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2.
Nat Genet ; 51(10): 1438-1441, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570889

RESUMO

Hypopigmentation along Blaschko's lines is a hallmark of a poorly defined group of mosaic syndromes whose genetic causes are unknown. Here we show that postzygotic inactivating mutations of RHOA cause a neuroectodermal syndrome combining linear hypopigmentation, alopecia, apparently asymptomatic leukoencephalopathy, and facial, ocular, dental and acral anomalies. Our findings pave the way toward elucidating the etiology of pigmentary mosaicism and highlight the role of RHOA in human development and disease.

4.
Prenat Diagn ; 39(11): 986-992, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273809

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Uniparental disomy (UPD) testing is currently recommended during pregnancy in fetuses carrying a balanced Robertsonian translocation (ROB) involving chromosome 14 or 15, both chromosomes containing imprinted genes. The overall risk that such a fetus presents a UPD has been previously estimated to be around ~0.6-0.8%. However, because UPD are rare events and this estimate has been calculated from a number of studies of limited size, we have reevaluated the risk of UPD in fetuses for whom one of the parents was known to carry a nonhomologous ROB (NHROB). METHOD: We focused our multicentric study on NHROB involving chromosome 14 and/or 15. A total of 1747 UPD testing were performed in fetuses during pregnancy for the presence of UPD(14) and/or UPD(15). RESULT: All fetuses were negative except one with a UPD(14) associated with a maternally inherited rob(13;14). CONCLUSION: Considering these data, the risk of UPD following prenatal diagnosis of an inherited ROB involving chromosome 14 and/or 15 could be estimated to be around 0.06%, far less than the previous estimation. Importantly, the risk of miscarriage following an invasive prenatal sampling is higher than the risk of UPD. Therefore, we do not recommend prenatal testing for UPD for these pregnancies and parents should be reassured.

5.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(9): 1756-1763, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241255

RESUMO

Alpha-mannosidosis (AM) is a very rare (prevalence: 1/500000 births) autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder. It is characterized by multi-systemic involvement associated with progressive intellectual disability, hearing loss, skeletal anomalies, and coarse facial features. The spectrum is wide, from very severe and lethal to a milder phenotype that usually progresses slowly. AM is caused by a deficiency of lysosomal alpha-mannosidase. A diagnosis can be established by measuring the activity of lysosomal alpha-mannosidase in leucocytes and screening for abnormal urinary excretion of mannose-rich oligosaccharides. Genetic confirmation is obtained with the identification of MAN2B1 mutations. Enzyme replacement therapy (LAMZEDER ) was approved for use in Europe in August 2018. Here, we describe seven individuals from four families, diagnosed at 3-23 years of age, and who were referred to a clinical geneticist for etiologic exploration of syndromic hearing loss, associated with moderate learning disabilities. Exome sequencing had been used to establish the molecular diagnosis in five cases, including a two-sibling pair. In the remaining two patients, the diagnosis was obtained with screening of urinary oligosaccharides excretion and the association of deafness and hypotonia. These observations emphasize that the clinical diagnosis of AM can be challenging, and that it is likely an underdiagnosed rare cause of syndromic hearing loss. Exome sequencing can contribute significantly to the early diagnosis of these nonspecific mild phenotypes, with advantages for treatment and management.

6.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(8): 1197-1214, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31019283

RESUMO

With exome/genome sequencing (ES/GS) integrated into the practice of medicine, there is some potential for reporting incidental/secondary findings (IFs/SFs). The issue of IFs/SFs has been studied extensively over the last 4 years. In order to evaluate their implications in care organisation, we retrospectively evaluated, in a cohort of 700 consecutive probands, the frequency and burden of introducing the search for variants in a maximum list of 244 medically actionable genes (genes that predispose carriers to a preventable or treatable disease in childhood/adulthood and genes for genetic counselling issues). We also focused on the 59 PharmGKB class IA/IB pharmacogenetic variants. We also compared the results in different gene lists. We identified variants (likely) affecting protein function in genes for care in 26 cases (3.7%) and heterozygous variants in genes for genetic counselling in 29 cases (3.8%). Mean time for the 700 patients was about 6.3 min/patient for medically actionable genes and 1.3 min/patient for genes for genetic counselling, and a mean time of 37 min/patients for the reinterpreted variants. These results would lead to all 700 pre-test counselling sessions being longer, to 55 post-test genetic consultations and to 27 secondary specialised medical evaluations. ES also detected 42/59 pharmacogenetic variants or combinations of variants in the majority of cases. An extremely low metabolizer status in genes relevant for neurodevelopmental disorders (CYP2C9 and CYP2C19) was found in 57/700 cases. This study provides information regarding the need to anticipate the implementation of genomic medicine, notably the work overload at various steps of the process.

