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1.
J Pathol ; 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565090

RESUMO

TRIM28 was recently identified as a Wilms' tumour (WT) predisposition gene, with germline pathogenic variants identified in around 1% of isolated and 8% of familial WT cases. TRIM28 variants are associated with epithelial WT, but the presence of other tumour components or anaplasia does not exclude the presence of a germline or somatic TRIM28 variant. In children with WT, TRIM28 acts as a classical tumour suppressor gene, with both alleles generally disrupted in the tumour. Therefore, loss of TRIM28 (KAP1/TIF1beta) protein expression in tumour tissue by immunohistochemistry is an effective strategy to identify patients carrying pathogenic TRIM28 variants. TRIM28 is a ubiquitously expressed corepressor that binds transcription factors in a context-, species- and cell-type specific manner to control the expression of genes and transposable elements during embryogenesis and cellular differentiation. In this review, we describe the inheritance patterns, histopathological and clinical features of TRIM28-associated WT, as well as potential underlying mechanisms of tumourigenesis during embryonic kidney development. Recognizing germline TRIM28 variants in patients with WT can enable counseling, genetic testing and potential early detection of WT in other children in the family. A further exploration of TRIM28-associated WT will help to unravel the diverse and complex mechanisms underlying WT development. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(2)2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540666

RESUMO

Pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common pediatric malignancy and is characterized by clonal heterogeneity. Genomic mutations can increase proliferative potential of leukemic cells and cause treatment resistance. However, mechanisms driving mutagenesis and clonal diversification in ALL are not fully understood. In this proof of principle study, we performed whole genome sequencing of two cases with multiple relapses in order to investigate whether groups of mutations separated in time show distinct mutational signatures. Based on mutation allele frequencies at diagnosis and subsequent relapses, we clustered mutations into groups and performed cluster-specific mutational profile analysis and de novo signature extraction. In patient 1, who experienced two relapses, the analysis unraveled a continuous interplay of aberrant activation induced cytidine deaminase (AID)/apolipoprotein B editing complex (APOBEC) activity. The associated signatures SBS2 and SBS13 were present already at diagnosis, and although emerging mutations were lost in later relapses, the process remained active throughout disease evolution. Patient 2 had three relapses. We identified episodic mutational processes at diagnosis and first relapse leading to mutations resembling ultraviolet light-driven DNA damage, and thiopurine-associated damage at first relapse. In conclusion, our data shows that investigation of mutational processes in clusters separated in time may aid in understanding the mutational mechanisms and discovery of underlying causes.

3.
Cancer ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: WAGR syndrome (Wilms tumor, aniridia, genitourinary anomalies, and range of developmental delays) is a rare contiguous gene deletion syndrome with a 45% to 60% risk of developing Wilms tumor (WT). Currently, surveillance and treatment recommendations are based on limited evidence. METHODS: Clinical characteristics, treatments, and outcomes were analyzed for patients with WAGR and WT/nephroblastomatosis who were identified through International Society of Pediatric Oncology Renal Tumor Study Group (SIOP-RTSG) registries and the SIOP-RTSG network (1989-2019). Events were defined as relapse, metachronous tumors, or death. RESULTS: Forty-three patients were identified. The median age at WT/nephroblastomatosis diagnosis was 22 months (range, 6-44 months). The overall stage was available for 40 patients, including 15 (37.5%) with bilateral disease and none with metastatic disease. Histology was available for 42 patients; 6 nephroblastomatosis without further WT and 36 WT, including 19 stromal WT (52.8%), 12 mixed WT (33.3%), 1 regressive WT (2.8%) and 2 other/indeterminable WT (5.6%). Blastemal type WT occurred in 2 patients (5.6%) after prolonged treatment for nephroblastomatosis; anaplasia was not reported. Nephrogenic rests were present in 78.9%. Among patients with WT, the 5-year event-free survival rate was 84.3% (95% confidence interval, 72.4%-98.1%), and the overall survival rate was 91.2% (95% confidence interval, 82.1%-100%). Events (n = 6) did not include relapse, but contralateral tumor development (n = 3) occurred up to 7 years after the initial diagnosis, and 3 deaths were related to hepatotoxicity (n = 2) and obstructive ileus (n = 1). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with WAGR have a high rate of bilateral disease and no metastatic or anaplastic tumors. Although they can be treated according to existing WT protocols, intensive monitoring of toxicity and surveillance of the remaining kidney(s) are advised. LAY SUMMARY: WAGR syndrome (Wilms tumor, aniridia, genitourinary anomalies, and range of developmental delays) is a rare genetic condition with an increased risk of developing Wilms tumor. In this study, 43 patients with WAGR and Wilms tumor (or Wilms tumor precursor lesions/nephroblastomatosis) were identified through the international registry of the International Society of Pediatric Oncology Renal Tumor Study Group (SIOP-RTSG) and the SIOP-RTSG network. In many patients (37.5%), both kidneys were affected. Disease spread to other organs (metastases) did not occur. Overall, this study demonstrates that patients with WAGR syndrome and Wilms tumor can be treated according to existing protocols. However, intensive monitoring of treatment complications and surveillance of the remaining kidney(s) are advised.

