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1.
Melanoma Res ; 30(1): 71-75, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425479

RESUMO

Biomarkers are needed to estimate which patients benefit most from combination ipilimumab and nivolumab immunotherapy. Rigorous biomarker analyses from prior ipilimumab randomized studies without nivolumab are likely to inform which biomarker analyses should be prioritized when examining patients treated with the combination. For the first time, the current analyses investigate absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) in randomized, controlled trials of ipilimumab without nivolumab to assess whether ALC is prognostic or predictive of ipilimumab treatment benefit. Data included patients (n = 1136) treated in the two randomized, controlled phase III studies MDX010-20 and CA184-024. ALC was measured at pretreatment baseline and every 3 weeks for up to 12 weeks, before each dose of ipilimumab. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate and test associations between ALC measures and overall survival (OS). In both randomized studies, baseline ALC and ALC halfway through induction (at week 6) were associated with OS not only in ipilimumab-treated patients but also in patients treated with non-ipilimumab control treatments. ALC increased in patients receiving ipilimumab, but this degree of change was not predictive of ipilimumab treatment benefit. Using data from randomized, controlled studies, we were able to conclude for the first time that baseline ALC, ALC halfway through induction (week 6) and the degree of ALC change from baseline to week 6 are prognostic biomarkers in melanoma patients, and do not appear to be predictive of ipilimumab treatment benefit. This more comprehensive understanding of ALC as a biomarker from ipilimumab trials will inform subsequent biomarker investigations in ongoing ipilimumab combination studies such as ipilimumab in combination with nivolumab.

2.
Cancer ; 125(22): 4019-4032, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the rapid adoption of immunotherapies in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (advNSCLC), knowledge gaps remain about their real-world (rw) performance. METHODS: This retrospective, observational, multicenter analysis used the Flatiron Health deidentified electronic health record-derived database of rw patients with advNSCLC who received treatment with PD-1 and/or PD-L1 (PD-[L]1) inhibitors before July 1, 2017 (N = 5257) and had ≥6 months of follow-up. The authors investigated PD-(L)1 line of treatment and PD-L1 testing rates and the relationship between overall survival (OS) and rw intermediate endpoints: progression-free survival (rwPFS), rw time to progression (rwTTP), rw time to next treatment (rwTTNT), and rw time to discontinuation (rwTTD). RESULTS: First-line PD-(L)1 inhibitor use increased from 0% (in the third quarter of 2014 [Q3 2014]) to 42% (Q2 2017) over the study period. PD-L1 testing also increased (from 3% in Q3 2015 to 70% in Q2 2017). The estimated median OS was 9.3 months (95% CI, 8.9-9.8 months), and the estimated rwPFS was 3.2 months (95% CI, 3.1-3.3 months). Longer OS and rwPFS were associated with ≥50% PD-L1 percentage staining results. Correlations (⍴) between OS and intermediate endpoints were ⍴ = 0.75 (95% CI, 0.73-0.76) for rwPFS and ⍴ = 0.60 (95% CI, 0.57-0.63) for rwTTP, and, for treatment-based intermediate endpoints, correlations were ⍴ = 0.60 (95% CI, 0.56-0.64) for rwTTNT (N = 856) and ⍴ = 0.81 (95% CI, 0.80-0.82) for rwTTD. CONCLUSIONS: The use of first-line PD-(L)1 inhibitors and PD-L1 testing has substantially increased, with better outcomes for patients who have ≥50% PD-L1 percentage staining. Intermediate rw tumor-dynamics estimates were moderately correlated with OS in patients with advNSCLC who received immunotherapy, highlighting the need for optimizing and standardizing rw endpoints to enhance the understanding of patient outcomes outside clinical trials.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/etiologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 19(1): 177, 2019 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of real-world data to generate evidence requires careful assessment and validation of critical variables before drawing clinical conclusions. Prospective clinical trial data suggest that anatomic origin of colon cancer impacts prognosis and treatment effectiveness. As an initial step in validating this observation in routine clinical settings, we explored the feasibility and accuracy of obtaining information on tumor sidedness from electronic health records (EHR) billing codes. METHODS: Nine thousand four hundred three patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) were selected from the Flatiron Health database, which is derived from de-identified EHR data. This study included a random sample of 200 mCRC patients. Tumor site data derived from International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes were compared with data abstracted from unstructured documents in the EHR (e.g. surgical and pathology notes). Concordance was determined via observed agreement and Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ). Accuracy of ICD codes for each tumor site (left, right, transverse) was determined by calculating the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV), and corresponding 95% confidence intervals, using abstracted data as the gold standard. RESULTS: Study patients had similar characteristics and side of colon distribution compared with the full mCRC dataset. The observed agreement between the ICD codes and abstracted data for tumor site for all sampled patients was 0.58 (κ = 0.41). When restricting to the 62% of patients with a side-specific ICD code, the observed agreement was 0.84 (κ = 0.79). The specificity (92-98%) of structured data for tumor location was high, with lower sensitivity (49-63%), PPV (64-92%) and NPV (72-97%). Demographic and clinical characteristics were similar between patients with specific and non-specific side of colon ICD codes. CONCLUSIONS: ICD codes are a highly reliable indicator of tumor location when the specific location code is entered in the EHR. However, non-specific side of colon ICD codes are present for a sizable minority of patients, and structured data alone may not be adequate to support testing of some research hypotheses. Careful assessment of key variables is required before determining the need for clinical abstraction to supplement structured data in generating real-world evidence from EHRs.