7.
Prenat Diagn ; 39(6): 464-470, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896039

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Congenital heart defects (CHDs) may be isolated or associated with other malformations. The use of chromosome microarray (CMA) can increase the genetic diagnostic yield for CHDs by between 4% and 10%. The objective of this study was to evaluate the value of CMA after the prenatal diagnosis of an isolated CHD. METHODS: In a retrospective, nationwide study performed in France, we collected data on all cases of isolated CHD that had been explored using CMAs in 2015. RESULTS: A total of 239 fetuses were included and 33 copy number variations (CNVs) were reported; 19 were considered to be pathogenic, six were variants of unknown significance, and eight were benign variants. The anomaly detection rate was 10.4% overall but ranged from 0% to 16.7% as a function of the isolated CHD in question. The known CNVs were 22q11.21 deletions (n = 10), 22q11.21 duplications (n = 2), 8p23 deletions (n = 2), an Alagille syndrome (n = 1), and a Kleefstra syndrome (n = 1). CONCLUSION: The additional diagnostic yield was clinically significant (3.1%), even when anomalies in the 22q11.21 region were not taken into account. Hence, patients with a suspected isolated CHD and a normal karyotype must be screened for chromosome anomalies other than 22q11.21 duplications and deletions.

8.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2025-2035, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723320

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lanosterol synthase (LSS) gene was initially described in families with extensive congenital cataracts. Recently, a study has highlighted LSS associated with hypotrichosis simplex. We expanded the phenotypic spectrum of LSS to a recessive neuroectodermal syndrome formerly named alopecia with mental retardation (APMR) syndrome. It is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by hypotrichosis and intellectual disability (ID) or developmental delay (DD), frequently associated with early-onset epilepsy and other dermatological features. METHODS: Through a multicenter international collaborative study, we identified LSS pathogenic variants in APMR individuals either by exome sequencing or LSS Sanger sequencing. Splicing defects were assessed by transcript analysis and minigene assay. RESULTS: We reported ten APMR individuals from six unrelated families with biallelic variants in LSS. We additionally identified one affected individual with a single rare variant in LSS and an allelic imbalance suggesting a second event. Among the identified variants, two were truncating, seven were missense, and two were splicing variants. Quantification of cholesterol and its precursors did not reveal noticeable imbalance. CONCLUSION: In the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, lanosterol synthase leads to the cyclization of (S)-2,3-oxidosqualene into lanosterol. Our data suggest LSS as a major gene causing a rare recessive neuroectodermal syndrome.

9.
Cell Stem Cell ; 24(2): 257-270.e8, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30595499

RESUMO

Self-renewal and differentiation of pluripotent murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is regulated by extrinsic signaling pathways. It is less clear whether cellular metabolism instructs developmental progression. In an unbiased genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screen, we identified components of a conserved amino-acid-sensing pathway as critical drivers of ESC differentiation. Functional analysis revealed that lysosome activity, the Ragulator protein complex, and the tumor-suppressor protein Folliculin enable the Rag GTPases C and D to bind and seclude the bHLH transcription factor Tfe3 in the cytoplasm. In contrast, ectopic nuclear Tfe3 represses specific developmental and metabolic transcriptional programs that are associated with peri-implantation development. We show differentiation-specific and non-canonical regulation of Rag GTPase in ESCs and, importantly, identify point mutations in a Tfe3 domain required for cytoplasmic inactivation as potentially causal for a human developmental disorder. Our work reveals an instructive and biomedically relevant role of metabolic signaling in licensing embryonic cell fate transitions.

