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1.
Transfusion ; 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is associated with adverse effects, which may involve activation of the host immune response. The effect of RBC transfusion on neutrophil Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production and adhesion ex vivo was investigated in endotoxemic volunteers and in critically ill patients that received a RBC transfusion. We hypothesized that RBC transfusion would cause neutrophil activation, the extent of which depends on the storage time and the inflammatory status of the recipient. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Volunteers were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and transfused with either saline, fresh, or stored autologous RBCs. In addition, 47 critically ill patients with and without sepsis receiving either fresh (<8 days) or standard stored RBC (2-35 days) were included. Neutrophils from healthy volunteers were incubated with the plasma samples from the endotoxemic volunteers and from the critically ill patients, after which priming of neutrophil ROS production and adhesion were assessed. RESULTS: In the endotoxemia model, ex vivo neutrophil adhesion, but not ROS production, was increased after transfusion, which was not affected by RBC storage duration. In the critically ill, ex vivo neutrophil ROS production was already increased prior to transfusion and was not increased following transfusion. Neutrophil adhesion was increased following transfusion, which was more notable in the septic patients than in non-septic patients. Transfusion of fresh RBCs, but not standard issued RBCs, resulted in enhanced ROS production in neutrophils. CONCLUSION: RBC transfusion was associated with increased neutrophil adhesion in a model of human endotoxemia as well as in critically ill patients with sepsis.

2.
Pediatr Radiol ; 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ongoing arthritis in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) can result in cartilage damage. OBJECTIVE: To study the feasibility and repeatability of T1ρ for assessing knee cartilage in JIA and also to describe T1ρ values and study correlation between T1ρ and conventional MRI scores for disease activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen children with JIA or suspected JIA underwent 3-tesla (T) knee MRI that included conventional sequences and a T1ρ sequence. Segmentation of knee cartilage was carried out on T1ρ images. We used intraclass correlation coefficient to study the repeatability of segmentation in a subset of five children. We used the juvenile arthritis MRI scoring system to discriminate inflamed from non-inflamed knees. The Mann-Whitney U and Spearman correlation compared T1ρ between children with and without arthritis on MRI and correlated T1ρ with the juvenile arthritis MRI score. RESULTS: All children successfully completed the MRI examination. No images were excluded because of poor quality. Repeatability of T1ρ measurement had an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.99 (P<0.001). We observed no structural cartilage damage and found no differences in T1ρ between children with (n=7) and without (n=6) inflamed knees (37.8 ms vs. 31.7 ms, P=0.20). However, we observed a moderate correlation between T1ρ values and the juvenile arthritis MRI synovitis score (r=0.59, P=0.04). CONCLUSION: This pilot study suggests that T1ρ is a feasible and repeatable quantitative imaging technique in children. T1ρ values were associated with the juvenile arthritis MRI synovitis score.

3.
Cell Rep ; 29(8): 2505-2519.e4, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747616

RESUMO

Human neutrophilic granulocytes form the largest pool of innate immune cells for host defense against bacterial and fungal pathogens. The dynamic changes that accompany the metamorphosis from a proliferating myeloid progenitor cell in the bone marrow into a mature non-dividing polymorphonuclear blood cell have remained poorly defined. Using mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics combined with transcriptomic data, we report on the dynamic changes of five developmental stages in the bone marrow and blood. Integration of transcriptomes and proteome unveils highly dynamic and differential interactions between RNA and protein kinetics during human neutrophil development, which can be linked to functional maturation of typical end-stage blood neutrophil killing activities.

4.
J Immunol ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748349

RESUMO

Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is one of the most important effector mechanisms of tumor-targeting Abs in current immunotherapies. In ADCC and other Ab-dependent activation of myeloid effector cells, close cell-cell contact (between effector and target cell) and formation of immunological synapses are required. However, we still lack basic knowledge on the principal factors influencing ADCC potential by therapeutic Abs. In this study we investigated the combined roles of five factors affecting human NK cell-mediated ADCC, namely: 1) Ag density, 2) target cell membrane composition, 3) IgG FcγR polymorphism, 4) FcγR-blocking cytophilic Abs, and 5) Ab fucosylation. We demonstrate that the magnitude of NK cell-mediated ADCC responses is predominantly influenced by Ag density and Ab fucosylation. Afucosylation consistently induced efficient ADCC, even at very low Ag density, where fucosylated target Abs did not elicit ADCC. On the side of the effector cell, the FcγRIIIa-Val/Phe158 polymorphism influenced ADCC potency, with NK cells expressing the Val158 variant showing more potent ADCC. In addition, we identified the sialic acid content of the target cell membrane as an important inhibitory factor for ADCC. Furthermore, we found that the presence and glycosylation status of aspecific endogenous Abs bound to NK cell FcγRIIIa (cytophilic Abs) determine the blocking effect on ADCC. These five parameters affect the potency of Abs in vitro and should be further tested as predictors of in vivo capacity.

