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1.
Eur J Neurol ; 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460483

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is a clinical and electrophysiological heterogeneous immune-mediated polyneuropathy. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), corticosteroids and plasma exchange are proven effective treatments for CIDP. The clinical response to IVIg is variable between patients and currently unexplained. Finding biomarkers related to treatment response can help to understand the diversity of CIDP and personalise treatment choice. METHODS: We investigated whether genetic variation between patients may explain some of these differences in treatment response. Based on previous publications, we selected six candidate genes that might affect immune and axonal functions, IVIg metabolism and treatment response in CIDP. Genetic variants were assessed in 172 CIDP patients, treated with at least one course of IVIg (2 g/kg). A response to IVIg was defined by ≥1 grade improvement on the modified Rankin scale. Blood samples were tested for variations in CNTN2, PRF1, FCGRT, FCGR2B, GJB1 and SH2D2A genes. RESULTS: In univariate analysis, patients with the FCGR2B promoter variant 2B.4/2B.1 responded more often to IVIg than patients with the 2B.1/2B.1 variant (OR 6.9, 95% CI 1.6-30; p=0.003). Patients with the p.(Ala91Val) variant of PRF1 were less often IVIg responsive (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.13-0.91; p=0.038). In multivariate analysis both PRF1 and FCGR2B showed discriminative ability to predict the chance of IVIg response (AUC 0.67). CONCLUSIONS: Variations in PRF1 and the promoter region of FCGR2B are associated with the response to IVIg in CIDP. These findings, that require validation, are a first step towards the understanding of the heterogeneity in the treatment response in CIDP.

2.
Blood Adv ; 4(24): 6218-6229, 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351118

RESUMO

Senescence of erythrocytes is characterized by a series of changes that precede their removal from the circulation, including loss of red cell hydration, membrane shedding, loss of deformability, phosphatidyl serine exposure, reduced membrane sialic acid content, and adhesion molecule activation. Little is known about the mechanisms that initiate these changes nor is it known whether they are interrelated. In this study, we show that Ca2+-dependent K+ efflux (the Gardos effect) drives erythrocyte senescence. We found that increased intracellular Ca2+ activates the Gardos channel, leading to shedding of glycophorin-C (GPC)-containing vesicles. This results in a loss of erythrocyte deformability but also in a marked loss of membrane sialic acid content. We found that GPC-derived sialic acid residues suppress activity of both Lutheran/basal cell adhesion molecule (Lu/BCAM) and CD44 by the formation of a complex on the erythrocyte membrane, and Gardos channel-mediated shedding of GPC results in Lu/BCAM and CD44 activation. This phenomenon was observed as erythrocytes aged and on erythrocytes that were otherwise prone to clearance from the circulation, such as sickle erythrocytes, erythrocytes stored for transfusion, or artificially dehydrated erythrocytes. These novel findings provide a unifying concept on erythrocyte senescence in health and disease through initiation of the Gardos effect.