Assuntos
Colo/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
4.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 26(3): 765-771, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30610557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Desmoid-type fibromatosis can arise in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), therefore patients with desmoids often undergo colonoscopy to rule out FAP. Because finding FAP is uncommon, we sought to define subsets of desmoid patients in whom colonoscopy frequently identified FAP. METHODS: Patients with desmoid-type fibromatosis were identified from surgery and pathology databases at a single institution, and information on colonoscopy and FAP diagnosis was collected retrospectively. CTNNB1 mutation status was defined by Sanger sequencing and digital polymerase chain reaction of archived specimens. RESULTS: Among 626 patients with desmoids, 26 were diagnosed with FAP. In 20 patients, FAP diagnosis predated the desmoid diagnosis. Among patients without prior FAP diagnosis, 161 underwent colonoscopy, which identified only six cases of FAP (diagnostic yield 3.7%). Yields were substantially higher among patients with four characteristics: age < 40 years (11% yield), intra-abdominal or retroperitoneal tumors (5.4%), multifocal disease (29%), and family history (8%) (all p < 0.001). All cases of FAP were detected in patients younger than 40 years of age and with at least one of the other three characteristics. CTNNB1 mutation status was available in 82 patients with known FAP status. None of the 61 patients with CTNNB1 mutations were diagnosed with FAP, while 7 of the 21 patients with no CTNNB1 mutation detected (24%) were FAP patients. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with desmoid-type fibromatosis and undiagnosed FAP generally have multiple risk factors, which may be used to selectively recommend colonoscopic screening. Routine CTNNB1 sequencing may also rule out FAP and allow for deferral of colonoscopy.


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/complicações , Colonoscopia/métodos , Fibromatose Agressiva/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Fibromatose Agressiva/etiologia , Fibromatose Agressiva/patologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem , beta Catenina/genética
5.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 37(5): 765-772, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29733723

RESUMO

The majority of US adult cancer patients today are diagnosed and treated outside the context of any clinical trial (that is, in the real world). Although these patients are not part of a research study, their clinical data are still recorded. Indeed, data captured in electronic health records form an ever-growing, rich digital repository of longitudinal patient experiences, treatments, and outcomes. Likewise, genomic data from tumor molecular profiling are increasingly guiding oncology care. Linking real-world clinical and genomic data, as well as information from other co-occurring data sets, could create study populations that provide generalizable evidence for precision medicine interventions. However, the infrastructure required to link, ensure quality, and rapidly learn from such composite data is complex. We outline the challenges and describe a novel approach to building a real-world clinico-genomic database of patients with cancer. This work represents a case study in how data collected during routine patient care can inform precision medicine efforts for the population at large. We suggest that health policies can promote innovation by defining appropriate uses of real-world evidence, establishing data standards, and incentivizing data sharing.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Disseminação de Informação , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Seguimentos , Genômica , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Prognóstico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/efeitos dos fármacos , Sirolimo/análogos & derivados , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 24(13): 3865-3871, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29039030

