODS: Homozygosity mapping, whole-exome sequencing, and linkage analysis were used to identify mutations in four families with a GAMOS-like phenotype, and high-throughput PCR technology was applied to 91 individuals with GAMOS and 816 individuals with isolated nephrotic syndrome. In vitro and in vivo studies determined the functional significance of the mutations identified. RESULTS: Three biallelic variants of the transcriptional regulator PRDM15 were detected in six families with proteinuric kidney disease. Four families with a variant in the protein's zinc-finger (ZNF) domain have additional GAMOS-like features, including brain anomalies, cardiac defects, and skeletal defects. All variants destabilize the PRDM15 protein, and the ZNF variant additionally interferes with transcriptional activation. Morpholino oligonucleotide-mediated knockdown of Prdm15 in Xenopus embryos disrupted pronephric development. Human wild-type PRDM15 RNA rescued the disruption, but the three PRDM15 variants did not. Finally, CRISPR-mediated knockout of PRDM15 in human podocytes led to dysregulation of several renal developmental genes. CONCLUSIONS: Variants in PRDM15 can cause either isolated nephrotic syndrome or a GAMOS-type syndrome on an allelic basis. PRDM15 regulates multiple developmental kidney genes, and is likely to play an essential role in renal development in humans.

4.
Am J Med Genet A ; 185(4): 1216-1221, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427397

RESUMO

Intellectual disability (ID) has an estimated prevalence of 1.5%-2%. Whole exome sequencing (WES) studies have identified a multitude of novel causative gene defects and have shown that sporadic ID cases result from de novo mutations in genes associated with ID. Here, we report on a 10-year-old girl, who has been regularly presented in our neuropediatric and genetic outpatient clinic. A median cleft palate and a heart defect were surgically corrected in infancy. Apart from ID, she has behavioral anomalies, muscular hypotonia, scoliosis, and hypermobile joints. The facial phenotype is characterized by arched eyebrows, mildly upslanting long palpebral fissures, prominent nasal tip, and large, protruding ears. Trio WES revealed a de novo missense variant in MEIS2 (c.998G>A; p.Arg333Lys). Haploinsufficiency of MEIS2 had been discussed as the most likely mechanism of the microdeletion 5q14-associated complex phenotype with ID, cleft palate, and heart defect. Recently, four studies including in total 17 individuals with intragenic MEIS2 variants were reported. Here we present the evolution of the clinical phenotype and compare with the data of known individuals.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(2): 346-356, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513338

RESUMO

Whereas large-scale statistical analyses can robustly identify disease-gene relationships, they do not accurately capture genotype-phenotype correlations or disease mechanisms. We use multiple lines of independent evidence to show that different variant types in a single gene, SATB1, cause clinically overlapping but distinct neurodevelopmental disorders. Clinical evaluation of 42 individuals carrying SATB1 variants identified overt genotype-phenotype relationships, associated with different pathophysiological mechanisms, established by functional assays. Missense variants in the CUT1 and CUT2 DNA-binding domains result in stronger chromatin binding, increased transcriptional repression, and a severe phenotype. In contrast, variants predicted to result in haploinsufficiency are associated with a milder clinical presentation. A similarly mild phenotype is observed for individuals with premature protein truncating variants that escape nonsense-mediated decay, which are transcriptionally active but mislocalized in the cell. Our results suggest that in-depth mutation-specific genotype-phenotype studies are essential to capture full disease complexity and to explain phenotypic variability.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação à Região de Interação com a Matriz/genética , Mutação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Haploinsuficiência , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Ligação à Região de Interação com a Matriz/química , Proteínas de Ligação à Região de Interação com a Matriz/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Transcrição Genética
6.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 16(1): 42, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) is an imprinting disorder which is characterised by severe primordial growth retardation, relative macrocephaly and a typical facial gestalt. The clinical heterogeneity of SRS is reflected by a broad spectrum of molecular changes with hypomethylation in 11p15 and maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 7 (upd(7)mat) as the most frequent findings. Monogenetic causes are rare, but a clinical overlap with numerous other disorders has been reported. However, a comprehensive overview on the contribution of mutations in differential diagnostic genes to phenotypes reminiscent to SRS is missing due to the lack of appropriate tests. With the implementation of next generation sequencing (NGS) tools this limitation can now be circumvented. MAIN BODY: We analysed 75 patients referred for molecular testing for SRS by a NGS-based multigene panel, whole exome sequencing (WES), and trio-based WES. In 21/75 patients a disease-causing variant could be identified among them variants in known SRS genes (IGF2, PLAG1, HMGA2). Several patients carried variants in genes which have not yet been considered as differential diagnoses of SRS. CONCLUSIONS: WES approaches significantly increase the diagnostic yield in patients referred for SRS testing. Several of the identified monogenetic disorders have a major impact on clinical management and genetic counseling.

