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1.
Prenat Diagn ; 39(5): 361-368, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740743

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between medications intake in early pregnancy and variation in the fetal fraction (FF) in pregnant women undergoing cell-free DNA (cfDNA) testing. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of women (n = 1051) undergoing cfDNA testing at an academic center. The exposed group included women taking medications (n = 400; 38.1%), while the nonexposed group consisted of women taking no medications (n = 651; 61.9%). Our primary outcome was FF. We performed univariate and multivariate analyses as appropriate. RESULTS: The FFs were 8.8% (6.6-12.1), 8.7% (6.3-11.6), and 7.7% (5.1-9.3) among women taking 0, 1, and two or more medications, respectively (P < 0.01). Using multivariable linear mixed effects model, the mean FF was significantly lower among those taking two or more medications compared with the nonexposed group. FF was directly correlated with gestational age at the time of cfDNA testing and inversely correlated with maternal obesity. Exposure to metformin was associated with 1.8% (0.2-3.4) lower mean FF when compared with the nonexposed group (P = 0.02). Obesity and intake of two or more medications were associated with higher hazard ratio of having a low FF less than 4%. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to metformin or two or more medications was associated with decreased FF, and obesity is associated with delay in achieving adequate FF percentage. These findings should be considered while counseling patients on test limitations.

2.
Ann Plast Surg ; 80(3 Suppl 2): S106-S112, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29461288

RESUMO

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a small molecule poison released as a product of incomplete combustion. Carbon monoxide binds hemoglobin, reducing oxygen delivery. This effect is exacerbated in the burned pregnant patient by fetal hemoglobin that binds CO 2.5- to 3-fold stronger than maternal hemoglobin. With no signature clinical symptom, diagnosis depends on patient injury history, elevated carboxyhemoglobin levels, and alterations in mental status. The standard of care for treatment of CO intoxication is 100% normobaric oxygen, which decreases the half-life of CO in the bloodstream from 5 hours to 1 hour. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) is a useful adjunct to rapidly reduce the half-life of CO to 20 minutes and the incidence of delayed neurologic sequelae. Because of the slow disassociation of CO from hemoglobin in the fetus, there is a far stronger indication for HBO2 in the burned pregnant patient than in other burn patient populations.Cyanide intoxication is often a comorbid disease with CO in inhalation injury from an enclosed fire, but may be the predominant toxin. It acts synergistically with CO to effectively lower the lethal doses of both cyanide and CO. Diagnosis is best made in the presence of high lactate levels, carboxyhemoglobin concentrations greater than 10%, injury history of smoke inhalation from an enclosed fire, and alterations in consciousness. While treatment with hydroxocobalamin is the standard of care and has the effect of reducing concomitant CO toxicity, data indicate cyanide may also be displaced by HBO2.Carbon monoxide and cyanide poisoning presents potential complications impacting care. This review addresses the mechanism of action, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of CO and cyanide poisonings in the burned pregnant patient and the use of HBO2 therapy.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/terapia , Cianetos/envenenamento , Oxigenação Hiperbárica/métodos , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Lesão por Inalação de Fumaça/terapia , Unidades de Queimados , Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/complicações , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
3.
Am J Perinatol ; 35(8): 737-740, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29278864

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: It is unknown whether the heart operates in the ascending or flat portion of the Starling curve during normal pregnancy. Pregnant women do not respond to the passive leg-raising maneuver secondary to mechanical obstruction of the inferior vena cava by the gravid uterus. Our objective was to evaluate if administration of a fluid bolus increases baseline stroke volume (SV) among healthy pregnant patients during the third trimester. STUDY DESIGN: Healthy pregnant women who underwent elective term cesarean sections were included. A noninvasive cardiac output monitor was used to measure hemodynamic variables at baseline and after administration of a 500-mL crystalloid bolus. RESULTS: Forty-five women were included in the study. Fluid administration was associated with a statistically significant increase in SV from a baseline value of 71 ± 11 to 90 ± 19 mL (95% confidence interval [CI]: 13.67-21.49; p < 0.01) and a significant decrease in maternal heart rate from a baseline of 87 ± 9 beats per minute to 83 ± 8 after the fluid bolus (95% CI: -6.81 to -2.78; p = 0.03). No changes in peripheral vascular resistances or any other measured hemodynamic parameters were noted with volume expansion. CONCLUSION: In healthy term pregnancy, the heart operates in the ascending portion of the Starling's curve, rendering it fluid responsive.


Assuntos
Perna (Membro)/fisiologia , Posicionamento do Paciente , Postura , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez/fisiologia , Volume Sistólico , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Resistência Vascular , Adulto Jovem
4.
Female Pelvic Med Reconstr Surg ; 21(5): 241-3, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26313491

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Vaginal mesh has been a valuable tool in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse. As our knowledge of the long-term outcomes and complications of this product has evolved, however, vaginal mesh has become the subject of legal scrutiny. Therefore, it is imperative that physicians understand pertinent litigation techniques to optimize their informed consent and documentation processes and protect themselves. OBJECTIVES: Our objective is to familiarize physicians who use vaginal mesh with how law suits involving transvaginal mesh are construed. We also describe the current medicolegal environment surrounding the use of these products. METHODS: The food and drug administration public safety communications, food and drug administration Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience database, and LexisNexis legal search engine were used to review data relevant to current vaginal mesh litigation. This information was used to create a medicolegal review. RESULTS: Litigation involving transvaginal mesh follows 3 paths. The first consists of claims against the manufacture of transvaginal mesh with allegations, such as design defects, failure to warn, and misrepresentation. The second is a defensive legal strategy called the learned intermediary doctrine, used by manufacturers to shift liability from themselves to surgeons. The manufacturers claim that the duty to inform patients of potential complications lies with the surgeon. The third involves claims by patients against surgeons for lack of informed consent, alleging that they were not sufficiently informed of potential complications associated with transvaginal mesh before insertion. CONCLUSIONS: To lessen the liability, a surgeon using transvaginal mesh should inform patients of potential complications associated with the products and document informed consent in their medical records.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/legislação & jurisprudência , Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico/cirurgia , Telas Cirúrgicas/efeitos adversos , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse/cirurgia , Feminino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/métodos , Humanos , Imperícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Telas Cirúrgicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
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