11.
Genet Med ; 21(7): 1657-1661, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563986

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Exome sequencing (ES) powerfully identifies the molecular bases of heterogeneous conditions such as intellectual disability and/or multiple congenital anomalies (ID/MCA). Current ES analysis, combining diagnosis analysis restricted to disease-causing genes reported in OMIM database and subsequent research investigation extended to other genes, indicated causal and candidate genes around 40% and 10%. Nonconclusive results are frequent in such ultrarare conditions that recurrence and genotype-phenotype correlations are limited. International data-sharing permits the gathering of additional patients carrying variants in the same gene to draw definitive conclusions on their implication as disease causing. Several web-based tools have been developed and grouped in Matchmaker Exchange. In this study, we report our current experience as a regional center that has implemented ES as a first-line diagnostic test since 2013, working with a research laboratory devoted to disease gene identification. METHODS: We used GeneMatcher over 2.5 years to share 71 novel candidate genes identified by ES. RESULTS: Matches occurred in 60/71 candidate genes allowing to confirm the implication of 39% of matched genes as causal and to rule out 6% of them. CONCLUSION: The introduction of user-friendly gene-matching tools, such as GeneMatcher, appeared to be an essential step for the rapid identification of novel disease genes responsible for ID/MCA.

12.
Brain ; 141(11): 3160-3178, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351409

RESUMO

Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels control neuronal excitability and their dysfunction has been linked to epileptogenesis but few individuals with neurological disorders related to variants altering HCN channels have been reported so far. In 2014, we described five individuals with epileptic encephalopathy due to de novo HCN1 variants. To delineate HCN1-related disorders and investigate genotype-phenotype correlations further, we assembled a cohort of 33 unpublished patients with novel pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants: 19 probands carrying 14 different de novo mutations and four families with dominantly inherited variants segregating with epilepsy in 14 individuals, but not penetrant in six additional individuals. Sporadic patients had epilepsy with median onset at age 7 months and in 36% the first seizure occurred during a febrile illness. Overall, considering familial and sporadic patients, the predominant phenotypes were mild, including genetic generalized epilepsies and genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) spectrum. About 20% manifested neonatal/infantile onset otherwise unclassified epileptic encephalopathy. The study also included eight patients with variants of unknown significance: one adopted patient had two HCN1 variants, four probands had intellectual disability without seizures, and three individuals had missense variants inherited from an asymptomatic parent. Of the 18 novel pathogenic missense variants identified, 12 were associated with severe phenotypes and clustered within or close to transmembrane domains, while variants segregating with milder phenotypes were located outside transmembrane domains, in the intracellular N- and C-terminal parts of the channel. Five recurrent variants were associated with similar phenotypes. Using whole-cell patch-clamp, we showed that the impact of 12 selected variants ranged from complete loss-of-function to significant shifts in activation kinetics and/or voltage dependence. Functional analysis of three different substitutions altering Gly391 revealed that these variants had different consequences on channel biophysical properties. The Gly391Asp variant, associated with the most severe, neonatal phenotype, also had the most severe impact on channel function. Molecular dynamics simulation on channel structure showed that homotetramers were not conducting ions because the permeation path was blocked by cation(s) strongly complexed to the Asp residue, whereas heterotetramers showed an instantaneous current component possibly linked to deformation of the channel pore. In conclusion, our results considerably expand the clinical spectrum related to HCN1 variants to include common generalized epilepsy phenotypes and further illustrate how HCN1 has a pivotal function in brain development and control of neuronal excitability.

13.
Eur J Med Genet ; 2018 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30103035

RESUMO

Proteus Syndrome is a rare complex overgrowth syndrome. We report a young female patient with Proteus Syndrome due to AKT1 mutation c.49G > A (p.Glu17Lys), presenting with a severe gynaecological involvement which necessitated a complete hysterectomy and a left adnexectomy. Cases of gynecological involvements in Proteus Syndrome are rare, not well known by physicians while they can be potentially severe.