7.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 15(1): 294, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MAGEL2-associated Schaaf-Yang syndrome (SHFYNG, OMIM #615547, ORPHA: 398069), which was identified in 2013, is a rare disorder caused by truncating variants of the paternal copy of MAGEL2, which is localized in the imprinted region on 15q11.2q13. The phenotype of SHFYNG in childhood partially overlaps with that of the well-established Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS, OMIM #176270). While larger numbers of younger individuals with SHFYNG have been recently published, the phenotype in adulthood is not well established. We recruited 7 adult individuals (aged 18 to 36) with molecularly confirmed SHFYNG and collected data regarding the clinical profile including eating habits, sleep, behavior, personal autonomy, psychiatric abnormalities and other medical conditions, as well as information about the respective phenotypes in childhood. RESULTS: Within our small cohort, we identified a range of common features, such as disturbed sleep, hypoactivity, social withdrawal and anxiety, but also noted considerable differences at the level of personal autonomy and skills. Behavioral problems were frequent, and a majority of individuals displayed weight gain and food-seeking behavior, along with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual function. Classical symptoms of SHFYNG in childhood were reported for most individuals. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate a high variability of the functional abilities and social participation of adults with SHFYNG. A high prevalence of obesity within our cohort was notable, and uncontrollable food intake was a major concern for some caregivers. The phenotypes of PWS and SHFYNG in adulthood might be more difficult to discern than the phenotypes in childhood. Molecular genetic testing for SHFYNG should therefore be considered in adults with the suspected diagnosis of PWS, if testing for PWS has been negative.

8.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 15(1): 242, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) is a rare form of alpha-dystroglycanopathy characterized by muscular dystrophy and severe malformations of the CNS and eyes. Bi-allelic pathogenic variants in POMK are the cause of a broad spectrum of alpha-dystroglycanopathies. POMK encodes protein-O-mannose kinase, which is required for proper glycosylation and function of the dystroglycan complex and is crucial for extracellular matrix composition. RESULTS: Here, we report on male monozygotic twins with severe CNS malformations (hydrocephalus, cortical malformation, hypoplastic cerebellum, and most prominently occipital meningocele), eye malformations and highly elevated creatine kinase, indicating the clinical diagnosis of a congenital muscular dystrophy (alpha-dystroglycanopathy). Both twins were found to harbor a homozygous nonsense mutation c.640C>T, p.214* in POMK, confirming the clinical diagnosis and supporting the concept that POMK mutations can be causative of WWS. CONCLUSION: Our combined data suggest a more important role for POMK in the pathogenesis of meningoencephalocele. Only eight different pathogenic POMK variants have been published so far, detected in eight families; only five showed the severe WWS phenotype, suggesting that POMK-associated WWS is an extremely rare disease. We expand the phenotypic and mutational spectrum of POMK-associated WWS and provide evidence of the broad phenotypic variability of POMK-associated disease.