5.
Blood Adv ; 3(22): 3562-3574, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738831

RESUMO

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) have the capacity to suppress T-cell-mediated immune responses and impact the clinical outcome of cancer, infections, and transplantation settings. Although MDSCs were initially described as bone marrow-derived immature myeloid cells (either monocytic or granulocytic MDSCs), mature neutrophils have been shown to exert MDSC activity toward T cells in ways that remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that human neutrophils from both healthy donors and cancer patients do not exert MDSC activity unless they are activated. By using neutrophils with genetically well-defined defects, we found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and granule-derived constituents are required for MDSC activity after direct CD11b-dependent interactions between neutrophils and T cells. In addition to these cellular interactions, neutrophils are engaged in the uptake of pieces of T-cell membrane, a process called trogocytosis. Together, these interactions led to changes in T-cell morphology, mitochondrial dysfunction, and adenosine triphosphate depletion, as indicated by electron microscopy, mass spectrometry, and metabolic parameters. Our studies characterize the different steps by which activated mature neutrophils induce functional T-cell nonresponsiveness and irreparable cell damage.

6.
J Clin Invest ; 129(12): 5600-5614, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710310

RESUMO

CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) rely on rapid reorganization of the branched F-actin network to drive the polarized secretion of lytic granules, initiating target cell death during the adaptive immune response. Branched F-actin is generated by the nucleation factor actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex. Patients with mutations in the actin-related protein complex 1B (ARPC1B) subunit of Arp2/3 show combined immunodeficiency, with symptoms of immune dysregulation, including recurrent viral infections and reduced CD8+ T cell count. Here, we show that loss of ARPC1B led to loss of CTL cytotoxicity, with the defect arising at 2 different levels. First, ARPC1B is required for lamellipodia formation, cell migration, and actin reorganization across the immune synapse. Second, we found that ARPC1B is indispensable for the maintenance of TCR, CD8, and GLUT1 membrane proteins at the plasma membrane of CTLs, as recycling via the retromer and WASH complexes was impaired in the absence of ARPC1B. Loss of TCR, CD8, and GLUT1 gave rise to defects in T cell signaling and proliferation upon antigen stimulation of ARPC1B-deficient CTLs, leading to a progressive loss of CD8+ T cells. This triggered an activation-induced immunodeficiency of CTL activity in ARPC1B-deficient patients, which could explain the susceptibility to severe and prolonged viral infections.

7.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690649

RESUMO

Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAb), directed toward either tumor antigens or inhibitory checkpoints on immune cells, are effective in cancer therapy. Increasing evidence suggests that the therapeutic efficacy of these tumor antigen-targeting mAbs is mediated-at least partially-by myeloid effector cells, which are controlled by the innate immune-checkpoint interaction between CD47 and SIRPα. We and others have previously demonstrated that inhibiting CD47-SIRPα interactions can substantially potentiate antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis and cytotoxicity of tumor cells by IgG antibodies both in vivo and in vitro IgA antibodies are superior in killing cancer cells by neutrophils compared with IgG antibodies with the same variable regions, but the impact of CD47-SIRPα on IgA-mediated killing has not been investigated. Here, we show that checkpoint inhibition of CD47-SIRPα interactions further enhances destruction of IgA antibody-opsonized cancer cells by human neutrophils. This was shown for multiple tumor types and IgA antibodies against different antigens, i.e., HER2/neu and EGFR. Consequently, combining IgA antibodies against HER2/neu or EGFR with SIRPα inhibition proved to be effective in eradicating cancer cells in vivo In a syngeneic in vivo model, the eradication of cancer cells was predominantly mediated by granulocytes, which were actively recruited to the tumor site by SIRPα blockade. We conclude that IgA-mediated tumor cell destruction can be further enhanced by CD47-SIRPα checkpoint inhibition. These findings provide a basis for targeting CD47-SIRPα interactions in combination with IgA therapeutic antibodies to improve their potential clinical efficacy in tumor patients.