3.
J Leukoc Biol ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289106

RESUMO

Dendritic cells (DCs) are key immune modulators and are able to mount immune responses or tolerance. DC differentiation and activation imply a plethora of molecular and cellular responses, including transcriptional changes. PU.1 is a highly expressed transcription factor in DCs and coordinates relevant aspects of DC biology. Due to their role as immune regulators, DCs pose as a promising immunotherapy tool. However, some of their functional features, such as survival, activation, or migration, are compromised due to the limitations to simulate in vitro the physiologic DC differentiation process. A better knowledge of transcriptional programs would allow the identification of potential targets for manipulation with the aim of obtaining "qualified" DCs for immunotherapy purposes. Most of the current knowledge regarding DC biology derives from studies using mouse models, which not always find a parallel in human. In the present study, we dissect the PU.1 transcriptional regulome and interactome in mouse and human DCs, in the steady state or LPS activated. The PU.1 transcriptional regulome was identified by performing PU.1 chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing and pairing these data with RNAsequencing data. The PU.1 interactome was identified by performing PU.1 immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry analysis. Our results portray PU.1 as a pivotal factor that plays an important role in the regulation of genes required for proper DC activation and function, and assures the repression of nonlineage genes. The interspecies differences between human and mouse DCs are surprisingly substantial, highlighting the need to study the biology of human DCs.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SMARCD2 (SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily D, member 2) has recently been shown to have a critical role in granulopoiesis in humans, mice and zebrafish. Our patient presented with delayed cord separation, failure to thrive and sepsis. Retrospective whole exome sequencing confirmed a homozygous splice site mutation in SMARCD2. OBJECTIVE: Here, we provide the second description of human SMARCD2 deficiency and the first functional analysis of human primary SMARCD2-deficient cells. METHODS: Heparinized venous blood and bone marrow were collected from the patient after obtaining informed consent. Patient leukocytes and CD34+ cells were then isolated, phenotyped and assessed functionally. RESULTS: Circulating neutrophils appeared phenotypically immature, lacking multi-lobed nuclei, and neutrophil granules lacked lactoferrin but showed normal levels of myeloperoxidase. Neutrophil oxidative burst was preserved in response to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Patient bone marrow-derived neutrophils and white blood cells showed a severely impaired chemotactic response. Furthermore, white blood cells showed defective in vitro killing of S. aureus, consistent with a specific granule deficiency. Finally, patient bone marrow-derived CD34+ cells showed markedly impaired in vitro expansion and differentiation towards the neutrophil lineage. Prior to her molecular diagnosis, our patient underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and is well 8 years later. CONCLUSION: This report highlights an important role for SMARCD2 in human myelopoiesis and the curative effect of HSCT for the hematopoietic features of SMARCD2 deficiency.

5.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355195

RESUMO

The CD47-signal regulatory protein-alpha (SIRPα) immune checkpoint constitutes a therapeutic target in cancer, and initial clinical studies using inhibitors of CD47-SIRPα interactions in combination with tumor-targeting antibodies show promising results. Blockade of CD47-SIRPα interaction can promote neutrophil antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) toward antibody-opsonized targets. Neutrophils induce killing of antibody-opsonized tumor cells by a process identified as trogoptosis, a necrotic/lytic type of cancer cell death that involves trogocytosis, the antibody-mediated endocytic acquisition of cancer membrane fragments by neutrophils. Both trogocytosis and killing strictly depend on CD11b/CD18-(Mac-1)-mediated neutrophil-cancer cell conjugate formation, but the mechanism by which CD47-SIRPα checkpoint disruption promotes cytotoxicity has remained elusive. Here, by using neutrophils from patients with leukocyte adhesion deficiency type III carrying FERMT3 gene mutations, hence lacking the integrin-associated protein kindlin3, we demonstrated that CD47-SIRPα signaling controlled the inside-out activation of the neutrophil CD11b/CD18-integrin and cytotoxic synapse formation in a kindlin3-dependent fashion. Our findings also revealed a role for kindlin3 in trogocytosis and an absolute requirement in the killing process, which involved direct interactions between kindlin3 and CD18 integrin. Collectively, these results identified a dual role for kindlin3 in neutrophil ADCC and provide mechanistic insights into the way neutrophil cytotoxicity is governed by CD47-SIRPα interactions.

6.
Front Immunol ; 11: 570963, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162986

RESUMO

The inhibitory immunoreceptor SIRPα is expressed on myeloid and neuronal cells and interacts with the broadly expressed CD47. CD47-SIRPα interactions form an innate immune checkpoint and its targeting has shown promising results in cancer patients. Here, we report expression of SIRPα on B1 lymphocytes, a subpopulation of murine B cells responsible for the production of natural antibodies. Mice defective in SIRPα signaling (SIRPαΔCYT mice) displayed an enhanced CD11b/CD18 integrin-dependent B1 cell migration from the peritoneal cavity to the spleen, local B1 cell accumulation, and enhanced circulating natural antibody levels, which was further amplified upon immunization with T-independent type 2 antigen. As natural antibodies are atheroprotective, we investigated the involvement of SIRPα signaling in atherosclerosis development. Bone marrow (SIRPαΔCYT>LDLR-/-) chimaeric mice developed reduced atherosclerosis accompanied by increased natural antibody production. Collectively, our data identify SIRPα as a unique B1 cell inhibitory receptor acting to control B1 cell migration, and imply SIRPα as a potential therapeutic target in atherosclerosis.