4.
Haematologica ; Online ahead of print: 0, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147938

RESUMO

Genomic studies of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have shown remarkable heterogeneity in initial diagnosis, with multiple (sub)clones harboring lesions in relapse-associated genes. However, the clinical relevance of these subclonal alterations remains unclear. We assessed the clinical relevance and prognostic value of subclonal alterations in the relapse-associated genes IKZF1, CREBBP, KRAS, NRAS, PTPN11, TP53, NT5C2, and WHSC1 in 503 ALL cases. Using Molecular Inversion Probe sequencing and breakpoint-spanning PCR we reliably detected alterations below 1% allele frequency. We identified 660 genomic alterations in 285 diagnosis samples of which 495 (75%) were subclonal. RAS pathway mutations were common, particularly in minor subclones, and comparisons between RAS hotspot mutations revealed differences in their capacity to drive clonal expansion in ALL. We did not find an association of subclonal alterations with unfavorable outcome. Particularly for IKZF1, an established prognostic marker in ALL, all clonal but none of the subclonal alterations were preserved at relapse. We conclude that, for the genes tested, there is no basis to consider subclonal alterations detected at diagnosis for risk group stratification of ALL treatment.

5.
Blood Cancer Discov ; 1(1): 96-111, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32793890

RESUMO

Relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains a leading cause of childhood death. Prior studies have shown clonal mutations at relapse often arise from relapse-fated subclones that exist at diagnosis. However, the genomic landscape, evolutionary trajectories and mutational mechanisms driving relapse are incompletely understood. In an analysis of 92 cases of relapsed childhood ALL, incorporating multimodal DNA and RNA sequencing, deep digital mutational tracking and xenografting to formally define clonal structure, we identify 50 significant targets of mutation with distinct patterns of mutational acquisition or enrichment. CREBBP, NOTCH1, and Ras signaling mutations rose from diagnosis subclones, whereas variants in NCOR2, USH2A and NT5C2 were exclusively observed at relapse. Evolutionary modeling and xenografting demonstrated that relapse-fated clones were minor (50%), major (27%) or multiclonal (18%) at diagnosis. Putative second leukemias, including those with lineage shift, were shown to most commonly represent relapse from an ancestral clone rather than a truly independent second primary leukemia. A subset of leukemias prone to repeated relapse exhibited hypermutation driven by at least three distinct mutational processes, resulting in heightened neoepitope burden and potential vulnerability to immunotherapy. Finally, relapse-driving sequence mutations were detected prior to relapse using deep digital PCR at levels comparable to orthogonal approaches to monitor levels of measurable residual disease. These results provide a genomic framework to anticipate and circumvent relapse by earlier detection and targeting of relapse-fated clones.