8.
Eur J Immunol ; 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621069

RESUMO

Antibody production by the B cell compartment is a crucial part of the adaptive immune response. Dysregulated antibody production in the form of autoantibodies can cause autoimmune disease. To date, B-cell depletion with anti-CD20 antibodies is commonly applied in autoimmunity, but pre-existing plasma cells are not eliminated in this way. Alternative ways of more selective inhibition of antibody production would add to the treatment of these autoimmune diseases. To explore novel therapeutic targets in signaling pathways essential for plasmablast formation and/or immunoglobulin production, we performed a compound screen of almost 200 protein kinase inhibitors in a robust B-cell differentiation culture system. This study yielded 35 small cell-permeable compounds with a reproducible inhibitory effect on B-cell activation and plasmablast formation, among which was the clinically applied mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor rapamycin. Two additional compounds targeting the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-AKT-mTOR pathway (BKM120 and WYE-354) did not affect proliferation and plasmablast formation, but specifically reduced the immunoglobulin production. With this compound screen we successfully applied a method to investigate therapeutic targets for B-cell differentiation and identified compounds in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-AKT-mTOR pathway that could specifically inhibit immunoglobulin production only. These drugs may well be explored to be of value in current B-cell-depleting treatment regimens in autoimmune disorders.

9.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2144, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31572368

RESUMO

Whereas, neutrophils have long been considered to mainly function as efficient innate immunity killers of micro-organisms at infected sites, they are now recognized to also be involved in modulation of adaptive immune responses. Immature and mature neutrophils were reported to have the capacity to suppress T cell-mediated immune responses as so-called granulocyte-myeloid-derived suppressor cells (g-MDSCs), and thereby affect the clinical outcome of cancer patients and impact the chronicity of microbial infections or rejection reactions in organ transplantation settings. These MDSCs were at first considered to be immature myeloid cells that left the bone marrow due to disease-specific signals. Current studies show that also mature neutrophils can exert suppressive activity. In this study we investigated in a robust T cell suppression assay whether immature CD11b+ myeloid cells were capable of MDSC activity comparable to mature fully differentiated neutrophils. We compared circulating neutrophils with myeloid cell fractions from the bone marrow at different differentiation stages. Our results indicate that functional MDSC activity is only becoming detectable at the final stage of differentiation, depending on the procedure of cell isolation. The MDSC activity obtained during neutrophil maturation correlated with the induction of the well-known highly mobile and toxic effector functions of the circulating neutrophil. Although immature neutrophils have been suggested to be increased in the circulation of cancer patients, we show here that immature neutrophils are not efficient in suppressing T cells. This suggests that the presence of immature neutrophils in the bloodstream of cancer patients represent a mere association or may function as a source of mature neutrophils in the tumor environment but not a direct cause of enhanced MDSC activity in cancer.

10.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2237, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31632391

RESUMO

Fc-gamma receptors (FcγR) are the cellular receptors for Immunoglobulin G (IgG). Upon binding of complexed IgG, FcγRs can trigger various cellular immune effector functions, thereby linking the adaptive and innate immune systems. In humans, six classic FcγRs are known: one high-affinity receptor (FcγRI) and five low-to-medium-affinity FcγRs (FcγRIIA, -B and -C, FcγRIIIA and -B). In this review we describe the five genes encoding the low-to-medium -affinity FcγRs (FCGR2A, FCGR2B, FCGR2C, FCGR3A, and FCGR3B), including well-characterized functionally relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), haplotypes as well as copy number variants (CNVs), which occur in distinct copy number regions across the locus. The evolution of the locus is also discussed. Importantly, we recommend a consistent nomenclature of genetic variants in the FCGR2/3 locus. Next, we focus on the relevance of genetic variation in the FCGR2/3 locus in auto-immune and auto-inflammatory diseases, highlighting pathophysiological insights that are informed by genetic association studies. Finally, we illustrate how specific FcγR variants relate to variation in treatment responses and prognosis amongst autoimmune diseases, cancer and transplant immunology, suggesting novel opportunities for personalized medicine.