7.
J Clin Immunol ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with an IgG subclass deficiency (IgSD) ± specific polysaccharide antibody deficiency (SPAD) often present with recurrent infections. Previous retrospective studies have shown that prophylactic antibiotics (PA) and immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IRT) can both be effective in preventing these infections; however, this has not been confirmed in a prospective study. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of PA and IRT in a randomized crossover trial. METHODS: A total of 64 patients (55 adults and 9 children) were randomized (2:2) between two treatment arms. Treatment arm A began with 12 months of PA, and treatment arm B began with 12 months of IRT. After a 3-month bridging period with cotrimoxazole, the treatment was switched to 12 months of IRT and PA, respectively. The efficacy (measured by the incidence of infections) and proportion of related adverse events in the two arms were compared. RESULTS: The overall efficacy of the two regimens did not differ (p = 0.58, two-sided Wilcoxon signed-rank test). A smaller proportion of patients suffered a related adverse event while using PA (26.8% vs. 60.3%, p < 0.0003, chi-squared test). Patients with persistent infections while using PA suffered fewer infections per year after switching to IRT (2.63 vs. 0.64, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: We found comparable efficacy of IRT and PA in patients with IgSD ± SPAD. Patients with persistent infections during treatment with PA had less infections after switching to IRT. CLINICAL IMPLICATION: Given the costs and associated side-effects of IRT, it should be reserved for patients with persistent infections despite treatment with PA.

9.
Front Immunol ; 11: 2100, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32983165

RESUMO

Over the last decades, cancer immunotherapies such as checkpoint blockade and adoptive T cell transfer have been a game changer in many aspects and have improved the treatment for various malignancies considerably. Despite the clinical success of harnessing the adaptive immunity to combat the tumor, the benefits of immunotherapy are still limited to a subset of patients and cancer types. In recent years, neutrophils, the most abundant circulating leukocytes, have emerged as promising targets for anti-cancer therapies. Traditionally regarded as the first line of defense against infections, neutrophils are increasingly recognized as critical players during cancer progression. Evidence shows the functional plasticity of neutrophils in the tumor microenvironment, allowing neutrophils to exert either pro-tumor or anti-tumor effects. This review describes the tumor-promoting roles of neutrophils, focusing on their myeloid-derived suppressor cell activity, as well as their role in tumor elimination, exerted mainly via antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. We will discuss potential approaches to therapeutically target neutrophils in cancer. These include strategies in humans to either silence the pro-tumor activity of neutrophils, or to activate or enhance their anti-tumor functions. Redirecting neutrophils seems a promising approach to harness innate immunity to improve treatment for cancer patients.

10.
Front Pediatr ; 8: 355, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32775314

RESUMO

Background: Kawasaki disease (KD) is a vasculitis of early childhood mimicking several infectious diseases. Differentiation between KD and infectious diseases is essential as KD's most important complication-the development of coronary artery aneurysms (CAA)-can be largely avoided by timely treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG). Currently, KD diagnosis is only based on clinical criteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether routine C-reactive protein (CRP) and additional inflammatory parameters myeloid-related protein 8/14 (MRP8/14 or S100A8/9) and human neutrophil-derived elastase (HNE) could distinguish KD from infectious diseases. Methods and Results: The cross-sectional study included KD patients and children with proven infections as well as febrile controls. Patients were recruited between July 2006 and December 2018 in Europe and USA. MRP8/14, CRP, and HNE were assessed for their discriminatory ability by multiple logistic regression analysis with backward selection and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves. In the discovery cohort, the combination of MRP8/14+CRP discriminated KD patients (n = 48) from patients with infection (n = 105), with area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.88. The HNE values did not improve discrimination. The first validation cohort confirmed the predictive value of MRP8/14+CRP to discriminate acute KD patients (n = 26) from those with infections (n = 150), with an AUC of 0.78. The second validation cohort of acute KD patients (n = 25) and febrile controls (n = 50) showed an AUC of 0.72, which improved to 0.84 when HNE was included. Conclusion: When used in combination, the plasma markers MRP8/14, CRP, and HNE may assist in the discrimination of KD from both proven and suspected infection.