9.
Mol Cytogenet ; 13: 31, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760450

RESUMO

Background: Retinoblastoma is a malignancy of the eye in children characterized by biallelic inactivation of the retinoblastoma 1 gene (RB1), located at chromosome 13q14.2. Children with interstitial chromosome 13q deletions that include the RB1 gene show a predisposition to develop retinoblastoma and variable other features. Large 13q deletions with severe clinical phenotype are nearly always the result of a de novo mutation, i.e. the pathogenic alteration is not detected in parents. This results in a low risk for siblings to develop 13q deletion syndrome. Result: Here, we describe a patient with profound muscle hypotonia, severe developmental delay and bilateral retinoblastoma carrying a large deletion in 13q13.3q14 with the size of 16 Mb, involving the RB1 gene. Neither parent showed retinoblastoma, muscle hypotonia or developmental delay. Chromosome analysis and Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed a balanced complex chromosomal rearrangement (CCR) between chromosome 12 and 13 [ins(12;13)(q21.2;q12.3q14.3)] and an additional balanced translocation of chromosome 7 and 15 [t(7;15)(q31.2;q25.3)] in the healthy father. Malsegregation of the paternal insertional translocation involving chromosome 12 and 13 resulted in a 13q deletion syndrome of the child [46,XY,ins(12;13)(q21.2;q12.3q14.3)]. Conclusion: Balanced translocations in parents are a rare cause of de novo RB1 deletions in offspring. This case report emphasizes the need for parental chromosomal analysis and FISH in parents of children diagnosed with 13q deletion syndrome or large RB1 gene deletions to precisely determine the recurrence risk in siblings. Guidelines for genetic testing should be revised accordingly.

10.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788663

RESUMO

RASopathies are caused by variants in genes encoding components or modulators of the RAS/MAPK signaling pathway. Noonan syndrome is the most common entity among this group of disorders and is characterized by heart defects, short stature, variable developmental delay, and typical facial features. Heterozygous variants in SOS2, encoding a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for RAS, have recently been identified in patients with Noonan syndrome. The number of published cases with SOS2-related Noonan syndrome is still limited and little is known about genotype-phenotype correlations. We collected previously unpublished clinical and genotype data from 17 individuals carrying a disease-causing SOS2 variant. Most individuals had one of the previously reported dominant pathogenic variants; only four had novel changes at the established hotspots for variants that affect protein function. The overall phenotype of the 17 patients fits well into the spectrum of Noonan syndrome and is most similar to the phenotype observed in patients with SOS1-related Noonan syndrome, with ectodermal anomalies as common features and short stature and learning disabilities as relatively infrequent findings compared to the average Noonan syndrome phenotype. The spectrum of heart defects in SOS2-related Noonan syndrome was consistent with the known spectrum of cardiac anomalies in RASopathies, but no specific heart defect was particularly predominating. Notably, lymphatic anomalies were extraordinarily frequent, affecting more than half of the patients. We therefore conclude that SOS2-related Noonan syndrome is associated with a particularly high risk of lymphatic complications that may have a significant impact on morbidity and quality of life.

11.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variants in genes belonging to the tubulin superfamily account for a heterogeneous spectrum of brain malformations referred to as tubulinopathies. Variants in TUBB2A have been reported in 10 patients with a broad spectrum of brain imaging features, ranging from a normal cortex to polymicrogyria, while one patient has been reported with progressive atrophy of the cerebellar vermis. METHODS: In order to further refine the phenotypical spectrum associated with TUBB2A, clinical and imaging features of 12 patients with pathogenic TUBB2A variants, recruited via the international network of the authors, were reviewed. RESULTS: We report 12 patients with eight novel and one recurrent variants spread throughout the TUBB2A gene but encoding for amino acids clustering at the protein surface. Eleven patients (91.7%) developed seizures in early life. All patients suffered from intellectual disability, and 11 patients had severe motor developmental delay, with 4 patients (36.4 %) being non-ambulatory. The cerebral cortex was normal in five individuals and showed dysgyria of variable severity in seven patients. Associated brain malformations were less frequent in TUBB2A patients compared with other tubulinopathies. None of the patients had progressive cerebellar atrophy. CONCLUSION: The imaging phenotype associated with pathogenic variants in TUBB2A is highly variable, ranging from a normal cortex to extensive dysgyria with associated brain malformations. For recurrent variants, no clear genotype-phenotype correlations could be established, suggesting the role of additional modifiers.