RESUMO

PURPOSE: While previously thought to be clinically indolent, recent data suggest significant late metastatic capacity of solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs). We define prognostic factors for recurrence and disease-specific death (DSD) in resected primary SFTs. METHODS: Resected primary SFTs from 1982 to 2015 were identified from a prospective, single institutional database. Risk factors for local (LR) and distant recurrence (DR), and DSD were assessed using competing risk analysis. RESULTS: A total of 219 patients with median follow-up of 6.1 (0.1-22) years were included. Five- and 10-year cumulative DSD was 9 and 11%, respectively. Size greater than the median 8 cm, gender, location, and complete gross resection were significantly associated with DSD (p < 0.05). Five- and 10-year cumulative risk (CR) of LR was 4 and 7%, whereas 5- and 10-year CR of DR was 13 and 16%, respectively. LR was associated with location (p = 0.02) and tumor size (p = 0.02), and DR was associated with size (p < 0.01). Histopathologic classification did not predict long-term behavior with both malignant and benign tumors demonstrating capacity for DR and associated death. Tumors in the thoracic cavity and abdomen/retroperitoneum presented the greatest risk of DR (16 and 27% 10-year CR). On multivariate analysis, size ≥ 8 cm (hazard ratio 2.89, p = 0.05) and tumor location in chest or abdominal/retroperitoneal cavity (hazard ratio 2.68, p = 0.01) significantly impacted DSD. CONCLUSIONS: Recurrence is highly associated with DSD and events occur as late as 16 years after initial presentation, including in patients with initially considered benign tumors. Patients with large (≥ 8 cm) tumors in the chest or abdominal/retroperitoneal cavity are at greatest risk.


Assuntos
Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neoplasias Retroperitoneais/patologia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia , Tumores Fibrosos Solitários/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias Retroperitoneais/cirurgia , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/cirurgia , Tumores Fibrosos Solitários/cirurgia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 44(4): 489-493, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28993967

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication in cancer patients and anticoagulation (AC) remains the standard of care for treatment. Inferior vena cava (IVC) filters may also used to reduce the risk of pulmonary embolism, either alone or in addition to AC. Although widely used, data are limited on the safety and efficacy of IVC filters in cancer patients. We performed a retrospective review of outcomes after IVC filter insertion in a database of 1270 consecutive patients with cancer-associated pulmonary embolism (PE) at our institution between 2008 and 2009. Outcomes measured included rate of all recurrent VTE, recurrent PE, and overall survival within 12 months. 317 (25%) of the 1270 patients with PE had IVC filters placed within 30 days of the index PE event or prior to the index PE in the setting of prior DVT. Patients with IVC filters had markedly lower overall survival (7.3 months) than the non-IVC filter patients (13.2 months). Filter patients also had a lower rate of AC use at time of initial PE. There was a trend towards higher recurrent VTE in patients with IVC filters (11.9%) compared to non-filter patients (7.7%), but this was not significant (p = 0.086). The risk of recurrent PE was similar between the IVC filter cohort (3.5%) and non-filter group (3.5%, p = 0.99). Cancer patients receiving IVC filters had a similar risk of recurrent PE, but a trend towards more overall recurrent VTE. The filter patients had poorer overall survival, which may reflect a poorer cancer prognosis, and had greater contraindication to AC; therefore these patients likely had a higher inherent risk for recurrent VTE. A prospective study would be helpful for further clarification on the partial reduction in the recurrent PE risk by IVC filter placement in cancer patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Filtros de Veia Cava/efeitos adversos , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
9.
Nature ; 545(7652): 60-65, 2017 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28397821