11.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223264, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613876

RESUMO

Recently it was discovered that tissue-resident macrophages derive from embryonic precursors, not only from peripheral blood monocytes, and maintain themselves by self-renewal. Most in-vitro studies on macrophage biology make use of in-vitro cultured human monocyte-derived macrophages. Phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized particles by tissue-resident macrophages takes place via interaction with IgG receptors, the Fc-gamma receptors (FcγRs). We investigated the FcγR expression on macrophages both in-vivo and ex-vivo from different human tissues. Upon isolation of primary human macrophages from bone marrow, spleen, liver and lung, we observed that macrophages from all studied tissues expressed high levels of FcγRIII, which was in direct contrast with the low expression on blood monocyte-derived macrophages. Expression levels of FcγRI were highly variable, with bone marrow macrophages showing the lowest and alveolar macrophages the highest expression. Kupffer cells in the liver were the only tissue-resident macrophages that expressed the inhibitory IgG receptor, FcγRIIB. This inhibitory receptor was also found to be expressed by sinusoidal endothelial cells in the liver. In sum, our immunofluorescence data combined with ex-vivo stainings of isolated macrophages indicated that tissue-resident macrophages are remarkably unique and different from monocyte-derived macrophages in their phenotypic expression of IgG receptors. Tissue macrophages show distinct tissue-specific FcγR expression patterns.

12.
Blood Adv ; 3(13): 2003-2012, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270082

RESUMO

In childhood immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), anti-platelet autoantibodies mediate platelet clearance through Fc-γ receptor (FcγR)-bearing phagocytes. In 75% to 90% of patients, the disease has a transient, self-limiting character. Here we characterized how polymorphisms of FcγR genes affect disease susceptibility, response to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment, and long-term recovery from childhood ITP. Genotyping of the FCGR2/3 locus was performed in 180 children with newly diagnosed ITP, 22 children with chronic ITP, and 180 healthy control children by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Children with newly diagnosed ITP were randomly assigned to a single administration of IVIg or observation, and followed for 1 year (Treatment With or Without IVIg for Kids With ITP [TIKI] trial). We defined transient ITP as a complete recovery (≥100 × 109/L) 3 months after diagnosis, including both self-limiting disease/IVIg responders and chronic ITP as absence of a complete recovery at 12 months. ITP susceptibility, as well as spontaneous recovery and response to IVIg, was associated with the genetic variants FCGR2C*ORF and FCGR2A*27W and the FCGR2B promoter variant 2B.4. These variants were overrepresented in patients with transient (N = 131), but not chronic (N = 43), disease. The presence of FCGR2C*ORF predisposed to transient ITP with an odds ratio of 4.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.9-14.3). Chronic ITP was associated with a deletion of FCGR2C/FCGR3B (copy number region 1) with an odds ratio of 6.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.8-24.7). Taken together, susceptibility to transient and chronic ITP is distinctly affected by polymorphic variants of FCGR2/3 genes. Our data suggest that genotyping of the FCGR2/3 locus may be useful for prognosis and guidance of treatment decisions in newly diagnosed childhood ITP.

13.
Blood Adv ; 3(11): 1761-1773, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182561

RESUMO

Neutrophils are particularly well known for their antimicrobial function. Although historically they are regarded as strictly a phagocyte of the innate immune system, over time it has become clear that neutrophils are versatile cells with numerous functions including innate and adaptive immune regulation. We have previously described a role for human neutrophils in antibody-mediated red blood cell (RBC) clearance. Under homeostatic conditions, neutrophils do not take up RBCs. Yet, when RBCs are immunoglobulin G (IgG) opsonized, which can occur in alloimmunization or autoimmunization reactions, neutrophils can effectively phagocytose RBCs. In the present study, we show that human neutrophils acquire an antigen-presenting cell (APC) phenotype following RBC phagocytosis. Subsequent to RBC phagocytosis, neutrophils expressed major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) and costimulatory molecules such as CD40 and CD80. Moreover, in classical APCs, the respiratory burst is known to regulate antigen presentation. We found that the respiratory burst in neutrophils is reduced after IgG-mediated RBC phagocytosis. Additionally, following RBC phagocytosis, neutrophils were demonstrated to elicit an antigen-specific T-cell response, using tetanus toxoid (TT) as an antigen to elicit an autologous TT-specific CD4+ T-cell response. Lastly, although the "don't eat me" signal CD47 is known to have a powerful restrictive role in the activation of immunity against RBCs in dendritic cells, CD47 does not seem to have a significant effect on the antigen-presenting function of neutrophils in this context. Overall, these findings reveal that besides their classical antimicrobial role, neutrophils show plasticity in their phenotype.