11.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1110, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32793476

RESUMO

Human neutrophils exert a well-known role as efficient effector cells to kill pathogenic micro-organisms. Apart from their role in innate immunity, neutrophils also have the capacity to suppress T cell-mediated immune responses as so-called granulocyte-myeloid-derived suppressor cells (g-MDSCs), impacting the clinical outcome of various disease settings such as cancer. Patients undergoing chemotherapy because of an underlying malignancy can develop prolonged bone marrow suppression and are prone to serious infections because of severe neutropenia. Concentrates of granulocytes for transfusion (GTX) constitute a therapeutic tool and rescue treatment to fight off these serious bacterial and fungal infections when antimicrobial therapy is ineffective. GTX neutrophils are mobilized by overnight G-CSF and/or Dexamethasone stimulation of healthy donors. Although the phenotype of these mobilized neutrophils differs from the circulating neutrophils under normal conditions, their anti-microbial function is still intact. In contrast to the unaltered antimicrobial effector functions, G-CSF/Dexamethasone-mobilized neutrophils were found to lack suppression of the T cell proliferation, whereas G-CSF-mobilized or Dexamethasone-mobilized neutrophils could still suppress the T cell proliferation upon cell activation equally well as control neutrophils. Although the mechanism of how G-CSF/Dex mobilization may silence the g-MDSC activity of neutrophils without downregulating the antimicrobial activity is presently unclear, their combined use in patients in the treatment of underlying malignancies may be beneficial-irrespective of the number of circulating neutrophils. These findings also indicate that MDSC activity does not fully overlap with the antimicrobial activity of human neutrophils and offers the opportunity to elucidate the feature(s) unique to their T-cell suppressive activity.

12.
J Immunol ; 205(7): 1778-1786, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848031

RESUMO

The complement system plays an important role in our innate immune system. Complement activation results in clearance of pathogens, immune complex, and apoptotic cells. The host is protected from complement-mediated damage by several complement regulators. Factor H (FH) is the most important fluid-phase regulator of the alternative pathway of the complement system. Heterozygous mutations in FH are associated with complement-related diseases such as atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) and age-related macular degeneration. We recently described an agonistic anti-FH mAb that can potentiate the regulatory function of FH. This Ab could serve as a potential new drug for aHUS patients and alternative to C5 blockade by eculizumab. However, it is unclear whether this Ab can potentiate FH mutant variants in addition to wild-type (WT) FH. In this study, the functionality and potential of the agonistic Ab in the context of pathogenic aHUS-related FH mutant proteins was investigated. The binding affinity of recombinant WT FH and the FH variants, W1183L, V1197A, R1210C, and G1194D to C3b was increased upon addition of the potentiating Ab and similarly, the decay-accelerating activity of all mutants is increased. The potentiating anti-FH Ab is able to restore the surface regulatory function of most of the tested FH mutants to WT FH levels on a human HAP-1 cell line and on sheep erythrocytes. In conclusion, our potentiating anti-FH is broadly active and able to enhance both WT FH function as well as most aHUS-associated FH variants tested in this study.

13.
J Innate Immun ; : 1-23, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846417

RESUMO

An increasing number of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) have been identified over the last decade, which are caused by deleterious mutations in genes encoding for proteins involved in actin cytoskeleton regulation. These mutations primarily affect hematopoietic cells and lead to defective function of immune cells, such as impaired motility, signaling, proliferative capacity, and defective antimicrobial host defense. Here, we review several of these immunological "actinopathies" and cover both clinical aspects, as well as cellular mechanisms of these PIDs. We focus in particular on the effect of these mutations on human neutrophil function.