RESUMO

Despite the success of monotherapies based on blockade of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) in human melanoma, most patients do not experience durable clinical benefit. Pre-existing T-cell infiltration and/or the presence of PD-L1 in tumours may be used as indicators of clinical response; however, blood-based profiling to understand the mechanisms of PD-1 blockade has not been widely explored. Here we use immune profiling of peripheral blood from patients with stage IV melanoma before and after treatment with the PD-1-targeting antibody pembrolizumab and identify pharmacodynamic changes in circulating exhausted-phenotype CD8 T cells (Tex cells). Most of the patients demonstrated an immunological response to pembrolizumab. Clinical failure in many patients was not solely due to an inability to induce immune reinvigoration, but rather resulted from an imbalance between T-cell reinvigoration and tumour burden. The magnitude of reinvigoration of circulating Tex cells determined in relation to pretreatment tumour burden correlated with clinical response. By focused profiling of a mechanistically relevant circulating T-cell subpopulation calibrated to pretreatment disease burden, we identify a clinically accessible potential on-treatment predictor of response to PD-1 blockade.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Carga Tumoral/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacocinética , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Antígeno Ki-67/imunologia , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Masculino , Melanoma/irrigação sanguínea , Melanoma/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Fenótipo , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 24(7): 1835-1842, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28213791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) support growth in most human cancers, with the notable exception of colorectal adenocarcinoma, in which TAM infiltration of primary tumors is correlated with a better outcome. The importance of TAMs in colorectal liver metastases (CLM) is unknown. METHODS: Using a tissue microarray of CLM resected at their institution from 1998 to 2000, the authors quantified immune marker expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using Metamorph Image Analysis software. Findings showed that CD68, CD3, CD4, CD8, FoxP3, and MHC-I were correlated with overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). RESULTS: Tumor cores from 158 patients were analyzed. The median follow-up period was 117 months for survivors (n = 39). The univariate analysis showed a significant positive association between DFS and CD4+ (p = 0.025) and CD68+ (p = 0.007). The findings showed a significant positive correlation of OS with CD4+ (p = 0.042), whereas the correlation with CD68+ was not significant (p = 0.17). Cutoffs were determined to dichotimize each marker for the highest log-rank statistic. Patients with CD4high had a median OS of 115 months and DFS of 41 months (p = 0.007 compared with 40 and 16 months, respectively, for patients with CD4low (p = 0.022). Patients with CD68high had a median OS of 50 months and a median DFS of 25 months (p = 0.67) compared with 43 and 15 months (p = 0.028). In the multivariate analysis of factors affecting DFS, high CD68 was associated with longer DFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43-0.94; p = 0.02), independently of clinicopathologic variables and CD4. CONCLUSIONS: High TAM infiltration in resected CLM is associated with better outcome, independently of known clinicopathologic and immune predictors. This suggests that TAM depletion, which is being tested clinically in other cancers, may be detrimental in CLM.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Adenocarcinoma/imunologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
11.
Ann Surg ; 265(1): 185-191, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27163957