14.
Nat Microbiol ; 4(9): 1592-1602, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209307

RESUMO

During infection, increasing pathogen load stimulates both protective and harmful aspects of the host response. The dynamics of this interaction are hard to quantify in humans, but doing so could improve understanding of the mechanisms of disease and protection. We sought to model the contributions of the parasite multiplication rate and host response to observed parasite load in individual subjects infected with Plasmodium falciparum malaria, using only data obtained at the time of clinical presentation, and then to identify their mechanistic correlates. We predicted higher parasite multiplication rates and lower host responsiveness in cases of severe malaria, with severe anaemia being more insidious than cerebral malaria. We predicted that parasite-growth inhibition was associated with platelet consumption, lower expression of CXCL10 and type 1 interferon-associated genes, but increased cathepsin G and matrix metallopeptidase 9 expression. We found that cathepsin G and matrix metallopeptidase 9 directly inhibit parasite invasion into erythrocytes. The parasite multiplication rate was associated with host iron availability and higher complement factor H levels, lower expression of gametocyte-associated genes but higher expression of translation-associated genes in the parasite. Our findings demonstrate the potential of using explicit modelling of pathogen load dynamics to deepen understanding of host-pathogen interactions and identify mechanistic correlates of protection.

15.
Rheumatol Int ; 39(12): 2095-2101, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222439

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to describe the clinical characteristics and MRI findings of the wrist in a cohort of children suffering from connective tissue disease with musculoskeletal involvement. Ten patients with pediatric connective tissue disease [median age 14.7 years (IQR 12.7-16.6 years), 70% female] were identified from a large MRI database. Clinical findings during the disease course were retrospectively obtained from patient charts and findings at the time of MRI were prospectively registered in the MRI database. MRI wrist datasets were evaluated by three readers in consensus for synovitis, tenosynovitis, bone marrow changes, bone erosions and myositis. Patients suffered from connective tissue disease with clinical overlap of subtypes systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren syndrome and dermatomyositis. Median onset of disease was at 12.3 years (IQR 7.8-14.8 years). Clinical arthritis activity was scored low (median visual analogue scale physician 19, IQR 7-31). Notwithstanding, extensive inflammatory abnormalities such as synovitis and tenosynovitis were found in the wrist of 7/10 patients. Osteochondral involvement was detected in 3/10 patients. In a small cohort of children with connective tissue disease and musculoskeletal symptoms, severe inflammatory abnormalities of the involved wrist were present in the MRI, while clinical disease scores suggested mild disease activity. Therefore, clinicians should consider the wrist as vulnerable for joint damage and can add MRI as a helpful tool in the management of patients with pediatric connective tissue disease and musculoskeletal involvement.

16.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(6): 577-591, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the application of next generation sequencing (NGS) is moving to earlier stages in the diagnostic pipeline for primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs), re-evaluation of its effectiveness is required. The aim of this study is to systematically review the diagnostic yield of NGS in PIDs. METHODS: PubMed and Embase databases were searched for relevant studies. Studies were eligible when describing the use of NGS in patients that had previously been diagnosed with PID on clinical and/or laboratory findings. Relevant data on study characteristics, technological performance and diagnostic yield were extracted. RESULTS: Fourteen studies were eligible for data extraction. Six studies described patient populations from specific PID subcategories. The remaining studies included patients with unsorted PIDs. The studies were based on populations from Italy, Iran, Turkey, Thailand, the Netherlands, Norway, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, the UK, and the USA. Eight studies used an array-based targeted gene panel, four used WES in combination with a PID filter, and two used both techniques. The mean reported reading depth ranged from 98 to 1337 times. Five studies described the sensitivity of the applied techniques, ranging from 83 to 100%, whereas specificity ranged from 45 to 99.9%. The percentage of patients who were genetically diagnosed ranged from 15 to 79%. Several studies described clinical implications of the genetic findings. DISCUSSION: NGS has the ability to contribute significantly to the identification of molecular mechanisms in PID patients. The diagnostic yield highly depends on population and on the technical circumstances under which NGS is employed. Further research is needed to determine the exact diagnostic yield and clinical implications of NGS in patients with PID.

17.
Br J Haematol ; 186(6): 887-899, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168801

RESUMO

Most sickle cell disease (SCD) patients rely on blood transfusion as their main treatment strategy. However, frequent blood transfusion poses the risk of alloimmunization. On average, 30% of SCD patients will alloimmunize while other patient groups form antibodies less frequently. Identification of genetic markers may help to predict which patients are at risk to form alloantibodies. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether genetic variations in the Toll-like receptor pathway or in genes previously associated with antibody-mediated conditions are associated with red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization in a cohort of SCD patients. In this case-control study, cases had a documented history of alloimmunization while controls had received ≥20 RBC units without alloantibody formation. We used a customized single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel to genotype 690 SNPs in 275 (130 controls, 145 cases) patients. Frequencies were compared using multiple logistic regression analysis. In our primary analysis, no SNPs were found to be significantly associated with alloimmunization after correction for multiple testing. However, in a secondary analysis with a less stringent threshold for significance we found 19 moderately associated SNPs. Among others, SNPs in TLR1/TANK and MALT1 were associated with a higher alloimmunization risk, while SNPs in STAM/IFNAR1 and STAT4 conferred a lower alloimmunization risk.