14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733070

RESUMO

Dutch genome diagnostic centers (GDC) use next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based diagnostic applications for the diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs). The interpretation of genetic variants in many PIDs is complicated because of the phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. To analyze uniformity of variant filtering, interpretation, and reporting in NGS-based diagnostics for PID, an external quality assessment was performed. Four main Dutch GDCs participated in the quality assessment. Unannotated variant call format (VCF) files of two PID patient analyses per laboratory were distributed among the four GDCs, analyzed, and interpreted (eight analyses in total). Variants that would be reported to the clinician and/or advised for further investigation were compared between the centers. A survey measuring the experiences of clinical laboratory geneticists was part of the study. Analysis of samples with confirmed diagnoses showed that all centers reported at least the variants classified as likely pathogenic (LP) or pathogenic (P) variants in all samples, except for variants in two genes (PSTPIP1 and BTK). The absence of clinical information complicated correct classification of variants. In this external quality assessment, the final interpretation and conclusions of the genetic analyses were uniform among the four participating genetic centers. Clinical and immunological data provided by a medical specialist are required to be able to draw proper conclusions from genetic data.

15.
Pediatr Radiol ; 50(10): 1387-1396, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the synovial and tenosynovial appearance of the clinically non-arthritic symptomatic juvenile wrist using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is sparse. OBJECTIVES: To analyze contrast-enhanced MRI findings of the clinically non-inflamed symptomatic pediatric wrist, focusing on the enhancing synovial and tenosynovial membrane. To evaluate the coexistent presence of (teno)synovial enhancement, joint fluid, bony depressions and medullary changes suggestive of bone marrow edema. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 20 children (15 girls; age range: 7.5-17.6 years) who underwent contrast-enhanced MRI of the wrist, based on initial clinical indication, and eventually turned out to be unaffected by arthritic or orthopedic disorders. Various imaging characteristics of the synovium, tenosynovium, joint fluid, bone tissue and bone marrow were evaluated using existing MRI scoring systems. RESULTS: In 3/20 (15%) children, mild or moderate-severe synovial enhancement was observed and 2/20 (10%) children showed mild tenosynovial enhancement/thickening. Joint fluid (11/20 children; 55%), bony depressions (20/20 children; 100%) and medullary changes suggestive of bone marrow edema (6/20; 30%) were found in a substantial percentage of children. The most frequently observed combination of coexisting imaging characteristics was bony depressions with ≥2 mm joint fluid, which was found in 7/20 (35%) children. Simultaneous presence of synovial and tenosynovial enhancement/thickening, bony depressions and medullary changes suggestive of bone marrow edema was observed in one child. CONCLUSION: Several juvenile idiopathic arthritis-relevant MRI characteristics can be observed in the clinically non-inflamed symptomatic pediatric wrist.

16.
Clin Immunol ; 218: 108522, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682923

RESUMO

Human hematopoiesis is critically dependent on the transcription factor GATA2. Patients with GATA2 deficiency typically present with myelodysplastic syndrome, reduced numbers of monocytes, NK cells and B cells, and/or opportunistic infections. Here, we present two families that harbor distinct GATA2 mutations with highly variable onset and course of disease. We discuss the use of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in these patients, especially as treatment for pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

17.
Blood Adv ; 4(14): 3416-3426, 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722782

RESUMO

Hemolytic anemia resulting from IV Immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment can be a serious complication, especially for those with underlying conditions with a high level of inflammation and after administration of high IVIG dosages, such as Kawasaki disease (KD), a multisystem vasculitis affecting young children. This hemolysis is caused by antibodies against blood groups A and B, but the precise mechanism for hemolysis is not known. We performed a single center, partly retrospective, partly prospective study of a cohort of 581 patients who received IVIG for treatment of KD from 2006 to 2013. Factors associated with hemolysis were identified through univariable and multivariable logistic regression. Six IVIG preparations were assayed for their hemolytic effect with serological and cellular assays to clarify the mechanism of red cell destruction. During the study period, a sudden increase in the incidence of hemolysis was observed, which coincided with the introduction of new IVIG preparations in North America that contained relatively high titers of anti-A and anti-B. These blood-group-specific antibodies were of the immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) subclass and resulted in phagocytosis by monocyte-derived macrophages in an FcγRIIa-dependent manner. Phagocytosis was increased in the presence of proinflammatory mediators that mimicked the inflammatory state of KD. An increased frequency of severe hemolysis following IVIG administration was caused by ABO blood-group-specific IgG2 antibodies leading to FcγRIIa-dependent clearance of erythrocytes. This increase in adverse events necessitates a reconsideration of the criteria for maximum titer (1:64) of anti-A and anti-B in IVIG preparations.