14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(3): 340-349, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29330547

RESUMO

Fryns syndrome (FS) is a multiple malformations syndrome with major features of congenital diaphragmatic hernia, pulmonary hypoplasia, craniofacial dysmorphic features, distal digit hypoplasia, and a range of other lower frequency malformations. FS is typically lethal in the fetal or neonatal period. Inheritance is presumed autosomal recessive. Although no major genetic cause has been identified for FS, biallelic truncating variants in PIGN, encoding a component of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biosynthesis pathway, have been identified in a limited number of cases with a phenotype compatible with FS. Biallelic variants in PIGN, typically missense or compound missense with truncating, also cause multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome 1 (MCAHS1). Here we report six further patients with FS with or without congenital diaphragmatic hernia and recessive loss of function PIGN alleles, including an intragenic deletion with a likely founder effect in La Réunion and other Indian Ocean islands. Our results support the hypothesis that a spectrum of phenotypic severity is associated with recessive PIGN variants, ranging from FS at the extreme end, caused by complete loss of function, to MCAHS1, in which some residual PIGN function may remain. Our data add FS resulting from PIGN variants to the catalog of inherited GPI deficiencies caused by the disruption of the GPI-anchor biosynthesis pathway.

15.
Genet Med ; 20(6): 645-654, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29095811

RESUMO

PurposeCongenital anomalies and intellectual disability (CA/ID) are a major diagnostic challenge in medical genetics-50% of patients still have no molecular diagnosis after a long and stressful diagnostic "odyssey." Solo clinical whole-exome sequencing (WES) was applied in our genetics center to improve diagnosis in patients with CA/ID.MethodsThis retrospective study examined 416 consecutive tests performed over 3 years to demonstrate the effectiveness of periodically reanalyzing WES data. The raw data from each nonpositive test was reanalyzed at 12 months with the most recent pipeline and in the light of new data in the literature. The results of the reanalysis for patients enrolled in the third year are not yet available.ResultsOf the 416 patients included, data for 156 without a diagnosis were reanalyzed. We obtained 24 (15.4%) additional diagnoses: 12 through the usual diagnostic process (7 new publications, 4 initially misclassified, and 1 copy-number variant), and 12 through translational research by international data sharing. The final yield of positive results was 27.9% through a strict diagnostic approach, and 2.9% through an additional research strategy.ConclusionThis article highlights the effectiveness of periodically combining diagnostic reinterpretation of clinical WES data with translational research involving data sharing for candidate genes.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Exoma , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Doenças Raras/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
16.
Eur J Med Genet ; 60(11): 595-604, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28807864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Whole-exome sequencing (WES) has now entered medical practice with powerful applications in the diagnosis of rare Mendelian disorders. Although the usefulness and cost-effectiveness of WES have been widely demonstrated, it is essential to reduce the diagnostic turnaround time to make WES a first-line procedure. Since 2011, the automation of laboratory procedures and advances in sequencing chemistry have made it possible to carry out diagnostic whole genome sequencing from the blood sample to molecular diagnosis of suspected genetic disorders within 50 h. Taking advantage of these advances, the main objective of the study was to improve turnaround times for sequencing results. METHODS: WES was proposed to 29 patients with severe undiagnosed disorders with developmental abnormalities and faced with medical situations requiring rapid diagnosis. Each family gave consent. The extracted DNA was sequenced on a NextSeq500 (Illumina) instrument. Data were analyzed following standard procedures. Variants were interpreted using in-house software. Each rare variant affecting protein sequences with clinical relevance was tested for familial segregation. RESULTS: The diagnostic rate was 45% (13/29), with a mean turnaround time of 40 days from reception of the specimen to delivery of results to the referring physician. Besides permitting genetic counseling, the rapid diagnosis for positive families led to two pre-natal diagnoses and two inclusions in clinical trials. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of rapid diagnostic WES in our primary genetics center. It reduced the diagnostic odyssey and helped provide support to families.