6.
Blood ; 136(8): 923-924, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818248
7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(3)2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204435

RESUMO

Glucocorticoid (GC) resistance is a crucial determinant of inferior response to chemotherapy in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL); however, molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are poorly understood. Deregulated splicing is a common feature of many cancers, which impacts drug response and constitutes an attractive therapeutic target. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to characterize global splicing profiles associated with GC resistance and determine whether splicing modulation could serve as a novel therapeutic option for GC-resistant patients. To this end, 38 primary ALL samples were profiled using RNA-seq-based differential splicing analysis. The impact of splicing modulators was investigated in GC-resistant leukemia cell lines and primary leukemic specimens. Our findings revealed, for the first time, markedly distinct splicing landscapes in ALL samples of B-cell precursor (BCP)-ALL and T-ALL lineages. Differential splicing events associated with GC resistance were involved in RNA processing, a direct response to GCs, survival signaling, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation and energy metabolism. Furthermore, our analyses showed that GC-resistant ALL cell lines and primary samples are sensitive to splicing modulation, alone and in combination with GC. Together, these findings suggest that aberrant splicing is associated with GC resistance and splicing modulators deserve further interest as a novel treatment option for GC-resistant patients.

8.
Hemasphere ; 4(1): e318, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072138

RESUMO

Genomic alterations in relapsed B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) may provide insight into the role of specific genomic events in relapse development. Along this line, comparisons between the spectrum of alterations in relapses that arise in different upfront treatment protocols may provide valuable information on the association between the tumor genome, protocol components and outcome. Here, we performed a comprehensive characterization of relapsed BCP-ALL cases that developed in the context of 3 completed Dutch upfront studies, ALL8, ALL9, and ALL10. In total, 123 pediatric BCP-ALL relapses and 77 paired samples from primary diagnosis were analyzed for alterations in 22 recurrently affected genes. We found pronounced differences in relapse alterations between the 3 studies. Specifically, CREBBP mutations were observed predominantly in relapses after treatment with ALL8 and ALL10 which, in the latter group, were all detected in medium risk-treated patients. IKZF1 alterations were enriched 2.2-fold (p = 0.01) and 2.9-fold (p < 0.001) in ALL8 and ALL9 relapses compared to diagnosis, respectively, whereas no significant enrichment was found for relapses that were observed after treatment with ALL10. Furthermore, IKZF1 deletions were more frequently preserved from a major clone at diagnosis in relapses after ALL9 compared to relapses after ALL8 and ALL10 (p = 0.03). These data are in line with previous studies showing that the prognostic value of IKZF1 deletions differs between upfront protocols and is particularly strong in the ALL9 regimen. In conclusion, our data reveal a correlation between upfront treatment and the genetic composition of relapsed BCP-ALL.

9.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics ; 17(2): 151-160, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (dVIN) and lichen sclerosus (LS) can give rise to vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC), but genetic evidence is currently still limited. We aimed to determine genetic abnormalities in VSCC and backtrack these abnormalities in the dVIN and LS lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DNA from VSCC and patient-matched dVIN and LS samples of twelve patients was collected. High-resolution genome-wide copy number analysis was performed and subsequently, we sequenced TP53. RESULTS: Copy number alterations were identified in all VSCC samples. One dVIN lesion presented with three copy number alterations that were preserved in the paired VSCC sample. Targeted sequencing of TP53 identified mutations in five VSCCs. All five mutations were traced back in the dVIN (n=5) or the LS (n=1) with frequencies ranging from 3-19%. CONCLUSION: Our data provide genetic evidence for a clonal relationship between VSCC and dVIN or LS.


Assuntos
Carcinoma in Situ/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Líquen Escleroso e Atrófico/genética , Neoplasias Vulvares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Vulvares/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(2): 770-787, 2020 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799629

RESUMO

Variants in ribosomal protein (RP) genes drive Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), a bone marrow failure syndrome that can also predispose individuals to cancer. Inherited and sporadic RP gene variants are also linked to a variety of phenotypes, including malignancy, in individuals with no anemia. Here we report an individual diagnosed with DBA carrying a variant in the 5'UTR of RPL9 (uL6). Additionally, we report two individuals from a family with multiple cancer incidences carrying a RPL9 missense variant. Analysis of cells from these individuals reveals that despite the variants both driving pre-rRNA processing defects and 80S monosome reduction, the downstream effects are remarkably different. Cells carrying the 5'UTR variant stabilize TP53 and impair the growth and differentiation of erythroid cells. In contrast, ribosomes incorporating the missense variant erroneously read through UAG and UGA stop codons of mRNAs. Metabolic profiles of cells carrying the 5'UTR variant reveal an increased metabolism of amino acids and a switch from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis while those of cells carrying the missense variant reveal a depletion of nucleotide pools. These findings indicate that variants in the same RP gene can drive similar ribosome biogenesis defects yet still have markedly different downstream consequences and clinical impacts.