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate and validate the proposed 8th edition American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) system for T and N staging of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Investigators have questioned the clinical relevance and reproducibility of previous AJCC staging for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. METHODS: Prospective databases at Memorial Sloan Kettering (MSK), Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), and Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) were queried for patients who had undergone resection for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Patients who underwent a margin-negative (R0) resection, and who had previously undergone pathologic review, were included. Patients were staged according to 7th edition AJCC criteria, as well as the proposed 8th edition system that includes different definitions of tumor size (T) and nodal status (N). The dataset was randomly split into training and test sets. RESULTS: Two thousand three hundred eighteen patients were identified who met inclusion criteria. Recursive partitioning on the training set (n = 1551) identified statistically appropriate cutoffs for tumor size (<2.2 cm, ≥4.8 cm,) and nodal status (no positive nodes, 1 to 3 positive nodes, ≥4 positive nodes) that supported the proposed 8th edition changes. Median survival in patients staged as T3, N0 by the 7th edition definitions was different between institutions (median Center 1, 24 mo; Center 2, 37 mo; Center 3, 29 mo; P = 0.054). This difference was not observed when patients were staged as T3, N0 by 8th edition criteria. Stage, and stage-specific outcome (7th edition), on the test set revealed a predominance of patients (68%) within the IIB subgroup, and a concordance probability estimate (CPE) of 0.57 for stage-specific survival. When assessed with 8th edition criteria, no stage subgroup had a majority of patients, and the CPE was 0.58. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed 8th edition changes for T and N classification were statistically valid and may allow a more reproducible system of T staging. This system also stratifies patients more evenly across stages without sacrificing prognostic accuracy.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia
12.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 24(5): 1358-1366, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27921192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) offers a chance of cure, but recurrence is common and survival is often limited. The clinical and pathological characteristics of long-term survivors have not been well studied. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 212 patients who underwent partial hepatectomy for HCC with curative intent from 1992 to 2006. Fifty patients who survived beyond 10 years were compared with 109 patients who died of recurrence within 10 years. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed that tumors <5 cm (odds ratio [OR] 2.3, p = 0.04), solitary tumors (OR 3.2, p = 0.01), and absence of vascular invasion (OR 2.3, p = 0.04) were independently associated with actual 10-year survival. However, more than 20% of long-term survivors also possessed established poor prognostic factors, including α-fetoprotein >1000 ng/mL, unfavorable serum inflammatory indices, tumor size >10 cm, microvascular invasion, poor tumor differentiation, cirrhosis, and metabolic syndrome. None of the 10-year survivors had an R1 resection. While 77% of the short-term survivors developed recurrence within 2 years, 42% of the 10-year survivors developed recurrence during their decade of follow-up, although most of the recurrences among 10-year survivors were intrahepatic and amenable to further treatment. Among patients who survived beyond 10 years, 42% remained alive without recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: In this largest Western series of actual 10-year survivors after HCC resection, almost one in four patients survived over a decade, even though nearly half of this subset had developed recurrence. While many well-known variables were associated with a poor outcome, only a positive microscopic margin precluded long-term survival.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/secundário , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Sobreviventes , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Fibrose/complicações , Hepatectomia , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Microvasos/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Invasividade Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/etiologia , Neoplasias do Sistema Respiratório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Carga Tumoral , alfa-Fetoproteínas/metabolismo
13.
Oncotarget ; 8(12): 18821-18831, 2017 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27935861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resection of colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM) can be curative. Predicting which patients may benefit from resection, however, remains challenging. Some microRNAs (miRNAs) become deregulated in cancers and contribute to cancer progression. We hypothesized that miRNA expression can serve as a prognostic marker of survival after CRLM resection. RESULTS: MiR-203 was significantly overexpressed in tumors of short-term survivors compared to long-term survivors. R1/R2 margin status and high clinical risk score (CRS) were also significantly associated with short-term survival (both p = 0.001). After adjusting for these variables, higher miR-203 expression remained an independent predictor of shorter survival (p = 0.010). In the serum cohort, high CRS and KRAS mutation were significantly associated with short-term survival (p = 0.005 and p = 0.026, respectively). After adjusting for CRS and KRAS status, short-term survivors were found to have significantly higher miR-203 levels (p = 0.016 and p = 0.033, respectively). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We employed next-generation sequencing of small-RNAs to profile miRNAs in solid tumors obtained from 38 patients who underwent hepatectomy for CRLM. To validate, quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed on 91 tumor samples and 46 preoperative serum samples. CONCLUSIONS: After CRLM resection, short-term survivors exhibited significantly higher miR-203 levels relative to long-term survivors. MiR-203 may serve as a prognostic biomarker and its prognostic capacity warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/secundário , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Masculino , MicroRNAs/análise , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Análise de Sobrevida
14.
Mod Pathol ; 30(4): 599-609, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27982025