12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(6): 830-845, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442410

RESUMO

SOX6 belongs to a family of 20 SRY-related HMG-box-containing (SOX) genes that encode transcription factors controlling cell fate and differentiation in many developmental and adult processes. For SOX6, these processes include, but are not limited to, neurogenesis and skeletogenesis. Variants in half of the SOX genes have been shown to cause severe developmental and adult syndromes, referred to as SOXopathies. We here provide evidence that SOX6 variants also cause a SOXopathy. Using clinical and genetic data, we identify 19 individuals harboring various types of SOX6 alterations and exhibiting developmental delay and/or intellectual disability; the individuals are from 17 unrelated families. Additional, inconstant features include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, mild facial dysmorphism, craniosynostosis, and multiple osteochondromas. All variants are heterozygous. Fourteen are de novo, one is inherited from a mosaic father, and four offspring from two families have a paternally inherited variant. Intragenic microdeletions, balanced structural rearrangements, frameshifts, and nonsense variants are predicted to inactivate the SOX6 variant allele. Four missense variants occur in residues and protein regions highly conserved evolutionarily. These variants are not detected in the gnomAD control cohort, and the amino acid substitutions are predicted to be damaging. Two of these variants are located in the HMG domain and abolish SOX6 transcriptional activity in vitro. No clear genotype-phenotype correlations are found. Taken together, these findings concur that SOX6 haploinsufficiency leads to a neurodevelopmental SOXopathy that often includes ADHD and abnormal skeletal and other features.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Craniossinostoses/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Osteocondroma/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOXD/genética , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Adolescente , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Encéfalo/embriologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Variação Estrutural do Genoma/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , RNA-Seq , Fatores de Transcrição SOXD/química , Fatores de Transcrição SOXD/metabolismo , Síndrome , Transcrição Genética , Transcriptoma , Translocação Genética/genética
13.
Hum Mutat ; 41(7): 1238-1249, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112660

RESUMO

Int22h1/Int22h2-mediated Xq28 duplication syndrome is a relatively new X-linked intellectual disability syndrome, arising from duplications of the subregion flanked by intron 22 homologous regions 1 and 2 on the q arm of chromosome X. Its primary manifestations include variable cognitive deficits, distinct facial dysmorphia, and neurobehavioral abnormalities that mainly include hyperactivity, irritability, and autistic behavior. Affected males are hemizygous for the duplication, which explains their often more severe manifestations compared with heterozygous females. In this report, we describe the cases of nine individuals recently identified having the syndrome, highlighting unique and previously unreported findings of this syndrome. Specifically, we report for the first time in this syndrome, two cases with de novo duplications, three receiving prenatal diagnosis with the syndrome, and three others having atypical versions of the duplication. Among the latter, one proband has a shortened version spanning only the centromeric half of the typical duplication, while the other two cases have a nearly identical length duplication as the classical duplication, with the exception that their duplication's breakpoints are telomerically shifted by about 0.2 Mb. Finally, we shed light on two new manifestations in this syndrome, vertebral anomalies and multiple malignancies, which possibly expand the phenotypic spectrum of the syndrome.

14.
Clin Genet ; 96(3): 246-253, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090057

RESUMO

Two distinct genomic disorders have been linked to Xq28-gains, namely Xq28-duplications including MECP2 and Int22h1/Int22h2-mediated duplications involving RAB39B. Here, we describe six unrelated patients, five males and one female, with Xq28-gains distal to MECP2 and proximal to the Int22h1/Int22h2 low copy repeats. Comparison with patients carrying overlapping duplications in the literature defined the MidXq28-duplication syndrome featuring intellectual disability, language impairment, structural brain malformations, microcephaly, seizures and minor craniofacial features. The duplications overlapped for 108 kb including FLNA, RPL10 and GDI1 genes, highly expressed in brain and candidates for the neurologic phenotype.