Assuntos
Anemia de Diamond-Blackfan/genética , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Ribossomos/genética , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia de Diamond-Blackfan/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Criança , Células Eritroides , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Precursores de RNA/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 758-766, 2019 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929739

RESUMO

By using exome sequencing and a gene matching approach, we identified de novo and inherited pathogenic variants in KDM3B in 14 unrelated individuals and three affected parents with varying degrees of intellectual disability (ID) or developmental delay (DD) and short stature. The individuals share additional phenotypic features that include feeding difficulties in infancy, joint hypermobility, and characteristic facial features such as a wide mouth, a pointed chin, long ears, and a low columella. Notably, two individuals developed cancer, acute myeloid leukemia and Hodgkin lymphoma, in childhood. KDM3B encodes for a histone demethylase and is involved in H3K9 demethylation, a crucial part of chromatin modification required for transcriptional regulation. We identified missense and truncating variants, suggesting that KDM3B haploinsufficiency is the underlying mechanism for this syndrome. By using a hybrid facial-recognition model, we show that individuals with a pathogenic variant in KDM3B have a facial gestalt, and that they show significant facial similarity compared to control individuals with ID. In conclusion, pathogenic variants in KDM3B cause a syndrome characterized by ID, short stature, and facial dysmorphism.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Nanismo/genética , Variação Genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/genética , Anormalidades Musculoesqueléticas/genética , Estatura , Criança , Exoma , Face , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Haploinsuficiência , Histonas/química , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fenótipo
12.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(8): e27780, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assessment of minimal residual disease (MRD) is an integral component for response monitoring and treatment stratification in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We aimed to evaluate the genomic ETV6-RUNX1 fusion sites as a single marker for MRD quantification. PROCEDURE: In a representative, uniformly treated cohort of pediatric relapsed ALL patients (n = 52), ETV6-RUNX1 fusion sites were compared to the current gold standard, immunoglobulin/T-cell receptor (Ig/TCR) gene rearrangements. RESULTS: Primer/probe sets designed to ETV6-RUNX1 fusions achieved significantly more frequent a sensitivity and a quantitative range of at least 10-4 compared to the gold standard with 100% and 73% versus 76% and 47%, respectively. The breakpoint sequence was identical at diagnosis and relapse in all tested cases. There was a high degree of concordance between quantitative MRD results assessed using ETV6-RUNX1 and the highest Ig/TCR marker (Spearman's 0.899, P < .01) with differences >½ log-step in only 6% of patients. A high proportion of ETV6-RUNX1-positive ALL relapses (40%) in our cohort showed a poor response to induction treatment at relapse, and therefore had an indication for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, demonstrating the need of accurate identification of this subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: ETV6-RUNX1 fusion sites are highly sensitive and reliable MRD markers. Our data confirm that they are unaffected by clonal evolution and selection during front-line and second-line chemotherapy in contrast to Ig/TCR rearrangements, which require several markers per patient to compensate for the observed loss of target clones. In future studies, the genomic ETV6-RUNX1 fusion can be used as single MRD marker.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Evolução Clonal , Subunidade alfa 2 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Genômica/métodos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Neoplasia Residual/patologia , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasia Residual/genética , Neoplasia Residual/terapia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC
13.
Lancet Haematol ; 6(4): e204-e216, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ALLR3 trial investigated outcomes of children with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia who had late bone marrow relapses. We analysed long-term follow-up outcomes of these patients. METHODS: ALLR3 was an open-label randomised clinical trial that recruited children aged 1-18 years with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia who had late bone marrow relapses. Eligible patients were recruited from centres in Australia, Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, and the UK. Patients were randomly assigned from Jan 31, 2003, to Dec 31, 2007, and the trial closed to recruitment on Oct 31, 2013. Randomly assigned patients were allocated to receive either idarubicin or mitoxantrone in induction by stratified concealed randomisation; after randomisation stopped in Dec 31, 2007, all patients were allocated to receive mitoxantrone. After three blocks of therapy, patients with high minimal residual disease (≥10-4 cells) at the end of induction were allocated to undergo allogeneic stem-cell transplantation and those with low minimal residual disease (<10-4 cells) at the end of induction were allocated to receive chemotherapy. Minimal residual disease level was measured by real-time quantitative PCR analysis of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor gene rearrangements. The primary endpoint of the original ALLR3 clinical trial was progression-free survival of randomly assigned patients. The primary endpoint of this long-term follow-up analysis was progression-free survival of patients with late bone marrow relapses stratified by minimal residual disease level. Outcomes were correlated with age, site, time to recurrence, and genetic subtypes, and analysed by both intention to treat and actual treatment received. This trial is registered on the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN45724312, and on ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00967057. FINDINGS: Between Feb 2, 2003, and Oct 28, 2013, 228 patients with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and late bone marrow relapses were treated. After a median follow-up of 84 months (IQR 48-109), progression-free survival of all randomly assigned patients was 60% (95% CI 54-70). 220 patients achieved second complete remission, and minimal residual disease was evaluable in 192 (87%). 110 patients with late bone marrow relapses and high minimal residual disease at the end of induction were allocated to undergo stem-cell transplantation, and 82 patients with low minimal residual disease at the end of induction were allocated to receive chemotherapy. In the patients allocated to undergo stem-cell transplantation, four relapses and three deaths were reported before the procedure, and 11 patients were not transplanted. Of the 92 patients transplanted, 58 (63%) remained in second complete remission, 13 (14%) died of complications, and 21 (23%) relapsed after stem-cell transplantation. In patients allocated to receive chemotherapy, one early treatment-related death was reported and 11 patients were transplanted. Of the 70 patients who continued on chemotherapy, 49 (70%) remained in second complete remission, two (3%) died of complications, and 19 (27%) relapsed. Progression-free survival at 5 years was 56% (95% CI 46-65) in those with high minimal residual disease and 72% (60-81) in patients with low minimal residual disease (p=0·0078). Treatment-related serious adverse events were not analysed in the long-term follow-up. INTERPRETATION: Patients with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with late bone marrow relapses and low minimal residual disease at end of induction had favourable outcomes with chemotherapy without undergoing stem-cell transplantation. Patients with high minimal residual disease benefited from stem-cell transplantation, and targeted therapies might offer further improvements in outcomes for these patients. FUNDING: Bloodwise (Formerly Leukaemia and Lymphoma Research) UK, Cancer Research UK, Sporting Chance Cancer Foundation, National Health and Medical Research Council Australia, KindreneKankervrij Netherlands, European Union Seventh Framework Programme, India Alliance Wellcome DBT Margdarshi Fellowship.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Idarubicina/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Masculino , Mitoxantrona/uso terapêutico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/imunologia , Recidiva , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Int J Cancer ; 145(4): 941-951, 2019 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30694527

