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1.
ACS Nano ; 6(11): 10024-32, 2012 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23062171

RESUMO

Plasmonic metal nanoparticles have been used to enhance the performance of thin-film devices such as organic photovoltaics based on polymer/fullerene blends. We show that silver nanoprisms accumulate long-lived negative charges when they are in contact with a photoexcited bulk heterojunction blend composed of poly(3-hexylthiophene)/phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT/PCBM). We report both the charge modulation and electroabsorption spectra of silver nanoprisms in solid-state devices and compare these spectra with the photoinduced absorption spectra of P3HT/PCBM blends containing silver nanoprisms. We assign a previously unidentified peak in the photoinduced absorption spectra to the presence of photoinduced electrons on the silver nanoprisms. We show that coating the nanoprisms with a 2.5 nm thick insulating layer can completely inhibit this charging. These results may inform methods for limiting metal-mediated losses in plasmonic solar cells.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Fulerenos/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanotecnologia/instrumentação , Compostos Organosselênicos/química , Energia Solar , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície/instrumentação , Transporte de Elétrons , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento
2.
Nano Lett ; 11(7): 2725-30, 2011 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21612262

RESUMO

Coupled plasmonic/chromophore systems are of interest in applications ranging from fluorescent biosensors to solar photovoltaics and photoelectrochemical cells because near-field coupling to metal nanostructures can dramatically alter the optical performance of nearby materials. We show that CdSe quantum dots (QDs) near single silver nanoprisms can exhibit photoluminescence lifetimes and quantum yields that depend on the excitation wavelength, in apparent violation of the Kasha-Vavilov rule. We attribute the variation in QD lifetime with excitation wavelength to the wavelength-dependent coupling of higher-order plasmon modes to different spatial subpopulations of nearby QDs. At the QD emission wavelength, these subpopulations are coupled to far-field radiation with varying efficiency by the nanoprism dipolar resonance. These results offer an easily accessible new route to design metachromophores with tailored optical properties.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cádmio/química , Nanopartículas/química , Pontos Quânticos , Teoria Quântica , Compostos de Selênio/química , Prata/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Nanotecnologia , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
3.
Nano Lett ; 10(7): 2598-603, 2010 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20503980

RESUMO

The near-field effects of plasmonic optical antennas are being explored in applications ranging from biosensors to solar cells. We demonstrate that photoluminescence emission enhancement from CdSe quantum dots (QDs) can be obtained in the absence of any excitation enhancement near single silver nanoprisms. The spectral dependence of the radiative and nonradiative decay rate of the QDs closely follows the silver nanoparticle plasmon scattering spectrum. Using both experiment and theory we show that, in the absence of excitation enhancement, the ratio of radiative to nonradiative decay rate enhancement is proportional to the silver nanoparticle scattering efficiency. These results provide guidelines both for separating excitation and emission enhancement effects in sensing and device applications and for tailoring emission enhancement effects using plasmonic nanostructures.

4.
Nano Lett ; 10(4): 1501-5, 2010 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20235514

RESUMO

We use photoinduced absorption spectroscopy to measure long-lived photogenerated charge carriers in optically thin donor/acceptor conjugated polymer blend films near plasmon-resonant silver nanoprisms. We measure up to 3 times more charge generation, as judged by the magnitude of the polaron absorption signal, in 35 nm thin blend films of poly(3-hexylthiophene)/phenyl-C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester on top of films of silver nanoprisms (approximately 40-100 nm edge length). We find that the polaron yields increase linearly with the total sample extinction. These excitation enhancements could in principle be used to increase photocurrents in thin organic solar cells.


Assuntos
Membranas Artificiais , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Polímeros/química , Prata/química , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Tamanho da Partícula , Espectrofotometria , Propriedades de Superfície
5.
ACS Nano ; 3(6): 1345-52, 2009 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19449837

RESUMO

We use photoluminescence (PL) quenching and photoinduced absorption (PIA) spectroscopy to study charge transfer in bulk heterojunction blends of PbSe quantum dots with the semiconducting polymers poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) and poly[2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyloxy)-para-phenylene vinylene] (MDMO-PPV). PIA spectra from the PbSe blends are compared to spectra from similar blends of the polymers with phenyl-C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and blends with CdSe quantum dots. We find that the MDMO-PPV PL is quenched, and the PL lifetime is shortened upon addition of PbSe quantum dots, while the PL of the P3HT is unaffected upon blending. However, for PbSe blends with both polymers, the PIA spectra show very little polaronic signal, suggesting that few, if any, long-lived charges are being produced by photoinduced charge transfer.

6.
Langmuir ; 25(14): 7932-9, 2009 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19441811

RESUMO

We describe the phase transfer of large, anisotropic, silver nanoparticles (approximately 50-100 nm edge length) from water to polar organics such as alcohols, acetone, dimethylformamide and to nonpolar hexanes. We transferred the silver nanoparticles to the polar organic solvents via their precipitation in water by centrifugation and redispersion in organics. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging and UV-vis extinction spectra, we confirmed that there was little to no shape change in the nanoparticles upon transfer to the polar solvents. The nanoparticles were stable for months in the polar organics. We also transferred the nanoparticles to hexanes with up to 75% phase transfer efficiency by using sodium oleate as a surfactant. We found the extinction spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of the nanoparticles were similar in water and hexanes, indicating that exchange into hexanes resulted in an only slight change in shape. The nanoparticles were stable for at least 10 days in hexanes under appropriate conditions. The phase transfer efficiency decreased with an increase in the size of the nanoparticles. These results open the possibility for the conjugation of large, anisotropic plasmon resonant silver nanoparticles with organic dyes or their blends with conjugated polyelectrolytes for fundamental optical studies and applications.

7.
J Phys Chem B ; 109(42): 19584-94, 2005 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16853533

RESUMO

Large differences in the intramolecular charge-transfer fluorescence quantum yields and electroluminescence efficiencies were observed among the isomeric donor-acceptor molecules 2-(4-phenyl-2-quinolyl)-10-methylphenothiazine (2PQMPT) and 3-(4-phenyl-2-quinolyl)-10-methylphenothiazine (3PQMPT). In solution, the 2PQMPT isomer had a larger positive solvatochromism and thus a greater degree of charge transfer, whereas 3PQMPT had a larger fluorescence quantum yield (71%) compared to 2PQMPT (46%). High brightness (23750 cd/m(2)) and high efficiency (8.18 cd/A, 4.45 lm/W, 2.42% external quantum efficiency at 1015 cd/m(2)) green electroluminescence was achieved from 3PQMPT diodes. In contrast, green light-emitting diodes with lower brightness (8900 cd/m(2)) and efficiencies (4.79 cd/A, 2.36 lm/W, 1.41% external quantum efficiency at 690 cd/m(2)) were obtained from 2PQMPT. The two isomeric donor-acceptor molecules had identical HOMO (5.1 eV) and LUMO (2.4 eV) energy levels derived from electrochemistry. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations provided insights into the molecular geometry, electronic structures, and properties of the donor-acceptor isomers. These results demonstrate the pronounced influence of the donor/acceptor connection on the charge-transfer emission efficiency of donor-acceptor molecules and the performance of solid-state light-emitting devices based on them.

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