Assuntos
Exoma , Testes Genéticos/normas , Análise de Sequência de DNA/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(5): 552-559, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28327570

RESUMO

PUF60 encodes a nucleic acid-binding protein, a component of multimeric complexes regulating RNA splicing and transcription. In 2013, patients with microdeletions of chromosome 8q24.3 including PUF60 were found to have developmental delay, microcephaly, craniofacial, renal and cardiac defects. Very similar phenotypes have been described in six patients with variants in PUF60, suggesting that it underlies the syndrome. We report 12 additional patients with PUF60 variants who were ascertained using exome sequencing: six through the Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study and six through similar projects. Detailed phenotypic analysis of all patients was undertaken. All 12 patients had de novo heterozygous PUF60 variants on exome analysis, each confirmed by Sanger sequencing: four frameshift variants resulting in premature stop codons, three missense variants that clustered within the RNA recognition motif of PUF60 and five essential splice-site (ESS) variant. Analysis of cDNA from a fibroblast cell line derived from one of the patients with an ESS variants revealed aberrant splicing. The consistent feature was developmental delay and most patients had short stature. The phenotypic variability was striking; however, we observed similarities including spinal segmentation anomalies, congenital heart disease, ocular colobomata, hand anomalies and (in two patients) unilateral renal agenesis/horseshoe kidney. Characteristic facial features included micrognathia, a thin upper lip and long philtrum, narrow almond-shaped palpebral fissures, synophrys, flared eyebrows and facial hypertrichosis. Heterozygote loss-of-function variants in PUF60 cause a phenotype comprising growth/developmental delay and craniofacial, cardiac, renal, ocular and spinal anomalies, adding to disorders of human development resulting from aberrant RNA processing/spliceosomal function.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Códon de Terminação/genética , Exoma , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Masculino , Microcefalia/diagnóstico , Fenótipo , Síndrome
19.
Genet Med ; 19(9): 989-997, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28151489

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Postzygotic activating mutations of PIK3CA cause a wide range of mosaic disorders collectively referred to as PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS). We describe the diagnostic yield and characteristics of PIK3CA sequencing in PROS. METHODS: We performed ultradeep next-generation sequencing (NGS) of PIK3CA in various tissues from 162 patients referred to our clinical laboratory and assessed diagnostic yield by phenotype and tissue tested. RESULTS: We identified disease-causing mutations in 66.7% (108/162) of patients, with mutant allele levels as low as 1%. The diagnostic rate was higher (74%) in syndromic than in isolated cases (35.5%; P = 9.03 × 10-5). We identified 40 different mutations and found strong oncogenic mutations more frequently in patients without brain overgrowth (50.6%) than in those with brain overgrowth (15.2%; P = 0.00055). Mutant allele levels were higher in skin and overgrown tissues than in blood and buccal samples (P = 3.9 × 10-25), regardless of the phenotype. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate the value of ultradeep NGS for molecular diagnosis of PROS, highlight its substantial allelic heterogeneity, and confirm that optimal diagnosis requires fresh skin or surgical samples from affected regions. Our findings may be of value in guiding future recommendations for genetic testing in PROS and other mosaic conditions.Genet Med advance online publication 02 February 2017.


Assuntos
Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Testes Genéticos , Transtornos do Crescimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Mutação , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mosaicismo , Fenótipo , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
20.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(4): 423-431, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28176767

RESUMO

Fragile-X syndrome (FXS) is a frequent genetic form of intellectual disability (ID). The main recurrent mutagenic mechanism causing FXS is the expansion of a CGG repeat sequence in the 5'-UTR of the FMR1 gene, therefore, routinely tested in ID patients. We report here three FMR1 intragenic pathogenic variants not affecting this sequence, identified using high-throughput sequencing (HTS): a previously reported hemizygous deletion encompassing the last exon of FMR1, too small to be detected by array-CGH and inducing decreased expression of a truncated form of FMRP protein, in three brothers with ID (family 1) and two splice variants in boys with sporadic ID: a de novo variant c.990+1G>A (family 2) and a maternally inherited c.420-8A>G variant (family 3). After clinical reevaluation, the five patients presented features consistent with FXS (mean Hagerman's scores=15). We conducted a systematic review of all rare non-synonymous variants previously reported in FMR1 in ID patients and showed that six of them are convincing pathogenic variants. This study suggests that intragenic FMR1 variants, although much less frequent than CGG expansions, are a significant mutational mechanism leading to FXS and demonstrates the interest of HTS approaches to detect them in ID patients with a negative standard work-up.


Assuntos
Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/genética , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/genética , Mutação , Feminino , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Processamento de RNA , Irmãos
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