18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9539, 2020 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533007

RESUMO

Group B streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of neonatal invasive disease worldwide. In the Netherlands incidence of the disease increased despite implementation of preventive guidelines. We describe a genomic analysis of 1345 GBS isolates from neonatal (age 0-89 days) invasive infections in the Netherlands reported between 1987 and 2016. Most isolates clustered into one of five major lineages: CC17 (39%), CC19 (25%), CC23 (18%), CC10 (9%) and CC1 (7%). There was a significant rise in the number of infections due to isolates from CC17 and CC23. Phylogenetic clustering analysis revealed that this was caused by expansion of specific sub-lineages, designated CC17-A1, CC17-A2 and CC23-A1. Dating of phylogenetic trees estimated that these clones diverged in the 1960s/1970s, representing historical rather than recently emerged clones. For CC17-A1 the expansion correlated with acquisition of a new phage, carrying gene encoding a putative cell-surface protein. Representatives of CC17-A1, CC17-A2 and CC23-A1 clones were identified in datasets from other countries demonstrating their global distribution.

19.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(8): 2047-2053, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inadequate responses to platelet transfusions (i.e., platelet transfusion refractoriness [PLT refractoriness]) are a serious problem. Multiple factors contribute to low yields upon platelet transfusion, among which are platelet-reactive allo-antibodies. Platelet-reactive allo-antibodies occur in up to 30% of patients receiving multiple transfusions, and presumably lead to rapid destruction of the transfused platelets via receptors for IgG, the Fc-gamma receptors (FcγRs). Genetic variation in FcγRs is associated with susceptibility to immune thrombocytopenia, in which autoantibodies against platelets cause thrombocytopenia. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that genetic variation in FcγRs may also influence PLT refractoriness in allo-immunized patients and could help in identifying the patients at risk. PATIENTS/METHODS: Patients with severe PLT refractoriness for whom diagnostic testing for allo-immunization was requested in the period of 2005 to 2013 were retrospectively included. A case-control study was performed comparing patients in whom platelet-reactive antibodies were detected (n = 181) with ethnically matched healthy controls (n = 180) to determine differences in all known functional copy number variations and single nucleotide polymorphisms in FcγRs. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: None of the tested FcγR genetic variations seemed associated with the development of severe PLT refractoriness. In contrast to observations in immune thrombocytopenia, genetic variation in FcγRs does not seem to influence the chance to develop PLT refractoriness. Our results do not support determination of FcγR genetic background as a means to identify patients most at risk for PLT refractoriness.

20.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 18(1): 33, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Having Juvenile idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) has widespread implications for a person's life. Patients have to deal with recurring arthritis, characterized by pain often accompanied by a loss of energy. Since JIA often persists into adulthood, patients with JIA are likely to encounter difficulties in their working life. We expect that the experiences in school life may be comparable to the barriers and opportunities which patients affected by JIA encounter in adult working life. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elicit the experiences during school life and the perspectives and expectations regarding future work participation of adolescents with JIA. METHODS: This study used individual, semi-structured interviews and followed a predefined interview guide. Participants between 14 and 18 years of age (n = 22) were purposively selected to achieve a broad range of participant characteristics. Open coding was performed, followed by axial coding and selective coding. RESULTS: Great differences were seen in the support and understanding that adolescents received in dealing with JIA at school, leisure activities and work. Varying approaches were mentioned on how to pursue a desired vocation. Perspectives regarding disclosure varied. Participants wished to be approached like any other healthy adolescent. Expectations regarding work participation were positively expressed. CONCLUSION: This study showed that participants often disregarded having JIA when making plans for their future career. Facilitating an open discussion about the possible limitations accompanying JIA with educators and employers might prevent overburden and increase the chance of starting a career which would accommodate the patient with JIA in the near and distant future.

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