RESUMO

Two percent of patients with Wilms tumors have a positive family history. In many of these cases the genetic cause remains unresolved. By applying germline exome sequencing in two families with two affected individuals with Wilms tumors, we identified truncating mutations in TRIM28. Subsequent mutational screening of germline and tumor DNA of 269 children affected by Wilms tumor was performed, and revealed seven additional individuals with germline truncating mutations, and one individual with a somatic truncating mutation in TRIM28. TRIM28 encodes a complex scaffold protein involved in many different processes, including gene silencing, DNA repair and maintenance of genomic integrity. Expression studies on mRNA and protein level showed reduction of TRIM28, confirming a loss-of-function effect of the mutations identified. The tumors showed an epithelial-type histology that stained negative for TRIM28 by immunohistochemistry. The tumors were bilateral in six patients, and 10/11 tumors are accompanied by perilobar nephrogenic rests. Exome sequencing on eight tumor DNA samples from six individuals showed loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) of the TRIM28-locus by mitotic recombination in seven tumors, suggesting that TRIM28 functions as a tumor suppressor gene in Wilms tumor development. Additionally, the tumors showed very few mutations in known Wilms tumor driver genes, suggesting that loss of TRIM28 is the main driver of tumorigenesis. In conclusion, we identified heterozygous germline truncating mutations in TRIM28 in 11 children with mainly epithelial-type Wilms tumors, which become homozygous in tumor tissue. These data establish TRIM28 as a novel Wilms tumor predisposition gene, acting as a tumor suppressor gene by LOH.