Assuntos
Duplicação Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos X , Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X/diagnóstico , Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X/genética , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/genética , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Facies , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(6): 1223-1232, 2019 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130282

RESUMO

Aberrant signaling through pathways controlling cell response to extracellular stimuli constitutes a central theme in disorders affecting development. Signaling through RAS and the MAPK cascade controls a variety of cell decisions in response to cytokines, hormones, and growth factors, and its upregulation causes Noonan syndrome (NS), a developmental disorder whose major features include a distinctive facies, a wide spectrum of cardiac defects, short stature, variable cognitive impairment, and predisposition to malignancies. NS is genetically heterogeneous, and mutations in more than ten genes have been reported to underlie this disorder. Despite the large number of genes implicated, about 10%-20% of affected individuals with a clinical diagnosis of NS do not have mutations in known RASopathy-associated genes, indicating that additional unidentified genes contribute to the disease, when mutated. By using a mixed strategy of functional candidacy and exome sequencing, we identify RRAS2 as a gene implicated in NS in six unrelated subjects/families. We show that the NS-causing RRAS2 variants affect highly conserved residues localized around the nucleotide binding pocket of the GTPase and are predicted to variably affect diverse aspects of RRAS2 biochemical behavior, including nucleotide binding, GTP hydrolysis, and interaction with effectors. Additionally, all pathogenic variants increase activation of the MAPK cascade and variably impact cell morphology and cytoskeletal rearrangement. Finally, we provide a characterization of the clinical phenotype associated with RRAS2 mutations.


Assuntos
Mutação com Ganho de Função , Guanosina Trifosfato/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas Monoméricas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Síndrome de Noonan/etiologia , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas Monoméricas de Ligação ao GTP/química , Proteínas Monoméricas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Síndrome de Noonan/patologia , Linhagem , Conformação Proteica
17.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 139-156, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30595372

RESUMO

Type 2A protein phosphatases (PP2As) are highly expressed in the brain and regulate neuronal signaling by catalyzing phospho-Ser/Thr dephosphorylations in diverse substrates. PP2A holoenzymes comprise catalytic C-, scaffolding A-, and regulatory B-type subunits, which determine substrate specificity and physiological function. Interestingly, de novo mutations in genes encoding A- and B-type subunits have recently been implicated in intellectual disability (ID) and developmental delay (DD). We now report 16 individuals with mild to profound ID and DD and a de novo mutation in PPP2CA, encoding the catalytic Cα subunit. Other frequently observed features were severe language delay (71%), hypotonia (69%), epilepsy (63%), and brain abnormalities such as ventriculomegaly and a small corpus callosum (67%). Behavioral problems, including autism spectrum disorders, were reported in 47% of individuals, and three individuals had a congenital heart defect. PPP2CA de novo mutations included a partial gene deletion, a frameshift, three nonsense mutations, a single amino acid duplication, a recurrent mutation, and eight non-recurrent missense mutations. Functional studies showed complete PP2A dysfunction in four individuals with seemingly milder ID, hinting at haploinsufficiency. Ten other individuals showed mutation-specific biochemical distortions, including poor expression, altered binding to the A subunit and specific B-type subunits, and impaired phosphatase activity and C-terminal methylation. Four were suspected to have a dominant-negative mechanism, which correlated with severe ID. Two missense variants affecting the same residue largely behaved as wild-type in our functional assays. Overall, we found that pathogenic PPP2CA variants impair PP2A-B56(δ) functionality, suggesting that PP2A-related neurodevelopmental disorders constitute functionally converging ID syndromes.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação , Proteína Fosfatase 2/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Ligação Proteica/genética , Subunidades Proteicas/química , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Síndrome
18.
Front Genet ; 9: 355, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30319683

RESUMO

We report the case of a 19-years-old patient who presented with a perplexing variety of symptoms which included remarkable facial features, intellectual disability, granulomatous upper lip swelling (previously diagnosed as Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome), Crohn's-like disease, non-productive cough, and a granulomatous mass localized in the left lung. Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) was diagnosed using dihydrorhodamine 123 assay that showed low levels of phagocytic NADPH-oxidase. DNA sequencing revealed a heterozygous mutation in the NCF-1 gene on chromosome 7. As remarkable facial features and psychomotor retardation are not associated with CGD, a more detailed genetic work-up using fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed. A microdeletion in 7q11.23 on one allele indicated Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS). The NCF-1 gene and its two pseudogenes are part of a highly repetitive region within 7q11.23 and are prone to recombination events and deletions. Such deletions can involve both the WBS critical region and the NCF-1 wildtype gene, as was the case for our patient. The second allele of the NCF-1 gene was affected by the frequent c.75.76delGT mutation that stems from a recombination of the NCF-1 wildtype gene with one of its pseudogenes. In conclusion, patients with NCF-1-deficient CGD may also harbor microdeletions that result in WBS or other hereditary disorders; therefore, it is important to perform a thorough genetic analysis in order to initiate appropriate therapy for these patients.