18.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 6966, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061469

RESUMO

Non-coding genetic variants play an important role in driving susceptibility to complex diseases but their characterization remains challenging. Here, we employed a novel approach to interrogate the genetic risk of such polymorphisms in a more systematic way by targeting specific regulatory regions relevant for the phenotype studied. We applied this method to meningococcal disease susceptibility, using the DNA binding pattern of RELA - a NF-kB subunit, master regulator of the response to infection - under bacterial stimuli in nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. We designed a custom panel to cover these RELA binding sites and used it for targeted sequencing in cases and controls. Variant calling and association analysis were performed followed by validation of candidate polymorphisms by genotyping in three independent cohorts. We identified two new polymorphisms, rs4823231 and rs11913168, showing signs of association with meningococcal disease susceptibility. In addition, using our genomic data as well as publicly available resources, we found evidences for these SNPs to have potential regulatory effects on ATXN10 and LIF genes respectively. The variants and related candidate genes are relevant for infectious diseases and may have important contribution for meningococcal disease pathology. Finally, we described a novel genetic association approach that could be applied to other phenotypes.

19.
Clin Immunol ; 203: 23-27, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953794

RESUMO

Genetic studies are identifying an increasing number of monogenic causes of Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID). Pathogenic variants in the C-terminus of NFKB2 have been identified in the subset of CVID patients whose immunodeficiency is associated with ectodermal dysplasia and central adrenal insufficiency. We describe 2 unrelated CVID pedigrees with 4 cases of pathogenic stop gain variants (c.1903C > T) in the ankyrin repeat domain (ARD) of NF-κB2, leading to a premature truncation of the protein at p.Arg635Term (R635X). By immunophenotyping and functional ex vivo B- and T-cell experiments we characterized the variant by reduced class-switched memory B-cell counts and immature plasmablasts, unable to produce IgG and IgA. Features of a poor proliferative T-cell response and reduced expansion of CD4+CXCR5+ T cells was only observed in the two clinically affected index cases without any clear clinical correlate. In conclusion, pathogenic stop variants in the ARD of NFKB2 can cause 'infection-only' CVID with an abnormal B-cell phenotype and a variable clinical penetrance.

20.
Front Immunol ; 10: 185, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949161

RESUMO

The human Fc-gamma receptors (FcγRs) link adaptive and innate immunity by binding immunoglobulin G (IgG). All human low-affinity FcγRs are encoded by the FCGR2/3 locus containing functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and gene copy number variants. This locus is notoriously difficult to genotype and high-throughput methods commonly used focus on only a few SNPs. We performed multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification for all relevant genetic variations at the FCGR2/3 locus in >4,000 individuals to define linkage disequilibrium (LD) and allele frequencies in different populations. Strong LD and extensive ethnic variation in allele frequencies was found across the locus. LD was strongest for the FCGR2C-ORF haplotype (rs759550223+rs76277413), which leads to expression of FcγRIIc. In Europeans, the FCGR2C-ORF haplotype showed strong LD with, among others, rs201218628 (FCGR2A-Q27W, r 2 = 0.63). LD between these two variants was weaker (r 2 = 0.17) in Africans, whereas the FCGR2C-ORF haplotype was nearly absent in Asians (minor allele frequency <0.005%). The FCGR2C-ORF haplotype and rs1801274 (FCGR2A-H131R) were in weak LD (r 2 = 0.08) in Europeans. We evaluated the importance of ethnic variation and LD in Kawasaki Disease (KD), an acute vasculitis in children with increased incidence in Asians. An association of rs1801274 with KD was previously shown in ethnically diverse genome-wide association studies. Now, we show in 1,028 European KD patients that the FCGR2C-ORF haplotype, although nearly absent in Asians, was more strongly associated with susceptibility to KD than rs1801274 in Europeans. Our data illustrate the importance of interpreting findings of association studies concerning the FCGR2/3 locus with knowledge of LD and ethnic variation.

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