Assuntos
Haploinsuficiência/genética , Proteína 28 com Motivo Tripartido/genética , Tumor de Wilms/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Pré-Escolar , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Feminino , Genes do Tumor de Wilms/fisiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genótipo , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Perda de Heterozigosidade/genética , Masculino , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
15.
Blood Adv ; 3(2): 148-157, 2019 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30651283

RESUMO

Genetic abnormalities provide vital diagnostic and prognostic information in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and are increasingly used to assign patients to risk groups. We recently proposed a novel classifier based on the copy-number alteration (CNA) profile of the 8 most commonly deleted genes in B-cell precursor ALL. This classifier defined 3 CNA subgroups in consecutive UK trials and was able to discriminate patients with intermediate-risk cytogenetics. In this study, we sought to validate the United Kingdom ALL (UKALL)-CNA classifier and reevaluate the interaction with cytogenetic risk groups using individual patient data from 3239 cases collected from 12 groups within the International BFM Study Group. The classifier was validated and defined 3 risk groups with distinct event-free survival (EFS) rates: good (88%), intermediate (76%), and poor (68%) (P < .001). There was no evidence of heterogeneity, even within trials that used minimal residual disease to guide therapy. By integrating CNA and cytogenetic data, we replicated our original key observation that patients with intermediate-risk cytogenetics can be stratified into 2 prognostic subgroups. Group A had an EFS rate of 86% (similar to patients with good-risk cytogenetics), while group B patients had a significantly inferior rate (73%, P < .001). Finally, we revised the overall genetic classification by defining 4 risk groups with distinct EFS rates: very good (91%), good (81%), intermediate (73%), and poor (54%), P < .001. In conclusion, the UKALL-CNA classifier is a robust prognostic tool that can be deployed in different trial settings and used to refine established cytogenetic risk groups.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/epidemiologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Citogenética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Vigilância da População , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras B/diagnóstico , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(7): 1594-1603, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29351919

RESUMO

Purpose: In many children with cancer and characteristics suggestive of a genetic predisposition syndrome, the genetic cause is still unknown. We studied the yield of pathogenic mutations by applying whole-exome sequencing on a selected cohort of children with cancer.Experimental Design: To identify mutations in known and novel cancer-predisposing genes, we performed trio-based whole-exome sequencing on germline DNA of 40 selected children and their parents. These children were diagnosed with cancer and had at least one of the following features: (1) intellectual disability and/or congenital anomalies, (2) multiple malignancies, (3) family history of cancer, or (4) an adult type of cancer. We first analyzed the sequence data for germline mutations in 146 known cancer-predisposing genes. If no causative mutation was found, the analysis was extended to the whole exome.Results: Four patients carried causative mutations in a known cancer-predisposing gene: TP53 and DICER1 (n = 3). In another 4 patients, exome sequencing revealed mutations causing syndromes that might have contributed to the malignancy (EP300-based Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, ARID1A-based Coffin-Siris syndrome, ACTB-based Baraitser-Winter syndrome, and EZH2-based Weaver syndrome). In addition, we identified two genes, KDM3B and TYK2, which are possibly involved in genetic cancer predisposition.Conclusions: In our selected cohort of patients, pathogenic germline mutations causative or likely causative of the cancer phenotype were found in 8 patients, and two possible novel cancer-predisposing genes were identified. Therewith, our study shows the added value of sequencing beyond a cancer gene panel in selected patients, to recognize childhood cancer predisposition. Clin Cancer Res; 24(7); 1594-603. ©2018 AACR.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Exoma/genética , Face/anormalidades , Feminino , Genótipo , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Micrognatismo/genética , Pescoço/anormalidades , Fenótipo , Síndrome de Rubinstein-Taybi/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
18.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2912, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30619276