RESUMO

The Cancer Genome Atlas data on colorectal carcinoma have provided a comprehensive view of the tumor's genomic alterations and their tumorigenic roles. Tumor morphology, however, has not been fully integrated into the analysis. The aim of this study was to explore relevant associations between tumor morphology and the newly characterized genomic alterations in colorectal carcinoma. Two hundred and seven colorectal carcinomas that had undergone whole-exome sequencing as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas project and had adequate virtual images in the cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics constituted our study population. Upon analysis, a tight association between 'microsatellite instability-high histology' and microsatellite instability-high (P<0.001) was readily detected and helped validate our image-based histology evaluation. Further, we showed, (1) among all histologies, the not otherwise specified type had the lowest overall mutation count (P<0.001 for entire cohort, P<0.03 for the microsatellite-instable group), and among the microsatellite-instable tumors, this type also correlated with fewer frameshift mutations in coding mononucleotide repeats of a defined set of relevant genes (P<0.01); (2) cytosine phosphate guanine island methylator phenotype-high colorectal cancers with or without microsatellite instability tended to have different histological patterns: the former more often mucinous and the latter more often not otherwise specified; (3) mucinous histology was associated with more frequent alterations in BRAF, PIK3CA, and the transforming growth factor-ß pathway when compared with non-mucinous histologies (P<0.001, P=0.01, and P<0.001, respectively); and (4) few colorectal cancers (<9%) exhibited upregulation of immune-inhibitory genes including major immune checkpoints; these tumors were primarily microsatellite-instable (up to 43%, vs <3% in microsatellite-stable group) and had distinctly non-mucinous histologies with a solid growth. These morphology-molecular associations are interesting and propose important clinical implications. The morphological patterns associated with alterations of immune checkpoint genes bear the potential to guide patient selection for clinical trials that target immune checkpoints in colorectal cancer, and provide directions for future studies.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Carcinoma/genética , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Metilação de DNA , Humanos , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética
15.
Cancer ; 122(21): 3354-3362, 2016 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27533633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Therapeutic antibodies against programmed cell death receptor 1 (PD-1) are considered front-line therapy in metastatic melanoma. The efficacy of PD-1 blockade for patients with biologically distinct melanomas arising from acral and mucosal surfaces has not been well described. METHODS: A multi-institutional, retrospective cohort analysis identified adults with advanced acral and mucosal melanoma who received treatment with nivolumab or pembrolizumab as standard clinical practice through expanded access programs or published prospective trials. Objective responses were determined using investigator-assessed Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1. Progression-free survival and overall survival were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Sixty individuals were identified, including 25 (42%) with acral melanoma and 35 (58%) with mucosal melanoma. Fifty-one patients (85%) had received previous therapy, including 77% who had previously received ipilimumab. Forty patients (67%) received pembrolizumab at a dose of 2 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg, and 20 (33%) received nivolumab at a doses ranging from 0.3 to 10 mg/kg every 2 to 3 weeks. The objective response rate was 32% (95% confidence interval, 15%-54%) in patients with acral melanoma and 23% (95% confidence interval, 10%-40%) in those with mucosal melanoma. After a median follow-up of 20 months in the acral melanoma group and 10.6 months in the mucosal melanoma group, the median progression-free survival was 4.1 months and 3.9 months, respectively. Only 2 patients (3%) discontinued treatment because of toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: Response rates to PD-1 blockade in patients with acral and mucosal melanomas were comparable to the published rates in patients with cutaneous melanoma and support the routine use of PD-1 blockade in clinical practice. Further investigation is needed to identify the mechanisms of response and resistance to therapy in these subtypes. Cancer 2016;122:3354-3362. © 2016 American Cancer Society.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Melanoma/patologia , Membrana Mucosa/patologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/imunologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Masculino , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Membrana Mucosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Nivolumabe , Prognóstico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
16.
Oncologist ; 21(7): 848-54, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27286787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subtypes of melanoma, such as mucosal, uveal, and acral, are believed to result in worse prognoses than nonacral cutaneous melanoma. After a diagnosis of distant metastatic disease, however, the overall survival of patients with mucosal, uveal, acral, nonacral cutaneous, and unknown primary melanoma has not been directly compared. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a single-center, retrospective analysis of 3,454 patients with melanoma diagnosed with distant metastases from 2000 to 2013, identified from a prospectively maintained database. We examined melanoma subtype, date of diagnosis of distant metastases, age at diagnosis of metastasis, gender, and site of melanoma metastases. RESULTS: Of the 3,454 patients (237 with mucosal, 286 with uveal, 2,292 with nonacral cutaneous, 105 with acral cutaneous, and 534 with unknown primary melanoma), 2,594 died. The median follow-up was 46.1 months. The median overall survival for those with mucosal, uveal, acral, nonacral cutaneous, and unknown primary melanoma was 9.1, 13.4, 11.4, 11.7, and 10.4 months, respectively. Patients with uveal melanoma, cutaneous melanoma (acral and nonacral), and unknown primary melanoma had similar survival, but patients with mucosal melanoma had worse survival. Patients diagnosed with metastatic melanoma in 2006-2010 and 2011-2013 had better overall survival than patients diagnosed in 2000-2005. In a multivariate model, patients with mucosal melanoma had inferior overall survival compared with patients with the other four subtypes. CONCLUSION: Additional research and advocacy are needed for patients with mucosal melanoma because of their shorter overall survival in the metastatic setting. Despite distinct tumor biology, the survival was similar for those with metastatic uveal melanoma, acral, nonacral cutaneous, and unknown primary melanoma. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Uveal, acral, and mucosal melanoma are assumed to result in a worse prognosis than nonacral cutaneous melanoma or unknown primary melanoma. No studies, however, have been conducted assessing the overall survival of patients with these melanoma subtypes starting at the time of distant metastatic disease. The present study found that patients with uveal, acral, nonacral cutaneous, and unknown primary melanoma have similar overall survival after distant metastases have been diagnosed. These findings provide information for oncologists to reconsider previously held assumptions and appropriately counsel patients. Patients with mucosal melanoma have worse overall survival and are thus a group in need of specific research and advocacy.