19.
Hum Genet ; 137(9): 753-768, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30167850

RESUMO

NALCN is a conserved cation channel, which conducts a permanent sodium leak current and regulates resting membrane potential and neuronal excitability. It is part of a large ion channel complex, the "NALCN channelosome", consisting of multiple proteins including UNC80 and UNC79. The predominant neuronal expression pattern and its function suggest an important role in neuronal function and disease. So far, biallelic NALCN and UNC80 variants have been described in a small number of individuals leading to infantile hypotonia, psychomotor retardation, and characteristic facies 1 (IHPRF1, OMIM 615419) and 2 (IHPRF2, OMIM 616801), respectively. Heterozygous de novo NALCN missense variants in the S5/S6 pore-forming segments lead to congenital contractures of the limbs and face, hypotonia, and developmental delay (CLIFAHDD, OMIM 616266) with some clinical overlap. In this study, we present detailed clinical information of 16 novel individuals with biallelic NALCN variants, 1 individual with a heterozygous de novo NALCN missense variant and an interesting clinical phenotype without contractures, and 12 individuals with biallelic UNC80 variants. We report for the first time a missense NALCN variant located in the predicted S6 pore-forming unit inherited in an autosomal-recessive manner leading to mild IHPRF1. We show evidence of clinical variability, especially among IHPRF1-affected individuals, and discuss differences between the IHPRF1- and IHPRF2 phenotypes. In summary, we provide a comprehensive overview of IHPRF1 and IHPRF2 phenotypes based on the largest cohort of individuals reported so far and provide additional insights into the clinical phenotypes of these neurodevelopmental diseases to help improve counseling of affected families.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Canalopatias/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Canais de Sódio/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Canalopatias/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Canais Iônicos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
20.
Brain ; 141(8): 2299-2311, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29985992

RESUMO

The transcription factor BCL11B is essential for development of the nervous and the immune system, and Bcl11b deficiency results in structural brain defects, reduced learning capacity, and impaired immune cell development in mice. However, the precise role of BCL11B in humans is largely unexplored, except for a single patient with a BCL11B missense mutation, affected by multisystem anomalies and profound immune deficiency. Using massively parallel sequencing we identified 13 patients bearing heterozygous germline alterations in BCL11B. Notably, all of them are affected by global developmental delay with speech impairment and intellectual disability; however, none displayed overt clinical signs of immune deficiency. Six frameshift mutations, two nonsense mutations, one missense mutation, and two chromosomal rearrangements resulting in diminished BCL11B expression, arose de novo. A further frameshift mutation was transmitted from a similarly affected mother. Interestingly, the most severely affected patient harbours a missense mutation within a zinc-finger domain of BCL11B, probably affecting the DNA-binding structural interface, similar to the recently published patient. Furthermore, the most C-terminally located premature termination codon mutation fails to rescue the progenitor cell proliferation defect in hippocampal slice cultures from Bcl11b-deficient mice. Concerning the role of BCL11B in the immune system, extensive immune phenotyping of our patients revealed alterations in the T cell compartment and lack of peripheral type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), consistent with the findings described in Bcl11b-deficient mice. Unsupervised analysis of 102 T lymphocyte subpopulations showed that the patients clearly cluster apart from healthy children, further supporting the common aetiology of the disorder. Taken together, we show here that mutations leading either to BCL11B haploinsufficiency or to a truncated BCL11B protein clinically cause a non-syndromic neurodevelopmental delay. In addition, we suggest that missense mutations affecting specific sites within zinc-finger domains might result in distinct and more severe clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/fisiologia , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/fisiologia , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Haploinsuficiência , Heterozigoto , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Linfócitos/patologia , Linfócitos/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Mutação , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo
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