RESUMO

Patients with inborn errors of immunity or DNA repair defects are at significant risk of developing malignancy and this complication of their underlying condition represents a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality. Whilst this risk is increasingly well-recognized, our understanding of the causative mechanisms remains incomplete. Diagnosing cancer is challenging in the presence of underlying co-morbidities and frequently other inflammatory and lymphoproliferative processes. We lack a structured approach to management despite recognizing the competing challenges of poor response to therapy and increased risk of toxicity. Finally, clinicians need guidance on how to screen for malignancy in many of these predisposing immunodeficiencies. In order to begin to address these challenges, we brought together representatives of European Immunology and Pediatric Haemato-Oncology to define the current state of our knowledge and identify priorities for clinical and research development. We propose key developmental priorities which our two communities will need to work together to address, collaborating with colleagues around the world.


Assuntos
Distúrbios no Reparo do DNA/complicações , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/terapia , Pesquisa , Alergia e Imunologia/tendências , Criança , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Oncologia/métodos , Oncologia/tendências , Neoplasias/complicações , Pediatria/métodos , Pediatria/tendências
19.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 59(7): 1690-1699, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29058513

RESUMO

Pathogenic mutations in relapse-associated genes in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia may improve risk stratification when detected at subclonal levels at primary diagnosis. However, to detect subclonal mutations upfront, a deep-sequencing approach with high specificity and sensitivity is required. Here, we performed a proof-of-principle study to detect low-level mosaic RAS pathway mutations by deep sequencing using random tagging-based single molecule Molecular Inversion Probes (smMIPs). The smMIP-based approach could sensitively detect variants with allele frequency as low as 0.4%, which could all be confirmed by other techniques. In comparison, with standard deep-sequencing techniques we reached a detection threshold of only 2.5%, which hampered detection of seven low-level mosaic mutations representing 24% of all detected mutations. We conclude that smMIP-based deep-sequencing outperforms standard deep-sequencing techniques by showing lower background noise and high specificity, and is the preferred technology for detecting mutations upfront, particularly in genes in which mutations show limited clustering in hotspots.


Assuntos
Mosaicismo , Mutação , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Alelos , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Criança , Inversão Cromossômica , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Sondas de DNA , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Imagem Individual de Molécula/métodos
20.
J Pathol ; 244(2): 135-142, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29105096

RESUMO

It is now well established that germline genomic aberrations can underlie high-penetrant familial polyposis and colorectal cancer syndromes, but a genetic cause has not yet been found for the major proportion of patients with polyposis. Since next-generation sequencing has become widely accessible, several novel, but rare, high-penetrant risk factors for adenomatous polyposis have been identified, all operating in pathways responsible for genomic maintenance and DNA repair. One of these is the base excision repair pathway. In addition to the well-established role of the DNA glycosylase gene MUTYH, biallelic mutations in which predispose to MUTYH-associated polyposis, a second DNA glycosylase gene, NTHL1, has recently been associated with adenomatous polyposis and a high colorectal cancer risk. Both recessive polyposis syndromes are associated with increased risks for several other cancer types as well, but the spectrum of benign and malignant tumours in individuals with biallelic NTHL1 mutations was shown to be broader; hence the name NTHL1-associated tumour syndrome. Colorectal tumours encountered in patients with these syndromes show unique, clearly distinct mutational signatures that may facilitate the identification of these syndromes. On the basis of the prevalence of pathogenic MUTYH and NTHL1 variants in the normal population, we estimate that the frequency of the novel NTHL1-associated tumour syndrome is five times lower than that of MUTYH-associated polyposis. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Desoxirribonuclease (Dímero de Pirimidina)/genética , Mutação , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/epidemiologia , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/patologia , Animais , Dano ao DNA , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Taxa de Mutação , Penetrância , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco
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