Assuntos
Melanoma/mortalidade , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Uveais/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/secundário , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 23(8): 2548-55, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27020587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The response of rectal cancers to neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) is variable, but tools to predict response remain lacking. We evaluated whether KRAS and TP53 mutations are associated with pathologic complete response (pCR) and lymph node metastasis after adjusting for neoadjuvant regimen. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 229 pretreatment biopsies from patients with stage II/III rectal cancer was performed. All patients received CRT. Patients received 0-8 cycles of FOLFOX either before or after CRT, but prior to surgical excision. A subset was analyzed to assess concordance between mutation calls by Sanger Sequencing and a next-generation assay. RESULTS: A total of 96 tumors (42 %) had KRAS mutation, 150 had TP53 mutation (66 %), and 59 (26 %) had both. Following neoadjuvant therapy, 59 patients (26 %) achieved pCR. Of 133 KRAS wild-type tumors, 45 (34 %) had pCR, compared with 14 of 96 (15 %) KRAS mutant tumors (p = .001). KRAS mutation remained independently associated with a lower pCR rate on multivariable analysis after adjusting for clinical stage, CRT-to-surgery interval and cycles of FOLFOX (OR 0.34; 95 % CI 0.17-0.66, p < .01). Of 29 patients with KRAS G12V or G13D, only 2 (7 %) achieved pCR. Tumors with both KRAS and TP53 mutation were associated with lymph node metastasis. The concordance between platforms was high for KRAS (40 of 43, 93 %). CONCLUSIONS: KRAS mutation is independently associated with a lower pCR rate in locally advanced rectal cancer after adjusting for variations in neoadjuvant regimen. Genomic data can potentially be used to select patients for "watch and wait" strategies.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Quimiorradioterapia , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias Retais/genética , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
18.
World J Surg ; 40(6): 1422-8, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26913732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, increasingly sophisticated tools have allowed for more complex robotic surgery. Robotic hepatectomy, however, is still in its infancy. Our goals were to examine the adoption of robotic hepatectomy and to compare outcomes between open and robotic liver resections. METHODS: The robotic hepatectomy experience of 64 patients was compared to a modern case-matched series of 64 open hepatectomy patients at the same center. Matching was according to benign/malignant diagnosis and number of segments resected. Patient data were obtained retrospectively. The main outcomes and measures were operative time, estimated blood loss, conversion rate (robotic to open), Pringle maneuver use, single non-anatomic wedge resection rate, resection margin size, complication rates (infectious, hepatic, pulmonary, cardiac), hospital stay length, ICU stay length, readmission rate, and 90-day mortality rate. RESULTS: Sixty-four robotic hepatectomies were performed in 2010-2014. Forty-one percent were segmental and 34 % were wedge resections. There was a 6 % conversion rate, a 3 % 90-day mortality rate, and an 11 % morbidity rate. Compared to 64 matched patients who underwent open hepatectomy (2004-2012), there was a shorter median OR time (p = 0.02), lower median estimated blood loss (p < 0.001), and shorter median hospital stay (p < 0.001). Eleven of the robotic cases were isolated resections of tumors in segments 2, 7, and 8. CONCLUSIONS: Robotic hepatectomy is safe and effective. Increasing experience in more centers will allow definition of which hepatectomies can be performed robotically, and will enable optimization of outcomes and prospective examination of the economic cost of each approach.


Assuntos
Hepatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica , Feminino , Hepatectomia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatopatias/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Duração da Cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Thyroid ; 26(3): 373-80, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26914539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age is a critical factor in outcome for patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer. Currently, age 45 years is used as a cutoff in staging, although there is increasing evidence to suggest this may be too low. The aim of this study was to assess the potential for changing the cut point for the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union for International Cancer Control (AJCC/UICC) staging system from 45 years to 55 years based on a combined international patient cohort supplied by individual institutions. METHODS: A total of 9484 patients were included from 10 institutions. Tumor (T), nodes (N), and metastasis (M) data and age were provided for each patient. The group was stratified by AJCC/UICC stage using age 45 years and age 55 years as cutoffs. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate outcomes for disease-specific survival (DSS). Concordance probability estimates (CPE) were calculated to compare the degree of concordance for each model. RESULTS: Using age 45 years as a cutoff, 10-year DSS rates for stage I-IV were 99.7%, 97.3%, 96.6%, and 76.3%, respectively. Using age 55 years as a cutoff, 10-year DSS rates for stage I-IV were 99.5%, 94.7%, 94.1%, and 67.6%, respectively. The change resulted in 12% of patients being downstaged, and the downstaged group had a 10-year DSS of 97.6%. The change resulted in an increase in CPE from 0.90 to 0.92. CONCLUSIONS: A change in the cutoff age in the current AJCC/UICC staging system from 45 years to 55 years would lead to a downstaging of 12% of patients, and would improve the statistical validity of the model. Such a change would be clinically relevant for thousands of patients worldwide by preventing overstaging of patients with low-risk disease while providing a more realistic estimate of prognosis for those who remain high risk.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Fatores Etários , Brasil , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New South Wales , América do Norte , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 23(3): 818-25, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26759307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myxofibrosarcoma and undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) are aggressive, genetically complex sarcomas. The minimum myxoid component used as a criterion for myxofibrosarcoma varies widely, so we determined the optimal myxoid component cutpoints for stratifying outcomes of UPS and myxofibrosarcoma. We also analyzed clinicopathologic factors associated with outcome. METHODS: Review of a prospective, single-institution database identified 197 patients with primary, high-grade extremity/truncal myxofibrosarcoma or UPS resected during 1992-2013. Histology was reviewed and percent myxoid component determined for each tumor. Disease-specific survival (DSS) and distant recurrence-free survival (DRFS) were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, and Cox regression. RESULTS: Median follow-up for survivors was 6.4 years. In minimum p value analysis of myxoid component, the best cutpoint for both DSS and DRFS was 5% (adjusted p ≤ 0.001), followed by 70%. Therefore, sarcomas with <5% myxoid component (n = 69) were classified as UPS and those with ≥5% myxoid component (n = 128) as myxofibrosarcoma. Five-year DRFS was 24% for UPS, 51% for 5-69% myxoid component myxofibrosarcoma, and 65% for ≥70% myxoid component myxofibrosarcoma. Myxoid component, tumor size, and age were independently associated with DSS; myxoid component and tumor size were associated with DRFS. Only tumor site was associated with local recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Percent myxoid component and tumor size are the two most important predictors of DSS and DRFS in high-grade myxofibrosarcoma and UPS. A 5% myxoid component cutpoint is an improved criterion for classifying myxofibrosarcoma. Myxoid component-based classification improves stratification of patient outcome and will aid in selection of patients for systemic therapy and clinical trials.


Assuntos
Fibroma/patologia , Sarcoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Fibroma/classificação , Fibroma/cirurgia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Sarcoma/classificação , Sarcoma/cirurgia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
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